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libcurl-tutorial(3)           libcurl programming          libcurl-tutorial(3)


       libcurl-tutorial - libcurl programming tutorial


       This  document  attempts  to  describe  the general principles and some
       basic approaches to consider when programming with  libcurl.  The  text
       will  focus  mainly  on  the C interface but might apply fairly well on
       other interfaces as well as  they  usually  follow  the  C  one  pretty

       This document will refer to 'the user' as the person writing the source
       code that uses libcurl. That would probably be you or someone  in  your
       position.   What will be generally referred to as 'the program' will be
       the collected source code that you write  that  is  using  libcurl  for
       transfers. The program is outside libcurl and libcurl is outside of the

       To get more details on all  options  and  functions  described  herein,
       please refer to their respective man pages.


       There  are  many  different ways to build C programs. This chapter will
       assume a Unix style build process. If you use a different build system,
       you  can  still  read this to get general information that may apply to
       your environment as well.

       Compiling the Program
              Your compiler needs  to  know  where  the  libcurl  headers  are
              located.  Therefore you must set your compiler's include path to
              point to the directory where you installed them. The  'curl-con-
              fig'[3] tool can be used to get this information:

              $ curl-config --cflags

       Linking the Program with libcurl
              When  having  compiled the program, you need to link your object
              files to create a single executable. For that  to  succeed,  you
              need to link with libcurl and possibly also with other libraries
              that libcurl itself depends on. Like the OpenSSL libraries,  but
              even  some  standard  OS  libraries may be needed on the command
              line. To figure out which flags to use, once  again  the  'curl-
              config' tool comes to the rescue:

              $ curl-config --libs

       SSL or Not
              libcurl  can  be  built  and customized in many ways. One of the
              things that varies from different libraries and  builds  is  the
              support  for SSL-based transfers, like HTTPS and FTPS. If a sup-
              ported SSL library was detected properly at build-time,  libcurl
              will  be  built  with SSL support. To figure out if an installed
              libcurl has been built with SSL support enabled, use  'curl-con-
              fig' like this:

              $ curl-config --feature

              And  if  SSL  is supported, the keyword 'SSL' will be written to
              stdout, possibly together with a few other features  that  could
              be either on or off on for different libcurls.

              See also the "Features libcurl Provides" further down.

       autoconf macro
              When you write your configure script to detect libcurl and setup
              variables accordingly, we offer a prewritten macro that probably
              does     everything    you    need    in    this    area.    See
              docs/libcurl/libcurl.m4 file - it includes docs on  how  to  use

Portable Code in a Portable World

       The  people  behind  libcurl  have  put  a  considerable effort to make
       libcurl work on a large amount of different operating systems and envi-

       You program libcurl the same way on all platforms that libcurl runs on.
       There are only very few minor considerations that differ. If  you  just
       make  sure to write your code portable enough, you may very well create
       yourself a very portable program. libcurl shouldn't stop you from that.

Global Preparation

       The program must initialize some of the libcurl functionality globally.
       That means it should be done exactly once, no matter how many times you
       intend  to  use  the library. Once for your program's entire life time.
       This is done using


       and it takes one parameter which is a bit pattern  that  tells  libcurl
       what  to  initialize. Using CURL_GLOBAL_ALL will make it initialize all
       known internal sub modules, and might be a  good  default  option.  The
       current two bits that are specified are:

                     which  only  does anything on Windows machines. When used
                     on a Windows machine, it'll make libcurl  initialize  the
                     win32 socket stuff. Without having that initialized prop-
                     erly, your  program  cannot  use  sockets  properly.  You
                     should only do this once for each application, so if your
                     program already does this or of another  library  in  use
                     does  it, you should not tell libcurl to do this as well.

                     which only does anything on libcurls compiled  and  built
                     SSL-enabled.  On  these  systems,  this will make libcurl
                     initialize the SSL library properly for this application.
                     This  only  needs to be done once for each application so
                     if your program or another  library  already  does  this,
                     this bit should not be needed.

       libcurl   has   a   default   protection   mechanism  that  detects  if
       curl_global_init(3) hasn't been called by the time curl_easy_perform(3)
       is  called  and  if  that is the case, libcurl runs the function itself
       with a guessed bit pattern. Please note that depending solely  on  this
       is not considered nice nor very good.

       When   the   program   no   longer   uses   libcurl,   it  should  call
       curl_global_cleanup(3), which is the opposite of the init call. It will
       then   do   the  reversed  operations  to  cleanup  the  resources  the
       curl_global_init(3) call initialized.

       Repeated calls to curl_global_init(3) and curl_global_cleanup(3) should
       be avoided. They should only be called once each.

Features libcurl Provides

       It  is  considered  best-practice to determine libcurl features at run-
       time rather than at build-time (if  possible  of  course).  By  calling
       curl_version_info(3)  and  checking  out  the  details  of the returned
       struct, your program can figure out exactly what the currently  running
       libcurl supports.

Two Interfaces

       libcurl  first  introduced the so called easy interface. All operations
       in the easy interface are prefixed with 'curl_easy'. The easy interface
       lets  you  do single transfers with a synchronous and blocking function

       libcurl also offers another interface that allows multiple simultaneous
       transfers in a single thread, the so called multi interface. More about
       that interface is detailed in a  separate  chapter  further  down.  You
       still  need  to understand the easy interface first, so please continue
       reading for better understanding.

Handle the Easy libcurl

       To use the easy interface, you must first create yourself an easy  han-
       dle.  You  need  one  handle for each easy session you want to perform.
       Basically, you should use one handle for every thread you plan  to  use
       for  transferring.  You  must  never  share the same handle in multiple

       Get an easy handle with

        easyhandle = curl_easy_init();

       It returns an easy handle. Using that you proceed  to  the  next  step:
       setting  up your preferred actions. A handle is just a logic entity for
       the upcoming transfer or series of transfers.

       You   set   properties   and   options   for    this    handle    using
       curl_easy_setopt(3). They control how the subsequent transfer or trans-
       fers will be made. Options remain set in the handle until set again  to
       something  different. They are sticky. Multiple requests using the same
       handle will use the same options.

       If you at any point would like to blank all previously set options  for
       a  single easy handle, you can call curl_easy_reset(3) and you can also
       make a clone of an  easy  handle  (with  all  its  set  options)  using

       Many  of the options you set in libcurl are "strings", pointers to data
       terminated  with   a   zero   byte.   When   you   set   strings   with
       curl_easy_setopt(3), libcurl makes its own copy so that they don't need
       to be kept around in your application after being set[4].

