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xdvi(1)                                                                xdvi(1)


       xdvi - DVI Previewer for the X Window System


       xdvi  [+[page]] [--help] [-allowshell] [-altfont font] [-anchorposition
       anchor] [-bg color] [-browser WWWbrowser] [-copy] [-cr  color]  [-debug
       bitmask|string[,string ...]]  [-display host:display] [-dvipspath path]
       [-editor command] [-expert] [-expertmode flag] [-fg color] [-findstring
       string]  [-font  font]  [-fullscreen  ] [-gamma g] [-geometry geometry]
       [-gsalpha]  [-gspalette  palette]  [-h]  [-help]  [-hl  color]  [-hush]
       [-hushbell]  [-hushchars] [-hushchecksums] [-hushstdout] [-icongeometry
       geometry]  [-iconic]  [-install]  [-interpreter  path]   [-keep]   [-l]
       [-license]  [-linkcolor  color]  [-linkstyle  0|1|2|3] [-margins dimen]
       [-mfmode mode-def[:dpi]] [-mgs[n] size] [-mousemode  0|1|2]  [-nocolor]
       [-nofork]    [-noghostscript]   [-nogrey]   [-nogssafer]   [-noinstall]
       [-nomakepk]  [-nomatchinverted]  [-noomega]   [-noscan]   [-notempfile]
       [-notype1fonts]  [-noxi2scrolling] [-offsets dimen] [-p pixels] [-paper
       papertype] [-pause] [-pausespecial special-string]  [-postscript  flag]
       [-rulecolor color] [-rv] [-S density] [-s shrink] [-safer] [-sidemargin
       dimen] [-sourceposition  line[:col][ ]filename]  [-statusline]  [-text-
       encoding  encoding] [-thorough] [-topmargin dimen] [-unique] [-version]
       [-visitedlinkcolor color] [-warnspecials] [-watchfile secs] [-wheelunit
       pixels] [-xoffset dimen] [-yoffset dimen] [dvi_file]


       Xdvi  is  a  program  for previewing dvi files, as produced e.g. by the
       tex(1) program, under the X window system.

       Xdvi can show the file shrunken by various integer factors, and it  has
       a  ``magnifying glass'' for viewing parts of the page enlarged (see the
       section MAGNIFIER below). This version of xdvi is also referred  to  as
       xdvik  since  it  uses the kpathsea library to locate and generate font
       files.  In addition to that, it supports the following features:

         - hyperlinks in DVI files (section HYPERLINKS),

         - direct rendering of PostScript<tm> Type 1  fonts  (section  TYPE  1

         - source specials in the DVI file (section SOURCE SPECIALS),

         - string search in DVI files (section STRING SEARCH),

         - saving  or  printing (parts of) the DVI file (sections PRINT DIALOG
           and SAVE DIALOG).

       Xdvi can be compiled with the Motif toolkit or the Xaw (Athena) toolkit
       (and  variants  of  it), and the Motif version has a slightly different
       GUI; these differences are noted below.

       Before displaying a page of a DVI file, xdvi will check to see  if  the
       file  has changed since the last time it was displayed.  If this is the
       case, it will reload the file.  This feature allows you to preview many
       versions of the same file while running xdvi only once. Since it cannot
       read partial DVI files, xdvik versions starting from 22.74.3 will  cre-
       ate  a  temporary copy of the DVI file being viewed, to ensure that the
       file can be viewed without interruptions. (The -notempfile can be  used
       to turn off this feature).

       Xdvi can show PostScript<tm> specials by any of three methods.  It will
       try first to use Display PostScript<tm>, then NeWS, then it will try to
       use  Ghostscript  to render the images.  All of these options depend on
       additional software to work properly; moreover, some of them may not be
       compiled into this copy of xdvi.

       For  performance  reasons,  xdvi does not render PostScript specials in
       the magnifying glass.

       If no file name has been specified on the command line, xdvi  will  try
       to  open the most recently opened file; if the file history (accessible
       via the File > Open Recent menu) is empty, or if none of the  files  in
       the  history  are  valid  DVI files, it will pop up a file selector for
       choosing a file name.  (In previous versions, which didn't have a  file
       history,  the file selector was always used; you can set the X resource
       noFileArgUseHistory to false to get back the old behaviour.)


       In addition to specifying the dvi file (with or without the .dvi exten-
       sion), xdvi supports the following command line options.  If the option
       begins with a `+' instead of a `-', the option is restored to  its  de-
       fault  value.   By  default,  these options can be set via the resource
       names given in parentheses in the description of each option.

       +page  Specifies the first page to show.  If + is given without a  num-
              ber, the last page is assumed; the first page is the default.

              (.allowShell) This option enables the shell escape in PostScript
              specials.  (For security reasons, shell escapes are disabled  by
              default.)   This  option should be rarely used; in particular it
              should not be used just to uncompress files:  that  function  is
              done  automatically  if  the file name ends in .Z, .gz, or .bz2.
              Shell escapes are always turned off  if  the  -safer  option  is

       -altfont font
              (.altFont)  Declares  a default font to use when the font in the
              dvi file cannot be found.  This is  useful,  for  example,  with
              PostScript <tm> fonts.

