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getpwent(3)              BSD Library Functions Manual              getpwent(3)


NAME

     getpwent, getpwnam, getpwnam_r, getpwuid, getpwuid_r, getpwuuid,
     getpwuuid_r, setpassent, setpwent, endpwent -- password database opera-
     tions


LIBRARY

     Standard C Library (libc, -lc)


SYNOPSIS

     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <pwd.h>
     #include <uuid/uuid.h>

     struct passwd *
     getpwent(void);

     struct passwd *
     getpwnam(const char *login);

     int
     getpwnam_r(const char *name, struct passwd *pwd, char *buffer,
         size_t bufsize, struct passwd **result);

     struct passwd *
     getpwuid(uid_t uid);

     int
     getpwuid_r(uid_t uid, struct passwd *pwd, char *buffer, size_t bufsize,
         struct passwd **result);

     struct passwd *
     getpwuuid(uuid_t uuid);

     int
     getpwuuid_r(uuid_t uuid, struct passwd *pwd, char *buffer,
         size_t bufsize, struct passwd **result);

     int
     setpassent(int stayopen);

     void
     setpwent(void);

     void
     endpwent(void);


DESCRIPTION

     These functions obtain information from opendirectoryd(8), including
     records in /etc/master.passwd which is described in master.passwd(5).
     Each entry in the database is defined by the structure passwd found in
     the include file <pwd.h>:

           struct passwd {
                   char    *pw_name;       /* user name */
                   char    *pw_passwd;     /* encrypted password */
                   uid_t   pw_uid;         /* user uid */
                   gid_t   pw_gid;         /* user gid */
                   time_t  pw_change;      /* password change time */
                   char    *pw_class;      /* user access class */
                   char    *pw_gecos;      /* Honeywell login info */
                   char    *pw_dir;        /* home directory */
                   char    *pw_shell;      /* default shell */
                   time_t  pw_expire;      /* account expiration */
                   int     pw_fields;      /* internal: fields filled in */
           };

     The functions getpwnam(), getpwuid(), and getpwuuid() search the password
     database for the given login name, user uid, or user uuid respectively,
     always returning the first one encountered.

     Note that the password file /etc/master.passwd does not contain user
     UUIDs.  The UUID for a user may be found using mbr_uid_to_uuid().

     On Mac OS X, these routines are thread-safe and return a pointer to a
     thread-specific data structure.  The contents of this data structure are
     automatically released by subsequent calls to any of these routines on
     the same thread, or when the thread exits.  These routines are therefore
     unsuitable for use in libraries or frameworks, from where they may over-
     write the per-thread data that the calling application expects to find as
     a result of its own calls to these routines. Library and framework code
     should use the alternative reentrant variants detailed below.

     The getpwent() function sequentially reads the password database and is
     intended for programs that wish to process the complete list of users.

     The functions getpwnam_r(), getpwuid_r(), and getpwuuid_r() are alterna-
     tive versions of getpwnam(), getpwuid(), and getpwuuid() respectively.
     They store the results of their search in the caller-provided pwd struc-
     ture, which additionally contains pointers to strings that are stored in
     the caller-provided buffer of size bufsize.  (The maximum required
     bufsize can be obtained by passing the _SC_GETPW_R_SIZE_MAX constant to
     the sysconf(3) call. See example code below.) When these functions are
     successful, the pwd argument will be filled in, and a pointer to that
     argument will be stored in the caller-provided result.  If an entry is
     not found or an error occurs, result will be set to NULL.

     The setpassent() function accomplishes two purposes.  First, it causes
     getpwent() to ``rewind'' to the beginning of the database.  Additionally,
     if stayopen is non-zero, file descriptors are left open, significantly
     speeding up subsequent accesses for all of the routines.  (This latter
     functionality is unnecessary for getpwent() as it does not close its file
     descriptors by default.)

     It is dangerous for long-running programs to keep the file descriptors
     open as the database will become out of date if it is updated while the
     program is running.

     The setpwent() function is identical to setpassent() with an argument of
     zero.

     The endpwent() function closes any open files.

     These routines have been written to `shadow' the password of user records
     created on Mac OS X 10.3 or later, by returning a structure whose pass-
     word field points to the string `********'.  Legacy crypt passwords are
     still returned for user records created on earlier versions of Mac OS X
     whose opendirectoryd(8) attribute contains the value `;basic;'.

     Note that opendirectoryd(8) allows user records from some sources which
     may not include all the component fields present in a passwd structure.
     Only the name, uid, and gid of a user record are required.  Default val-
     ues will be supplied as follows:

           pw_passwd = "*"
           pw_change = 0
           pw_class = ""
           pw_gecos = ""
           pw_dir = "/var/empty"
           pw_shell = "/usr/bin/false"
           pw_expire = 0


RETURN VALUES

     The functions getpwent(), getpwnam(), getpwuid(), and getpwuuid() return
     a valid pointer to a passwd structure on success or NULL if the entry is
     not found or if an error occurs.  If an error does occur, errno will be
     set.  Note that programs must explicitly set errno to zero before calling
     any of these functions if they need to distinguish between a non-existent
     entry and an error.  The functions getpwnam_r(), getpwuid_r(), and
     getpwuuid_r() return 0 if no error occurred, or an error number to indi-
     cate failure.  It is not an error if a matching entry is not found.
     (Thus, if result is NULL and the return value is 0, no matching entry
     exists.)

     The setpassent() function returns 0 on failure and 1 on success.  The
     endpwent() and setpwent() functions have no return value.


EXAMPLES

     To print the current user's home directory without depending on per-
     thread storage:

           #include <sys/types.h>
           #include <unistd.h>
           #include <stdlib.h>
           #include <stdio.h>
           #include <pwd.h>

           int bufsize;

           if ((bufsize = sysconf(_SC_GETPW_R_SIZE_MAX)) == -1)
               abort();

           char buffer[bufsize];
           struct passwd pwd, *result = NULL;
           if (getpwuid_r(getuid(), &pwd, buffer, bufsize, &result) != 0 || !result)
               abort();

           printf("%s\n", pwd.pw_dir);


FILES

     The secure password database file
     /etc/master.passwd  The current password file
     /etc/passwd         A Version 7 format password file


ERRORS

     These routines may fail for any of the errors specified in open(2),
     dbopen(3), socket(2), and connect(2), in addition to the following:

     [ERANGE]           The buffer specified by the buffer and bufsize argu-
                        ments was insufficiently sized to store the result.
                        The caller should retry with a larger buffer.


SEE ALSO

     getlogin(2), getgrent(3), passwd(5), mbr_uid_to_uuid(3,)
     opendirectoryd(8), yp(8)


STANDARDS

     The getpwent(), getpwnam(), getpwnam_r(), getpwuid(), getpwuid_r(),
     setpwent(), and endpwent() functions conform to ISO/IEC 9945-1:1996
     (``POSIX.1'').


HISTORY

     The getpwent(), getpwnam(), getpwuid(), setpwent(), and endpwent() func-
     tions appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.  The setpassent() function
     appeared in 4.3BSD-Reno.  The getpwnam_r() and getpwuid_r() functions
     appeared in FreeBSD 5.1.  The functions getpwuuid() and getpwuuid_r()
     appeared in Mac OS X 10.8.


BUGS

     The functions getpwent(), getpwnam(), getpwuid(), and getpwuuid(), leave
     their results in an internal thread-specific memory and return a pointer
     to that object.  Subsequent calls to the same function will modify the
     same object.

BSD                            October 26, 2011                            BSD

Mac OS X 10.9.1 - Generated Fri Jan 10 06:12:47 CST 2014