       One of the most basic properties to set in the handle is the  URL.  You
       set your preferred URL to transfer with CURLOPT_URL(3) in a manner sim-
       ilar to:

        curl_easy_setopt(handle, CURLOPT_URL, "");

       Let's assume for a while that you want to receive data as the URL iden-
       tifies  a  remote resource you want to get here. Since you write a sort
       of application that needs this transfer, I assume that you  would  like
       to  get  the  data  passed to you directly instead of simply getting it
       passed to stdout. So, you write your own  function  that  matches  this

        size_t  write_data(void  *buffer,  size_t  size,  size_t  nmemb,  void

       You tell libcurl to pass all data to this function by issuing  a  func-
       tion similar to this:

        curl_easy_setopt(easyhandle, CURLOPT_WRITEFUNCTION, write_data);

       You  can  control  what  data your callback function gets in the fourth
       argument by setting another property:

        curl_easy_setopt(easyhandle, CURLOPT_WRITEDATA, &internal_struct);

       Using that property, you can easily pass local data between your appli-
       cation  and  the  function that gets invoked by libcurl. libcurl itself
       won't touch the data you pass with CURLOPT_WRITEDATA(3).

       libcurl offers its own default internal callback that will take care of
       the  data  if you don't set the callback with CURLOPT_WRITEFUNCTION(3).
       It will then simply output the received data to stdout.  You  can  have
       the default callback write the data to a different file handle by pass-
       ing a 'FILE *' to a file opened for  writing  with  the  CURLOPT_WRITE-
       DATA(3) option.

       Now,  we need to take a step back and have a deep breath. Here's one of
       those rare platform-dependent nitpicks. Did you spot it? On some  plat-
       forms[2],  libcurl won't be able to operate on files opened by the pro-
       gram. Thus, if you use the default callback and pass in  an  open  file
       with  CURLOPT_WRITEDATA(3),  it  will crash. You should therefore avoid
       this to make your program run fine virtually everywhere.

       (CURLOPT_WRITEDATA(3) was formerly known as  CURLOPT_FILE.  Both  names
       still work and do the same thing).

       If you're using libcurl as a win32 DLL, you MUST use the CURLOPT_WRITE-
       FUNCTION(3) if you set CURLOPT_WRITEDATA(3) - or  you  will  experience

       There  are  of course many more options you can set, and we'll get back
       to a few of them later. Let's instead continue to the actual transfer:

        success = curl_easy_perform(easyhandle);

       curl_easy_perform(3) will connect to the remote site, do the  necessary
       commands  and receive the transfer. Whenever it receives data, it calls
       the callback function we previously set. The function may get one  byte
       at  a  time,  or it may get many kilobytes at once. libcurl delivers as
       much as possible as often as possible. Your  callback  function  should
       return  the number of bytes it "took care of". If that is not the exact
       same amount of bytes that was passed to  it,  libcurl  will  abort  the
       operation and return with an error code.

       When  the transfer is complete, the function returns a return code that
       informs you if it succeeded in its mission or not.  If  a  return  code
       isn't  enough  for you, you can use the CURLOPT_ERRORBUFFER(3) to point
       libcurl to a buffer of yours where it'll store a human  readable  error
       message as well.

       If  you  then  want to transfer another file, the handle is ready to be
       used again. Mind you, it is even preferred that you re-use an  existing
       handle  if  you  intend  to  make  another  transfer. libcurl will then
       attempt to re-use the previous connection.

       For some protocols,  downloading  a  file  can  involve  a  complicated
       process  of logging in, setting the transfer mode, changing the current
       directory and finally transferring the file data. libcurl takes care of
       all  that complication for you. Given simply the URL to a file, libcurl
       will take care of all the details needed to get the file moved from one
       machine to another.

Multi-threading Issues

       libcurl  is  thread  safe  but  there  are  a  few exceptions. Refer to
       libcurl-thread(3) for more information.

When It Doesn't Work

       There will always be times when the transfer fails for some reason. You
       might  have  set  the  wrong  libcurl  option or misunderstood what the
       libcurl option actually does, or the remote server  might  return  non-
       standard replies that confuse the library which then confuses your pro-

       There's one golden rule when these things occur: set  the  CURLOPT_VER-
       BOSE(3)  option  to  1.  It'll cause the library to spew out the entire
       protocol details it sends, some internal info and some received  proto-
       col  data  as  well  (especially when using FTP). If you're using HTTP,
       adding the headers in the received output to study is also a clever way
       to  get  a better understanding why the server behaves the way it does.
       Include headers in the normal body output with CURLOPT_HEADER(3) set 1.

       Of  course,  there are bugs left. We need to know about them to be able
       to fix them, so we're quite dependent on your bug reports! When you  do
       report suspected bugs in libcurl, please include as many details as you
       possibly can: a protocol dump that CURLOPT_VERBOSE(3) produces, library
       version,  as much as possible of your code that uses libcurl, operating
       system name and version, compiler name and version etc.

       If CURLOPT_VERBOSE(3) is not enough, you increase the  level  of  debug
       data your application receive by using the CURLOPT_DEBUGFUNCTION(3).

       Getting  some  in-depth knowledge about the protocols involved is never
       wrong, and if you're trying to do funny things,  you  might  very  well
       understand  libcurl and how to use it better if you study the appropri-
       ate RFC documents at least briefly.

Upload Data to a Remote Site

       libcurl tries to keep a protocol independent approach  to  most  trans-
       fers,  thus uploading to a remote FTP site is very similar to uploading
       data to an HTTP server with a PUT request.

       Of course, first you either create an easy handle  or  you  re-use  one
       existing one. Then you set the URL to operate on just like before. This
       is the remote URL, that we now will upload.

       Since we write an application, we most likely want libcurl to  get  the
       upload  data  by  asking us for it. To make it do that, we set the read
       callback and the custom pointer libcurl will pass to our read callback.
       The read callback should have a prototype similar to:

        size_t   function(char  *bufptr,  size_t  size,  size_t  nitems,  void

       Where bufptr is the pointer to a buffer we fill in with data to  upload
       and  size*nitems is the size of the buffer and therefore also the maxi-
       mum amount of data we can return to libcurl in this call.  The  'userp'
       pointer  is  the  custom pointer we set to point to a struct of ours to
       pass private data between the application and the callback.

        curl_easy_setopt(easyhandle, CURLOPT_READFUNCTION, read_function);

        curl_easy_setopt(easyhandle, CURLOPT_READDATA, &filedata);

       Tell libcurl that we want to upload:

        curl_easy_setopt(easyhandle, CURLOPT_UPLOAD, 1L);

       A few protocols won't behave properly when uploads are done without any
       prior knowledge of the expected file size. So, set the upload file size
       using the CURLOPT_INFILESIZE_LARGE(3) for all  known  file  sizes  like

        /* in this example, file_size must be an curl_off_t variable */
        curl_easy_setopt(easyhandle, CURLOPT_INFILESIZE_LARGE, file_size);

       When  you  call  curl_easy_perform(3)  this time, it'll perform all the
       necessary operations and when it has invoked the upload it'll call your
       supplied  callback to get the data to upload. The program should return
       as much data as possible in every invoke, as that is likely to make the
       upload perform as fast as possible. The callback should return the num-
       ber of bytes it wrote in the buffer. Returning 0 will signal the end of
       the upload.


       Many protocols use or even require that user name and password are pro-
       vided to be able to download or upload the data of your choice. libcurl
       offers several ways to specify them.