       -anchorposition anchor
              Jump  to  anchor after opening the DVI file. This is only useful
              when invoking xdvi from other applications.

       -background color
              (.background) Determines the color of the background.   Same  as

       -bg color
              (.background) Determines the color of the background.

       -browser browser
              (.wwwBrowser) Defines the web browser used for handling external
              URLs. The value of this option or resource has the  same  syntax
              as the BROWSER environment variable; see the explanation of that
              variable in the section `ENVIRONMENT' below for a  detailed  de-
              scription.   If neither the option nor the X resource wwwBrowser
              is specified, the environment variables BROWSER  and  WWWBROWSER
              (in  that  order)  are used to determine the browser command. If
              these are not set either, the following default value  is  used:
              xdg-open %s:htmlview %s:firefox -remote -remote "openURL(%s,new-
              window)":mozilla    -remote    "openURL(%s,new-window)":netscape
              -raise -remote "openURL(%s,new-window)":xterm -e w3m %s:xterm -e
              lynx %s:xterm -e wget %s

       -copy  (.copy) Always use the copy operation when writing characters to
              the display.  This option may be necessary for correct operation
              on a color display, but overstrike characters will be incorrect.
              If  greyscale  anti-aliasing is in use, the -copy operation will
              disable the use of colorplanes and make overstrikes come out in-
              correctly.  See also -thorough.

       -cr color
              (.cursorColor)  Determines  the  color of the mouse cursor.  The
              default is the same as the foreground color.

       -debug bitmask|string[,string ...]
              (.debugLevel) If nonzero, prints additional information on stan-
              dard  output.  The argument can be either a bitmask specified as
              a decimal number, or comma-separated list of strings.
              For the bitmask representation, multiple values can be specified
              by  adding  the numbers that represent the individual bits; e.g.
              to debug all file searching and opening commands,  use  4032  (=
              2048 + 1024 + 512 + 256 + 128 + 64). Use -1 to turn on debugging
              of everything (this will produce huge output).
              For the string representation, use the  strings  listed  in  the
              following  table,  with  a comma to separate the values; e.g. to
              debug all file searching and opening  commands,  use  search,ex-
              pand,paths,hash,stat,open.   (The  option `kpathsea' is provided
              as a shorthand for these.)  Note that such a list may need to be
              quoted  to  prevent the shell from interpreting commas or spaces
              in the list.
              The individual numbers and strings have the following meanings:

               1       bitmap      Bitmap creation
               2       dvi         DVI translation
               4       pk          PK fonts
               8       batch       Batch mode: Exit after
                                   reading the DVI file
               16      event       Event handling
               32      ps          PostScript interpreter calls
               64      stat        Kpathsea stat(2) calls
               128     hash        Kpathsea hash table lookups
               256     open        Kpathsea file opening
               512     paths       Kpathsea path definitions
               1024    expand      Kpathsea path expansion
               2048    search      Kpathsea searching
               4032    kpathsea    All Kpathsea options
               4096    htex        Hypertex specials
               8192    src         Source specials
               16384   client      Client/server mode (see -unique
                                   and -sourceposition options)
               32768   ft          FreeType library messages (Type 1 fonts)
               65536   ft_verbose  Verbose FreeType library messages (currently unused)
               131072  gui         GUI elements
               262144  find        Searching for strings in the DVI file
               524288  files       File history and opening DVI files

              Some of the Kpathsea debugging options are actually provided  by
              Kpathsea;  see  the Debugging section in the Kpathsea manual for
              more information on these.

       -density density
              (.densityPercent) Determines the  density  used  when  shrinking
              bitmaps for fonts.  A higher value produces a lighter font.  The
              default value is 40.  If greyscaling is in  use,  this  argument
              does not apply; use -gamma instead.  See also the `S' keystroke.
              Same as -S.

       -display host:display
              Specifies the host and screen to be used for displaying the  dvi
              file.  By default this is obtained from the environment variable

       -dvipspath path
              (.dvipsPath) Use path as the dvips program to use when printing.
              The  default  for  this  is dvips.  The program or script should
              read the DVI file from standard input, and write the  PostScript
              file to standard output.

       -editor editor
              (.editor)  Specifies  the  editor  that will be invoked when the
              source-special() action is triggered to start a  reverse  search
              (by default via Ctrl-Mouse 1).  The argument to this option is a
              format string in which occurrences of ``%f'' are replaced by the
              file name, occurrences of ``%l'' are replaced by the line number
              within the file, and optional occurrences of ``%c'' are replaced
              by the column number within the line.

