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xmlwf(1)                                                              xmlwf(1)


       xmlwf - Determines if an XML document is well-formed


       xmlwf [-s] [-n] [-p] [-x] [-e encoding] [-w] [-d output-dir] [-c] [-m]
             [-r] [-t] [-N] [-v] [file ...]


       xmlwf uses the Expat library to determine if an XML document  is  well-
       formed. It is non-validating.

       If you do not specify any files on the command-line, and you have a re-
       cent version of xmlwf, the input file will be read from standard input.


       A well-formed document must adhere to the following rules:

       o The  file  begins  with  an XML declaration. For instance, <?xml ver-
         sion="1.0" standalone="yes"?>.  NOTE: xmlwf does not currently  check
         for a valid XML declaration.

       o Every  start  tag is either empty (<tag/>) or has a corresponding end

       o There is exactly one root element. This element must contain all oth-
         er elements in the document. Only comments, white space, and process-
         ing instructions may come after the close of the root element.

       o All elements nest properly.

       o All attribute values are enclosed in quotes (either  single  or  dou-

       If the document has a DTD, and it strictly complies with that DTD, then
       the document is also considered valid.  xmlwf is a non-validating pars-
       er  -- it does not check the DTD. However, it does support external en-
       tities (see the -x option).


       When an option includes an argument, you may specify the  argument  ei-
       ther  separately ("-d output") or concatenated with the option ("-dout-
       put"). xmlwf supports both.

       -c     If the input file is well-formed and xmlwf doesn't encounter any
              errors,  the input file is simply copied to the output directory
              unchanged.  This implies no namespaces (turns off  -n)  and  re-
              quires -d to specify an output directory.

       -d output-dir
              Specifies  a directory to contain transformed representations of
              the input files.  By default, -d outputs a canonical representa-
              tion (described below).  You can select different output formats
              using -c, -m and -N.

              The output filenames will be exactly the same as the input file-
              names  or  "STDIN"  if  the input is coming from standard input.
              Therefore, you must be careful that the output file does not  go
              into the same directory as the input file. Otherwise, xmlwf will
              delete the input file before it generates the output file  (just
              like running cat < file > file in most shells).

              Two  structurally  equivalent XML documents have a byte-for-byte
              identical canonical XML  representation.   Note  that  ignorable
              white space is considered significant and is treated equivalent-
              ly  to  data.   More  on  canonical  XML   can   be   found   at

       -e encoding
              Specifies  the  character  encoding for the document, overriding
              any document encoding declaration. xmlwf supports four  built-in
              encodings:  US-ASCII,  UTF-8,  UTF-16, and ISO-8859-1.  Also see
              the -w option.

       -m     Outputs some strange sort of XML file that completely  describes
              the  input  file, including character positions.  Requires -d to
              specify an output file.

       -n     Turns on namespace processing. (describe namespaces) -c disables

       -N     Adds  a  doctype and notation declarations to canonical XML out-
              put.  This matches the example output used  by  the  formal  XML
              test cases.  Requires -d to specify an output file.

       -p     Tells xmlwf to process external DTDs and parameter entities.

              Normally  xmlwf  never parses parameter entities. -p tells it to
              always parse them.  -p implies -x.

       -r     Normally xmlwf memory-maps the XML file before parsing; this can
              result  in faster parsing on many platforms.  -r turns off memo-
              ry-mapping and uses normal file IO calls  instead.   Of  course,
              memory-mapping  is  automatically  turned  off when reading from
              standard input.

              Use of memory-mapping can cause some platforms  to  report  sub-
              stantially higher memory usage for xmlwf, but this appears to be
              a matter of the operating system reporting memory in  a  strange
              way; there is not a leak in xmlwf.

       -s     Prints  an  error if the document is not standalone.  A document
              is standalone if it has no external subset and no references  to
              parameter entities.

       -t     Turns on timings. This tells Expat to parse the entire file, but
              not perform any processing.  This gives a fairly  accurate  idea
              of  the  raw  speed of Expat itself without client overhead.  -t
              turns off most of the output options (-d, -m, -c, ...).

       -v     Prints the version of the Expat library  being  used,  including
              some  information  on  the compile-time configuration of the li-
              brary, and then exits.

       -w     Enables support for Windows code pages.   Normally,  xmlwf  will
              throw  an  error  if  it  runs across an encoding that it is not
              equipped to handle itself. With -w, xmlwf will try to use a Win-
              dows code page. See also -e.

       -x     Turns on parsing external entities.

              Non-validating  parsers are not required to resolve external en-
              tities, or even expand entities at all.   Expat  always  expands
              internal  entities  (?), but external entity parsing must be en-
              abled explicitly.

              External entities are simply entities  that  obtain  their  data
              from outside the XML file currently being parsed.

              This is an example of an internal entity:

              <!ENTITY vers '1.0.2'>

              And here are some examples of external entities:

              <!ENTITY header SYSTEM "header-&vers;.xml">  (parsed)
              <!ENTITY logo SYSTEM "logo.png" PNG>         (unparsed)

       --     (Two  hyphens.)   Terminates  the  list of options. This is only
              needed if a filename starts with a hyphen. For example:

              xmlwf -- -myfile.xml

              will run xmlwf on the file -myfile.xml.

       Older versions of xmlwf do not support reading from standard input.


       If an input file is not well-formed, xmlwf prints  a  single  line  de-
       scribing the problem to standard output. If a file is well formed, xml-
       wf outputs nothing.  Note that the result code is not set.


       xmlwf returns a 0 - noerr result, even if the file is not  well-formed.
       There is no good way for a program to use xmlwf to quickly check a file
       -- it must parse xmlwf's standard output.

       The errors should go to standard error, not standard output.

       There should be a way to get -d to send its output to  standard  output
       rather than forcing the user to send it to a file.

       I have no idea why anyone would want to use the -d, -c, and -m options.
       If someone could explain it to me, I'd like to add this information  to
       this manpage.


       Here are some XML validators on the web:


       The Expat home page:
       The W3 XML specification:


       This manual page was written by Scott Bronson <> for
       the Debian GNU/Linux system (but may be used by others). Permission  is
       granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms
       of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1.

                                March 11, 2016                        xmlwf(1)

expat 2.2.5 - Generated Thu Nov 2 15:01:17 CDT 2017
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