       Most  protocols  support  that you specify the name and password in the
       URL itself. libcurl will detect this and use them accordingly. This  is
       written like this:


       If  you  need any odd letters in your user name or password, you should
       enter them URL encoded, as %XX where XX is a two-digit hexadecimal num-

       libcurl  also  provides options to set various passwords. The user name
       and password as shown embedded in the URL can instead get set with  the
       CURLOPT_USERPWD(3)  option.  The argument passed to libcurl should be a
       char * to a string in the format  "user:password".  In  a  manner  like

        curl_easy_setopt(easyhandle, CURLOPT_USERPWD, "myname:thesecret");

       Another  case  where name and password might be needed at times, is for
       those users who need to authenticate themselves to a  proxy  they  use.
       libcurl offers another option for this, the CURLOPT_PROXYUSERPWD(3). It
       is used quite similar to the CURLOPT_USERPWD(3) option like this:

        curl_easy_setopt(easyhandle,   CURLOPT_PROXYUSERPWD,    "myname:these-

       There's  a  long time Unix "standard" way of storing FTP user names and
       passwords, namely in the $HOME/.netrc file. The  file  should  be  made
       private  so that only the user may read it (see also the "Security Con-
       siderations" chapter), as it might contain the password in plain  text.
       libcurl has the ability to use this file to figure out what set of user
       name and password to use for a particular host. As an extension to  the
       normal  functionality, libcurl also supports this file for non-FTP pro-
       tocols such as  HTTP.  To  make  curl  use  this  file,  use  the  CUR-
       LOPT_NETRC(3) option:

        curl_easy_setopt(easyhandle, CURLOPT_NETRC, 1L);

       And a very basic example of how such a .netrc file may look like:

        login userlogin
        password secretword

       All  these  examples  have  been  cases  where  the  password  has been
       optional, or at least you could leave it out and have  libcurl  attempt
       to  do  its  job  without  it.  There are times when the password isn't
       optional, like when you're using an SSL private key for  secure  trans-

       To pass the known private key password to libcurl:

        curl_easy_setopt(easyhandle, CURLOPT_KEYPASSWD, "keypassword");

HTTP Authentication

       The  previous chapter showed how to set user name and password for get-
       ting URLs that require authentication. When using  the  HTTP  protocol,
       there are many different ways a client can provide those credentials to
       the server and you can control which way libcurl will (attempt to)  use
       them.  The  default HTTP authentication method is called 'Basic', which
       is sending the name and password in clear-text  in  the  HTTP  request,
       base64-encoded. This is insecure.

       At  the  time  of  this  writing,  libcurl  can be built to use: Basic,
       Digest, NTLM, Negotiate (SPNEGO). You can tell libcurl which one to use
       with CURLOPT_HTTPAUTH(3) as in:

        curl_easy_setopt(easyhandle, CURLOPT_HTTPAUTH, CURLAUTH_DIGEST);

       And when you send authentication to a proxy, you can also set authenti-
       cation type the same way but instead with CURLOPT_PROXYAUTH(3):

        curl_easy_setopt(easyhandle, CURLOPT_PROXYAUTH, CURLAUTH_NTLM);

       Both these options allow you to  set  multiple  types  (by  ORing  them
       together),  to  make  libcurl pick the most secure one out of the types
       the server/proxy claims to support. This  method  does  however  add  a
       round-trip since libcurl must first ask the server what it supports:

        curl_easy_setopt(easyhandle, CURLOPT_HTTPAUTH,

       For  convenience,  you  can use the 'CURLAUTH_ANY' define (instead of a
       list with specific types) which allows libcurl to use  whatever  method
       it wants.

       When  asking for multiple types, libcurl will pick the available one it
       considers "best" in its own internal order of preference.


       We get many questions regarding how to issue HTTP  POSTs  with  libcurl
       the proper way. This chapter will thus include examples using both dif-
       ferent versions of HTTP POST that libcurl supports.

       The first version is the simple POST, the  most  common  version,  that
       most  HTML pages using the <form> tag uses. We provide a pointer to the
       data and tell libcurl to post it all to the remote site:

           char *data="name=daniel&project=curl";
           curl_easy_setopt(easyhandle, CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS, data);
           curl_easy_setopt(easyhandle, CURLOPT_URL, "");

           curl_easy_perform(easyhandle); /* post away! */

       Simple enough, huh? Since you  set  the  POST  options  with  the  CUR-
       LOPT_POSTFIELDS(3),  this automatically switches the handle to use POST
       in the upcoming request.

       Ok, so what if you want to post binary data that also requires  you  to
       set  the  Content-Type:  header of the post? Well, binary posts prevent
       libcurl from being able to do strlen() on the data to  figure  out  the
       size, so therefore we must tell libcurl the size of the post data. Set-
       ting headers in libcurl requests are done in a generic way, by building
       a list of our own headers and then passing that list to libcurl.

        struct curl_slist *headers=NULL;
        headers = curl_slist_append(headers, "Content-Type: text/xml");

        /* post binary data */
        curl_easy_setopt(easyhandle, CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS, binaryptr);

        /* set the size of the postfields data */
        curl_easy_setopt(easyhandle, CURLOPT_POSTFIELDSIZE, 23L);

        /* pass our list of custom made headers */
        curl_easy_setopt(easyhandle, CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER, headers);

        curl_easy_perform(easyhandle); /* post away! */

        curl_slist_free_all(headers); /* free the header list */

       While  the  simple examples above cover the majority of all cases where
       HTTP POST operations are required, they don't do multi-part  formposts.
       Multi-part  formposts were introduced as a better way to post (possibly
       large) binary data and were first documented in the RFC1867 (updated in
       RFC2388). They're called multi-part because they're built by a chain of
       parts, each part being a single unit of data. Each  part  has  its  own
       name  and  contents. You can in fact create and post a multi-part form-
       post with the regular libcurl POST support described  above,  but  that
       would  require  that  you  build  a  formpost  yourself  and provide to
       libcurl. To make that easier, libcurl provides a MIME API consisting in
       several  functions:  using  those, you can create and fill a multi-part
       form.  Function curl_mime_init(3) creates a multi-part  body;  you  can
       then  append new parts to a multi-part body using curl_mime_addpart(3).
       There are  three  possible  data  sources  for  a  part:  memory  using
       curl_mime_data(3),  file  using  curl_mime_filedata(3) and user-defined
       data read callback using curl_mime_data_cb(3).  curl_mime_name(3)  sets
       a  part's (i.e.: form field) name, while curl_mime_filename(3) fills in
       the remote file name. With curl_mime_type(3), you  can  tell  the  MIME
       type  of  a part, curl_mime_headers(3) allows defining the part's head-
       ers. When a multi-part body is no longer needed,  you  can  destroy  it
       using curl_mime_free(3).

       The  following  example  sets  two simple text parts with plain textual
       contents, and then a file with binary contents and  uploads  the  whole

        curl_mime *multipart = curl_mime_init(easyhandle);
        curl_mimepart *part = curl_mime_addpart(mutipart);
        curl_mime_name(part, "name");
        curl_mime_data(part, "daniel", CURL_ZERO_TERMINATED);
        part = curl_mime_addpart(mutipart);
        curl_mime_name(part, "project");
        curl_mime_data(part, "curl", CURL_ZERO_TERMINATED);
        part = curl_mime_addpart(mutipart);
        curl_mime_name(part, "logotype-image");
        curl_mime_filedata(part, "curl.png");

        /* Set the form info */
        curl_easy_setopt(easyhandle, CURLOPT_MIMEPOST, multipart);

        curl_easy_perform(easyhandle); /* post away! */

        /* free the post data again */

       To  post  multiple  files for a single form field, you must supply each
       file in a separate part, all with the same field name.  Although  func-
       tion  curl_mime_subparts(3)  implements  nested muti-parts, this way of
       multiple files posting is deprecated by RFC 7578, chapter 4.3.

       To set the data source from an already opened FILE pointer, use:

        curl_mime_data_cb(part, filesize, (curl_read_callback) fread,
                          (curl_seek_callback) fseek, NULL, filepointer);

       A deprecated curl_formadd(3) function is still  supported  in  libcurl.
       It  should  however  not  be  used anymore for new designs and programs
       using it ought to be converted to the MIME API. It is however described
       here as an aid to conversion.

       Using  curl_formadd, you add parts to the form. When you're done adding
       parts, you post the whole form.

       The MIME API example above is expressed as follows using this function:

        struct curl_httppost *post=NULL;
        struct curl_httppost *last=NULL;
        curl_formadd(&post, &last,
                     CURLFORM_COPYNAME, "name",
                     CURLFORM_COPYCONTENTS, "daniel", CURLFORM_END);
        curl_formadd(&post, &last,
                     CURLFORM_COPYNAME, "project",
                     CURLFORM_COPYCONTENTS, "curl", CURLFORM_END);
        curl_formadd(&post, &last,
                     CURLFORM_COPYNAME, "logotype-image",
                     CURLFORM_FILECONTENT, "curl.png", CURLFORM_END);

        /* Set the form info */
        curl_easy_setopt(easyhandle, CURLOPT_HTTPPOST, post);

        curl_easy_perform(easyhandle); /* post away! */

        /* free the post data again */

       Multipart formposts are chains of parts using MIME-style separators and
       headers. It means that each one of these separate parts get a few head-
       ers  set that describe the individual content-type, size etc. To enable
       your application to handicraft this formpost even more, libcurl  allows
       you to supply your own set of custom headers to such an individual form
       part. You can of course supply headers to as many parts  as  you  like,
       but  this  little example will show how you set headers to one specific
       part when you add that to the post handle:

        struct curl_slist *headers=NULL;
        headers = curl_slist_append(headers, "Content-Type: text/xml");

        curl_formadd(&post, &last,
                     CURLFORM_COPYNAME, "logotype-image",
                     CURLFORM_FILECONTENT, "curl.xml",
                     CURLFORM_CONTENTHEADER, headers,

        curl_easy_perform(easyhandle); /* post away! */

        curl_formfree(post); /* free post */
        curl_slist_free_all(headers); /* free custom header list */

       Since  all  options on an easyhandle are "sticky", they remain the same
       until changed even if you do call curl_easy_perform(3), you may need to
       tell  curl to go back to a plain GET request if you intend to do one as
       your next request. You force an easyhandle to go back to GET  by  using
       the CURLOPT_HTTPGET(3) option:

        curl_easy_setopt(easyhandle, CURLOPT_HTTPGET, 1L);

       Just  setting  CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS(3)  to  ""  or  NULL  will *not* stop
       libcurl from doing a POST. It will just make it POST without  any  data
       to send!

Converting from deprecated form API to MIME API

       Four rules have to be respected in building the multi-part:
       - The easy handle must be created before building the multi-part.
       - The multi-part is always created by a call to curl_mime_init(easyhan-
       - Each part is created by a call to curl_mime_addpart(multipart).
       -  When complete, the multi-part must be bound to the easy handle using

       Here are some example of curl_formadd calls to MIME API sequences:

        curl_formadd(&post, &last,
                     CURLFORM_COPYNAME, "id",
                     CURLFORM_COPYCONTENTS, "daniel", CURLFORM_END);
                     CURLFORM_CONTENTHEADER, headers,
        part = curl_mime_addpart(multipart);
        curl_mime_name(part, "id");
        curl_mime_data(part, "daniel", CURL_ZERO_TERMINATED);
        curl_mime_headers(part, headers, FALSE);

       Setting the last curl_mime_headers argument to TRUE would  have  caused
       the headers to be automatically released upon destroyed the multi-part,
       thus saving a clean-up call to curl_slist_free_all(3).

        curl_formadd(&post, &last,
                     CURLFORM_PTRNAME, "logotype-image",
                     CURLFORM_FILECONTENT, "-",
        part = curl_mime_addpart(multipart);
        curl_mime_name(part, "logotype-image");
        curl_mime_data_cb(part, (curl_off_t) -1, fread, fseek, NULL, stdin);

       curl_mime_name always copies the field name. The special file name  "-"
       is  not  supported by curl_mime_file: to read an open file, use a call-
       back source using fread(). The transfer will be chunked since the  data
       size is unknown.

        curl_formadd(&post, &last,
                     CURLFORM_COPYNAME, "datafile[]",
                     CURLFORM_FILE, "file1",
                     CURLFORM_FILE, "file2",
        part = curl_mime_addpart(multipart);
        curl_mime_name(part, "datafile[]");
        curl_mime_filedata(part, "file1");
        part = curl_mime_addpart(multipart);
        curl_mime_name(part, "datafile[]");
        curl_mime_filedata(part, "file2");

       The  deprecated  multipart/mixed implementation of multiple files field
       is translated to two distinct parts with the same name.

        curl_easy_setopt(easyhandle, CURLOPT_READFUNCTION, myreadfunc);
        curl_formadd(&post, &last,
                     CURLFORM_COPYNAME, "stream",
                     CURLFORM_STREAM, arg,
                     CURLFORM_CONTENTLEN, (curl_off_t) datasize,
                     CURLFORM_FILENAME, "",
                     CURLFORM_CONTENTTYPE, "application/zip",
        part = curl_mime_addpart(multipart);
        curl_mime_name(part, "stream");
        curl_mime_data_cb(part, (curl_off_t) datasize,
                          myreadfunc, NULL, NULL, arg);
        curl_mime_filename(part, "");
        curl_mime_type(part, "application/zip");

       CURLOPT_READFUNCTION callback is not used: it is  replace  by  directly
       setting the part source data from the callback read function.

        curl_formadd(&post, &last,
                     CURLFORM_COPYNAME, "memfile",
                     CURLFORM_BUFFER, "memfile.bin",
                     CURLFORM_BUFFERPTR, databuffer,
                     CURLFORM_BUFFERLENGTH, (long) sizeof databuffer,
        part = curl_mime_addpart(multipart);
        curl_mime_name(part, "memfile");
        curl_mime_data(part, databuffer, (curl_off_t) sizeof databuffer);
        curl_mime_filename(part, "memfile.bin");

       curl_mime_data always copies the initial data: data buffer is thus free
       for immediate reuse.

        curl_formadd(&post, &last,
                     CURLFORM_COPYNAME, "message",
                     CURLFORM_FILECONTENT, "msg.txt",
        part = curl_mime_addpart(multipart);
        curl_mime_name(part, "message");
        curl_mime_filedata(part, "msg.txt");
        curl_mime_filename(part, NULL);

       Use of curl_mime_filedata sets the remote file name as a  side  effect:
       it  is  therefore necessary to clear it for CURLFORM_FILECONTENT emula-

Showing Progress

       For historical and traditional reasons, libcurl has a built-in progress
       meter  that  can  be  switched  on and then makes it present a progress
       meter in your terminal.

       Switch   on   the   progress  meter  by,  oddly  enough,  setting  CUR-
       LOPT_NOPROGRESS(3) to zero. This option is set to 1 by default.

       For  most  applications however, the built-in progress meter is useless
       and what instead is interesting is the ability to  specify  a  progress
       callback.  The function pointer you pass to libcurl will then be called
       on irregular intervals with information about the current transfer.

       Set  the  progress  callback  by using CURLOPT_PROGRESSFUNCTION(3). And
       pass a pointer to a function that matches this prototype:

        int progress_callback(void *clientp,
                              double dltotal,
                              double dlnow,
                              double ultotal,
                              double ulnow);

       If any of the input arguments is unknown, a 0 will be passed. The first
       argument,  the  'clientp'  is the pointer you pass to libcurl with CUR-
       LOPT_PROGRESSDATA(3). libcurl won't touch it.

libcurl with C++

       There's basically only one thing to keep in mind when using C++ instead
       of C when interfacing libcurl:

       The callbacks CANNOT be non-static class member functions

       Example C++ code:

       class AClass {
           static size_t write_data(void *ptr, size_t size, size_t nmemb,
                                    void *ourpointer)
             /* do what you want with the data */


       What "proxy" means according to Merriam-Webster: "a  person  authorized
       to  act  for  another"  but  also "the agency, function, or office of a
       deputy who acts as a substitute for another".

       Proxies are exceedingly common these days. Companies often  only  offer
       Internet  access to employees through their proxies. Network clients or
       user-agents ask the proxy for documents,  the  proxy  does  the  actual
       request and then it returns them.

       libcurl  supports  SOCKS  and HTTP proxies. When a given URL is wanted,
       libcurl will ask the proxy for it instead of trying to connect  to  the
       actual host identified in the URL.

       If  you're using a SOCKS proxy, you may find that libcurl doesn't quite
       support all operations through it.

       For HTTP proxies: the fact that the proxy is an HTTP proxy puts certain
       restrictions  on  what  can actually happen. A requested URL that might
       not be a HTTP URL will be still be passed to the HTTP proxy to  deliver
       back to libcurl. This happens transparently, and an application may not
       need to know. I say "may", because at times it  is  very  important  to
       understand  that  all operations over an HTTP proxy use the HTTP proto-
       col. For example, you can't invoke your own custom FTP commands or even
       proper FTP directory listings.

       Proxy Options

              To tell libcurl to use a proxy at a given port number:

               curl_easy_setopt(easyhandle,       CURLOPT_PROXY,       "proxy-

              Some proxies  require  user  authentication  before  allowing  a
              request, and you pass that information similar to this:

               curl_easy_setopt(easyhandle,  CURLOPT_PROXYUSERPWD, "user:pass-

              If  you  want to, you can specify the host name only in the CUR-
              LOPT_PROXY(3) option, and set the port  number  separately  with

              Tell  libcurl what kind of proxy it is with CURLOPT_PROXYTYPE(3)
              (if not, it will default to assume a HTTP proxy):

               curl_easy_setopt(easyhandle,      CURLOPT_PROXYTYPE,      CURL-

       Environment Variables

              libcurl automatically checks and uses a set of environment vari-
              ables  to  know  what  proxies to use for certain protocols. The
              names of the variables are following an ancient de  facto  stan-
              dard and are built up as "[protocol]_proxy" (note the lower cas-
              ing). Which makes the variable 'http_proxy' checked for  a  name
              of a proxy to use when the input URL is HTTP. Following the same
              rule, the variable named 'ftp_proxy' is checked  for  FTP  URLs.
              Again,  the proxies are always HTTP proxies, the different names
              of the variables simply allows  different  HTTP  proxies  to  be

              The  proxy environment variable contents should be in the format
              "[protocol://][user:password@]machine[:port]". Where the  proto-
              col://  part  is  simply ignored if present (so http://proxy and
              bluerk://proxy will do the same) and the  optional  port  number
              specifies  on  which port the proxy operates on the host. If not
              specified, the internal default port number  will  be  used  and
              that is most likely *not* the one you would like it to be.

              There are two special environment variables. 'all_proxy' is what
              sets proxy for any URL in case the  protocol  specific  variable
              wasn't  set,  and 'no_proxy' defines a list of hosts that should
              not use a proxy even though a variable may say so. If 'no_proxy'
              is a plain asterisk ("*") it matches all hosts.

              To explicitly disable libcurl's checking for and using the proxy
              environment  variables,  set  the  proxy  name  to "" - an empty
              string - with CURLOPT_PROXY(3).

       SSL and Proxies

              SSL  is  for  secure  point-to-point  connections. This involves
              strong encryption and similar things, which effectively makes it
              impossible  for  a  proxy to operate as a "man in between" which
              the proxy's task is, as previously discussed. Instead, the  only
              way  to  have SSL work over an HTTP proxy is to ask the proxy to
              tunnel trough everything without being able to check  or  fiddle
              with the traffic.

              Opening an SSL connection over an HTTP proxy is therefore a mat-
              ter of asking the proxy for a straight connection to the  target
              host  on  a  specified  port. This is made with the HTTP request
              CONNECT. ("please mr proxy, connect me to that remote host").

              Because of the nature of this operation, where the proxy has  no
              idea  what  kind  of data that is passed in and out through this
              tunnel, this breaks some of the very few  advantages  that  come
              from using a proxy, such as caching.  Many organizations prevent
              this kind of tunneling to other destination  port  numbers  than
              443 (which is the default HTTPS port number).

       Tunneling Through Proxy
              As  explained  above,  tunneling is required for SSL to work and
              often even restricted to the operation intended for SSL;  HTTPS.

              This  is  however  not the only time proxy-tunneling might offer
              benefits to you or your application.

              As tunneling opens a direct connection from your application  to
              the  remote  machine, it suddenly also re-introduces the ability
              to do non-HTTP operations over an HTTP proxy. You  can  in  fact
              use things such as FTP upload or FTP custom commands this way.

              Again,  this is often prevented by the administrators of proxies
              and is rarely allowed.

              Tell libcurl to use proxy tunneling like this:

               curl_easy_setopt(easyhandle, CURLOPT_HTTPPROXYTUNNEL, 1L);

              In fact, there might even be times when you  want  to  do  plain
              HTTP operations using a tunnel like this, as it then enables you
              to operate on the remote server instead of asking the  proxy  to
              do  so.  libcurl  will  not stand in the way for such innovative
              actions either!

       Proxy Auto-Config

              Netscape first came up with this. It is  basically  a  web  page
              (usually  using  a  .pac  extension) with a Javascript that when
              executed by the browser with the requested URL as input, returns
              information  to  the  browser  on how to connect to the URL. The
              returned information might be "DIRECT"  (which  means  no  proxy
              should  be  used),  "PROXY host:port" (to tell the browser where
              the proxy for this particular URL is) or "SOCKS  host:port"  (to
              direct the browser to a SOCKS proxy).

              libcurl  has  no  means  to interpret or evaluate Javascript and
              thus it doesn't support this. If you get yourself in a  position
              where  you  face this nasty invention, the following advice have
              been mentioned and used in the past:

              - Depending on the Javascript complexity, write up a script that
              translates it to another language and execute that.

              - Read the Javascript code and rewrite the same logic in another

              - Implement a Javascript interpreter; people  have  successfully
              used the Mozilla Javascript engine in the past.

              - Ask your admins to stop this, for a static proxy setup or sim-

Persistence Is The Way to Happiness

       Re-cycling the same easy  handle  several  times  when  doing  multiple
       requests is the way to go.

       After each single curl_easy_perform(3) operation, libcurl will keep the
       connection  alive  and  open.  A subsequent request using the same easy
       handle to the same host might just be able to use the already open con-
       nection! This reduces network impact a lot.

       Even if the connection is dropped, all connections involving SSL to the
       same  host  again,  will  benefit  from libcurl's session ID cache that
       drastically reduces re-connection time.

       FTP connections that are kept alive save a lot of time, as the command-
       response  round-trips  are  skipped,  and  also  you don't risk getting
       blocked without permission to login again like on many FTP servers only
       allowing N persons to be logged in at the same time.

       libcurl  caches DNS name resolving results, to make lookups of a previ-
       ously looked up name a lot faster.

       Other interesting  details  that  improve  performance  for  subsequent
       requests may also be added in the future.

       Each easy handle will attempt to keep the last  few  connections  alive
       for  a while in case they are to be used again. You can set the size of
       this "cache" with the  CURLOPT_MAXCONNECTS(3)  option.  Default  is  5.
       There is very seldom any point in changing this value, and if you think
       of changing this it is often just a matter of thinking again.

       To force your upcoming request to not use an already  existing  connec-
       tion  (it will even close one first if there happens to be one alive to
       the same host you're about to operate on), you can do that  by  setting
       CURLOPT_FRESH_CONNECT(3) to 1. In a similar spirit, you can also forbid
       the upcoming request to be "lying"  around  and  possibly  get  re-used
       after the request by setting CURLOPT_FORBID_REUSE(3) to 1.

HTTP Headers Used by libcurl

       When  you use libcurl to do HTTP requests, it'll pass along a series of
       headers automatically. It might be good for you to know and  understand
       these.  You  can  replace  or  remove  them  by using the CURLOPT_HTTP-
       HEADER(3) option.

       Host   This  header  is  required by HTTP 1.1 and even many 1.0 servers
              and should be the name of the server we want to  talk  to.  This
              includes the port number if anything but default.

       Accept "*/*".

       Expect When  doing POST requests, libcurl sets this header to "100-con-
              tinue" to ask the server for an "OK" message before it  proceeds
              with  sending  the  data  part  of  the post. If the POSTed data
              amount is deemed "small", libcurl will not use this header.

Customizing Operations

       There is an ongoing development today where more and more protocols are
       built  upon  HTTP for transport. This has obvious benefits as HTTP is a
       tested and reliable protocol that is widely deployed and has  excellent

       When you use one of these protocols, and even when doing other kinds of
       programming you may need to change the traditional HTTP (or FTP  or...)
       manners. You may need to change words, headers or various data.

       libcurl is your friend here too.

              If just changing the actual HTTP request  keyword  is  what  you
              want,  like  when  GET, HEAD or POST is not good enough for you,
              CURLOPT_CUSTOMREQUEST(3) is there for you. It is very simple  to

               curl_easy_setopt(easyhandle,  CURLOPT_CUSTOMREQUEST,  "MYOWNRE-

              When using the custom request, you change the request keyword of
              the actual request you are performing. Thus, by default you make
              a  GET  request  but  you  can  also  make  a POST operation (as
              described before) and then replace the POST keyword if you  want
              to. You're the boss.

       Modify Headers
              HTTP-like  protocols pass a series of headers to the server when
              doing the request, and you're free to pass any amount  of  extra
              headers that you think fit. Adding headers is this easy:

               struct curl_slist *headers=NULL; /* init to NULL is important */

               headers = curl_slist_append(headers, "Hey-server-hey: how are you?");
               headers = curl_slist_append(headers, "X-silly-content: yes");

               /* pass our list of custom made headers */
               curl_easy_setopt(easyhandle, CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER, headers);

               curl_easy_perform(easyhandle); /* transfer http */

               curl_slist_free_all(headers); /* free the header list */

              ...  and  if you think some of the internally generated headers,
              such as Accept: or Host: don't contain the data you want them to
              contain, you can replace them by simply setting them too:

               headers = curl_slist_append(headers, "Accept: Agent-007");
               headers = curl_slist_append(headers, "Host:");

       Delete Headers
              If you replace an existing header with one with no contents, you
              will prevent the header from being sent. For  instance,  if  you
              want to completely prevent the "Accept:" header from being sent,
              you can disable it with code similar to this:

               headers = curl_slist_append(headers, "Accept:");

              Both replacing and canceling internal  headers  should  be  done
              with  careful consideration and you should be aware that you may
              violate the HTTP protocol when doing so.

       Enforcing chunked transfer-encoding

              By making sure a request uses the custom header "Transfer-Encod-
              ing:  chunked" when doing a non-GET HTTP operation, libcurl will
              switch over to "chunked" upload, even though  the  size  of  the
              data  to  upload  might  be  known.  By default, libcurl usually
              switches over to chunked upload automatically if the upload data
              size is unknown.

       HTTP Version

              All HTTP requests includes the version number to tell the server
              which version we support. libcurl speaks HTTP  1.1  by  default.
              Some  very  old servers don't like getting 1.1-requests and when
              dealing with stubborn old things like that, you can tell libcurl
              to use 1.0 instead by doing something like this:

               curl_easy_setopt(easyhandle,              CURLOPT_HTTP_VERSION,

       FTP Custom Commands

              Not all protocols are HTTP-like, and thus the above may not help
              you  when  you  want to make, for example, your FTP transfers to
              behave differently.

              Sending custom commands to an FTP server means that you need  to
              send the commands exactly as the FTP server expects them (RFC959
              is a good guide here), and you can only use commands  that  work
              on  the  control-connection  alone.  All  kinds of commands that
              require data interchange and thus need a data-connection must be
              left to libcurl's own judgement. Also be aware that libcurl will
              do its very best to change directory  to  the  target  directory
              before  doing any transfer, so if you change directory (with CWD
              or similar) you might confuse libcurl  and  then  it  might  not
              attempt to transfer the file in the correct remote directory.

              A little example that deletes a given file before an operation:

               headers = curl_slist_append(headers, "DELE file-to-remove");

               /* pass the list of custom commands to the handle */
               curl_easy_setopt(easyhandle, CURLOPT_QUOTE, headers);

               curl_easy_perform(easyhandle); /* transfer ftp data! */

               curl_slist_free_all(headers); /* free the header list */

              If  you  would  instead  want this operation (or chain of opera-
              tions) to happen _after_ the data transfer took place the option
              to   curl_easy_setopt(3)   would   instead   be   called    CUR-
              LOPT_POSTQUOTE(3) and used the exact same way.

              The custom FTP command will be issued to the server in the  same
              order they are added to the list, and if a command gets an error
              code  returned  back  from  the server, no more commands will be
              issued  and  libcurl  will  bail  out   with   an   error   code
              (CURLE_QUOTE_ERROR).  Note  that  if you use CURLOPT_QUOTE(3) to
              send commands before a transfer, no transfer will actually  take
              place when a quote command has failed.

              If  you set the CURLOPT_HEADER(3) to 1, you will tell libcurl to
              get information about the target file and output "headers" about
              it. The headers will be in "HTTP-style", looking like they do in

              The option to enable headers or to run custom FTP  commands  may
              be  useful  to combine with CURLOPT_NOBODY(3). If this option is
              set, no actual file content transfer will be performed.

              If you do want to list the contents of  a  FTP  directory  using
              your  own  defined FTP command, CURLOPT_CUSTOMREQUEST(3) will do
              just that. "NLST" is the default one for listing directories but
              you're free to pass in your idea of a good alternative.

Cookies Without Chocolate Chips

       In the HTTP sense, a cookie is a  name  with  an  associated  value.  A
       server  sends  the  name and value to the client, and expects it to get
       sent back on every subsequent request to the server  that  matches  the
       particular  conditions set. The conditions include that the domain name
       and path match and that the cookie hasn't become too old.

       In real-world cases, servers send new cookies to replace existing  ones
       to  update  them. Server use cookies to "track" users and to keep "ses-

       Cookies are sent from server to clients with the header Set-Cookie: and
       they're sent from clients to servers with the Cookie: header.

       To just send whatever cookie you want to a server,  you  can  use  CUR-
       LOPT_COOKIE(3) to set a cookie string like this:

        curl_easy_setopt(easyhandle,       CURLOPT_COOKIE,        "name1=var1;

       In  many  cases, that is not enough. You might want to dynamically save
       whatever cookies the remote server passes to you, and make  sure  those
       cookies are then used accordingly on later requests.

       One  way to do this, is to save all headers you receive in a plain file
       and when you make a request, you tell  libcurl  to  read  the  previous
       headers to figure out which cookies to use. Set the header file to read
       cookies from with CURLOPT_COOKIEFILE(3).

       The  CURLOPT_COOKIEFILE(3) option also automatically enables the cookie
       parser in libcurl. Until the cookie parser is enabled, libcurl will not
       parse or understand incoming cookies and they  will  just  be  ignored.
       However,  when the parser is enabled the cookies will be understood and
       the cookies will be kept in memory  and  used  properly  in  subsequent
       requests  when  the same handle is used. Many times this is enough, and
       you may not have to save the cookies to disk at all. Note that the file
       you specify to CURLOPT_COOKIEFILE(3) doesn't have to  exist  to  enable
       the  parser, so a common way to just enable the parser and not read any
       cookies is to use the name of a file you know doesn't exist.

       If you  would  rather  use  existing  cookies  that  you've  previously
       received  with  your Netscape or Mozilla browsers, you can make libcurl
       use that cookie file as input. The CURLOPT_COOKIEFILE(3)  is  used  for
       that  too,  as libcurl will automatically find out what kind of file it
       is and act accordingly.

       Perhaps  the  most  advanced cookie operation libcurl offers, is saving
       the entire internal cookie state back into a Netscape/Mozilla formatted
       cookie file. We call that the cookie-jar. When you set a file name with
       CURLOPT_COOKIEJAR(3),  that  file name will be created and all received
       cookies will be stored in it when curl_easy_cleanup(3) is called.  This
       enables  cookies  to  get  passed  on properly between multiple handles
       without any information getting lost.

FTP Peculiarities We Need

       FTP  transfers  use  a  second TCP/IP connection for the data transfer.
       This is usually a fact you can forget and ignore but at times this fact
       will  come  back to haunt you. libcurl offers several different ways to
       customize how the second connection is being made.

       libcurl can either connect to the server a  second  time  or  tell  the
       server to connect back to it. The first option is the default and it is
       also what works best for all the people behind firewalls, NATs  or  IP-
       masquerading  setups.   libcurl  then tells the server to open up a new
       port and wait for a second connection. This  is  by  default  attempted
       with  EPSV first, and if that doesn't work it tries PASV instead. (EPSV
       is an extension to the original FTP spec and does not exist nor work on
       all FTP servers.)

       You can prevent libcurl from first trying the EPSV command  by  setting
       CURLOPT_FTP_USE_EPSV(3) to zero.

       In some cases, you will prefer to have the server connect back  to  you
       for  the  second  connection.  This might be when the server is perhaps
       behind a firewall or something and only allows connections on a  single
       port.  libcurl then informs the remote server which IP address and port
        number to connect to.  This is made with the CURLOPT_FTPPORT(3) option.
      If  you  set  it  to  "-",  libcurl  will use your system's "default IP
       address". If you want to use a particular IP, you can set the  full  IP
       address,  a  host name to resolve to an IP address or even a local net-
       work interface name that libcurl will get the IP address from.

       When doing the "PORT" approach, libcurl will attempt to  use  the  EPRT
       and  the LPRT before trying PORT, as they work with more protocols. You
       can disable this behavior by setting CURLOPT_FTP_USE_EPRT(3) to zero.

MIME API revisited for SMTP and IMAP

       In addition to support HTTP multi-part form fields, the MIME API can be
       used  to  build  structured  e-mail  messages and send them via SMTP or
       append such messages to IMAP directories.

       A structured e-mail message may contain several parts:  some  are  dis-
       played  inline  by  the  MUA,  some  are attachments. Parts can also be
       structured as multi-part, for example to include another e-mail message
       or  to  offer  several text formats alternatives. This can be nested to
       any level.

       To build such a message, you prepare the nth-level multi-part and  then
       include  it  as  a  source  to  the  parent  multi-part  using function
       curl_mime_subparts(3). Once it has been bound to its parent multi-part,
       a  nth-level  multi-part  belongs to it and should not be freed explic-

       E-mail messages data is not supposed to be non-ascii and line length is
       limited:  fortunately, some transfer encodings are defined by the stan-
       dards to support the transmission of such incompatible  data.  Function
       curl_mime_encoder(3)  tells a part that its source data must be encoded
       before being sent. It also generates the corresponding header for  that
       part.   If  the part data you want to send is already encoded in such a
       scheme, do not use this  function  (this  would  over-encode  it),  but
       explicitly set the corresponding part header.

       Upon  sending  such a message, libcurl prepends it with the header list
       set with CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER(3), as 0th-level mime part headers.

       Here is an example building an e-mail message with an inline plain/html
       text alternative and a file attachment encoded in base64:

        curl_mime *message = curl_mime_init(easyhandle);

        /* The inline part is an alternative proposing the html and the text
           versions of the e-mail. */
        curl_mime *alt = curl_mime_init(easyhandle);

        /* HTML message. */
        curl_mimepart *part = curl_mime_addpart(alt);
        curl_mime_data(part, "<html><body><p>This is HTML</p></body></html>",
        curl_mime_type(part, "text/html");

        /* Text message. */
        part = curl_mime_addpart(alt);
        curl_mime_data(part, "This is plain text message",

        /* Create the inline part. */
        part = curl_mime_addpart(message);
        curl_mime_subparts(part, alt);
        curl_mime_type(part, "multipart/alternative");
        struct curl_slist *headers = curl_slist_append(NULL,
                          "Content-Disposition: inline");
        curl_mime_headers(part, headers, TRUE);

        /* Add the attachment. */
        part = curl_mime_addpart(message);
        curl_mime_filedata(part, "manual.pdf");
        curl_mime_encoder(part, "base64");

        /* Build the mail headers. */
        headers = curl_slist_append(NULL, "From:");
        headers = curl_slist_append(headers, "To:");

        /* Set these into the easy handle. */
        curl_easy_setopt(easyhandle, CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER, headers);
        curl_easy_setopt(easyhandle, CURLOPT_MIMEPOST, mime);

       It  should  be  noted  that  appending  a  message to an IMAP directory
       requires the message size to be known prior upload. It is therefore not
       possible to include parts with unknown data size in this context.

Headers Equal Fun

       Some  protocols  provide "headers", meta-data separated from the normal
       data. These headers are by default not  included  in  the  normal  data
       stream, but you can make them appear in the data stream by setting CUR-
       LOPT_HEADER(3) to 1.

       What might be even more useful, is libcurl's ability  to  separate  the
       headers  from  the data and thus make the callbacks differ. You can for
       example set a different pointer to pass to the ordinary write  callback
       by setting CURLOPT_HEADERDATA(3).

       Or,  you  can set an entirely separate function to receive the headers,
       by using CURLOPT_HEADERFUNCTION(3).

       The headers are passed to the callback function one by one, and you can
       depend  on  that  fact. It makes it easier for you to add custom header
       parsers etc.

       "Headers" for FTP transfers equal all the FTP  server  responses.  They
       aren't actually true headers, but in this case we pretend they are! ;-)

Post Transfer Information

       See curl_easy_getinfo(3).

The multi Interface

       The easy interface as described in detail in this document  is  a  syn-
       chronous interface that transfers one file at a time and doesn't return
       until it is done.

       The multi interface, on the other hand, allows your program to transfer
       multiple files in both directions at the same time, without forcing you
       to use multiple threads.  The name might make it seem  that  the  multi
       interface  is  for multi-threaded programs, but the truth is almost the
       reverse.  The multi interface allows a single-threaded  application  to
       perform  the same kinds of multiple, simultaneous transfers that multi-
       threaded programs can perform.  It  allows  many  of  the  benefits  of
       multi-threaded  transfers  without  the complexity of managing and syn-
       chronizing many threads.

       To complicate matters somewhat more, there are even two versions of the
       multi  interface. The event based one, also called multi_socket and the
       "normal one" designed for using with select(). See the  libcurl-multi.3
       man page for details on the multi_socket event based API, this descrip-
       tion here is for the select() oriented one.

       To use this interface, you are better off if you first  understand  the
       basics  of how to use the easy interface. The multi interface is simply
       a way to make multiple transfers at the same time by adding up multiple
       easy handles into a "multi stack".

       You create the easy handles you want, one for each concurrent transfer,
       and  you  set all the options just like you learned above, and then you
       create a multi handle with curl_multi_init(3) and add  all  those  easy
       handles to that multi handle with curl_multi_add_handle(3).

       When  you've  added  the handles you have for the moment (you can still
       add new  ones  at  any  time),  you  start  the  transfers  by  calling

       curl_multi_perform(3) is asynchronous. It will only perform what can be
       done now and then return back control to your program. It  is  designed
       to  never block. You need to keep calling the function until all trans-
       fers are completed.

       The best usage of this interface is when you do a select() on all  pos-
       sible  file  descriptors or sockets to know when to call libcurl again.
       This also makes it easy for you to wait and respond to actions on  your
       own  application's sockets/handles. You figure out what to select() for
       by using curl_multi_fdset(3), that fills in a set of  fd_set  variables
       for  you  with  the  particular  file  descriptors libcurl uses for the

       When you then call select(), it'll return when one of the file  handles
       signal  action and you then call curl_multi_perform(3) to allow libcurl
       to do what it wants to do. Take note that  libcurl  does  also  feature
       some  time-out code so we advise you to never use very long timeouts on
       select() before you call curl_multi_perform(3) again.  curl_multi_time-
       out(3) is provided to help you get a suitable timeout period.

       Another  precaution  you  should  use:  always call curl_multi_fdset(3)
       immediately before the select() call since  the  current  set  of  file
       descriptors may change in any curl function invoke.

       If  you  want  to  stop  the transfer of one of the easy handles in the
       stack, you can use  curl_multi_remove_handle(3)  to  remove  individual
       easy    handles.    Remember    that    easy    handles    should    be

       When a transfer within the multi stack has  finished,  the  counter  of
       running   transfers   (as  filled  in  by  curl_multi_perform(3))  will
       decrease. When the number reaches zero, all transfers are done.

       curl_multi_info_read(3) can be used to get information about  completed
       transfers.  It  then  returns  the  CURLcode for each easy transfer, to
       allow you to figure out success on each individual transfer.

SSL, Certificates and Other Tricks

        [ seeding, passwords, keys, certificates, ENGINE, ca certs ]

Sharing Data Between Easy Handles

       You can share some data between easy handles when the easy interface is
       used, and some data is share  automatically  when  you  use  the  multi

       When  you  add  easy handles to a multi handle, these easy handles will
       automatically share a lot of the data that otherwise would be kept on a
       per-easy handle basis when the easy interface is used.

       The  DNS  cache is shared between handles within a multi handle, making
       subsequent name resolving faster, and the connection pool that is  kept
       to  better  allow  persistent connections and connection re-use is also
       shared. If you're using the easy interface, you can still  share  these
       between  specific  easy  handles  by  using  the  share  interface, see

       Some things are never shared automatically, not within  multi  handles,
       like  for  example  cookies  so  the only way to share that is with the
       share interface.


       [1]    libcurl 7.10.3 and later have the  ability  to  switch  over  to
              chunked  Transfer-Encoding  in cases where HTTP uploads are done
              with data of an unknown size.

       [2]    This happens on Windows machines when libcurl is built and  used
              as  a DLL. However, you can still do this on Windows if you link
              with a static library.

       [3]    The curl-config tool is generated at  build-time  (on  Unix-like
              systems) and should be installed with the 'make install' or sim-
              ilar instruction that installs the library,  header  files,  man
              pages etc.

       [4]    This behavior was different in  versions  before  7.17.0,  where
              strings   had   to   remain   valid   past   the   end   of  the
              curl_easy_setopt(3) call.


       libcurl-errors(3), libcurl-multi(3), libcurl-easy(3)

libcurl 7.60.0                  April 17, 2018             libcurl-tutorial(3)

curl 7.60.0 - Generated Wed May 23 15:12:51 CDT 2018
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