              If  neither  the option nor the X resource .editor is specified,
              the following environment variables are checked to determine the
              editor  command: XEDITOR, VISUAL, and EDITOR (in this sequence).
              If the string is found as the value of the VISUAL or EDITOR  en-
              vironment  variables,  then  ``xterm  -e  '' is prepended to the
              string; if the editor is specified by other means, then it  must
              be  in the form of a shell command to pop up an X window with an
              editor in it. If none of these variables is set, a warning  mes-
              sage  is  displayed  and  the  command ``xterm -e vi +%l %f'' is

              If no ``%f'' or ``%l'' occurs in the string, the missing  format
              strings  are appended automatically.  (This is for compatibility
              with other programs when using  one  of  the  environment  vari-

              A  new  instance of the editor is started each time this command
              is used; therefore it is preferable to use an editor that can be
              invoked  in  `client'  mode  to load new files into the same in-
              stance. Example settings are:

              emacsclient --no-wait
                     (older Emacsen)

              gnuclient -q
                     (XEmacs and newer Emacsen)

              gvim --servername xdvi --remote
                     (VIM v6.0+; the `--servername  xdvi'  option  will  cause
                     gvim  to run a dedicated instance for the files opened by

              nc     (nedit)

              Note that those strings need to be enclosed into quotes when us-
              ing  them  on  the  command-line to protect them from the shell;
              when using them as argument for the .editor resource in an X re-
              source file, no quotes should be used.

              NOTE  ON SECURITY: The argument of this option isn't executed as
              a shell command, but via exec() to prevent evil tricks with  the
              contents of source specials.

              This option is only supported for backwards compatibility; it is
              equivalent to -expertmode 0, which should be preferred.

       -expertmode flag
              (.expertMode) With an argument of 0, this  option  switches  off
              the  display  of the buttons, scrollbars, the toolbar (Motif on-
              ly), the statusline and the page list. These  GUI  elements  can
              also  be  (de)activated separately, by combining the appropriate
              values in the flag argument. This acts similar to the -debug op-
              tion:  The  integer  flag  is treated as a bitmap where each bit
              represents one element. If the bit has the value 1, the  element
              is  switched  on, if it has the value 0, the element is switched
              off. The meaning of the bits is as follows:

               1       statusline
               2       scrollbars
               4       Motif: pagelist, Xaw: buttons and pagelist
               8       toolbar (Motif only)
               16      menubar (Motif only)

              For example, to turn on only the statusline and the  scrollbars,
              use 3 (= 1 + 2).  See also the `x' keystroke, where the bits are
              addressed by their positions, from 1 to 3 (Xaw)  or  5  (Motif),

       If  the  statusline  is not active, all messages that would normally be
       printed to the statusline will be printed to stdout, unless the  -hush-
       stdout option is used.

       -fg color
              (.foreground) Determines the color of the text (foreground).

       -findstring string
              This  option  triggers  a search for string in the DVI file men-
              tioned on the command-line, similar to forward search  (see  the
              description  of  the sourceposition option): If there is already
              another instance of xdvi running  on  the  displaying  that  DVI
              file, it will cause that instance to perform the search instead.
              The search starts at the top of the  current  page  of  the  DVI

       -font font
              (*font)  Sets the font used in menus, buttons etc., as described
              in the X(7x) man page. The font for child  windows  can  be  set
              separately, e.g.:

              xdvi*statusline*font: \

       -foreground color
              Same as -fg.

              When  this  option is used, xdvi will (try to) run in fullscreen
              mode, with no window decorations.  This option is not guaranteed
              to work with all windowmanagers/desktops; if you're experiencing
              problems with it, please use the -geometry option instead, and a
              suitable  window  manager  setting  to remove the window decora-
              tions.  When using this option for presentations, you might want
              to  get  rid  of all the control widgets as well, using the -ex-
              pertmode option. This option can also be toggled at runtime  us-
              ing the fullscreen action (by default bound to Ctrl-l).

       -gamma gamma
              (.gamma)  Controls  the interpolation of colors in the greyscale
              anti-aliasing color palette.  Default value is  1.0.   For  0  <
              gamma < 1, the fonts will be lighter (more like the background),
              and for gamma > 1, the fonts will be darker (more like the fore-
              ground).  Negative values behave the same way, but use a slight-
              ly different algorithm.  For color and grayscale  displays;  for
              monochrome, see -density.  See also the `S' keystroke.

       -geometry geometry
              (.geometry)  Specifies  the initial geometry of the main window,
              as described in the X(7x) man page. The geometry of  child  win-
              dows can be set separately, e.g.:
              xdvi*helpwindow.geometry: 600x800

              (.gsAlpha)  Causes  Ghostscript  to  be called with the x11alpha
              driver instead of the x11 driver.  The x11alpha  driver  enables
              anti-aliasing  in  PostScript  specials, for a nicer appearance.
              It is available on newer versions of Ghostscript.   This  option
              can also be toggled with the `V' keystroke.

       -gspalette palette
              (.palette)   Specifies   the  palette  to  be  used  when  using
              Ghostscript for rendering PostScript specials.  Possible  values
              are Color, Greyscale, and Monochrome.  The default is Color.

       -h, -help, --help
              Prints  a  short  help text with an overview of the command-line
              options to standard output.

       -hl color
              (.highlight) Determines the color of the  page  border,  of  the
              ruler  in  `ruler mode', and of the highlighting markers in for-
              ward search and string search.  The default  is  the  foreground

       -hush  (.Hush) Causes xdvi to suppress all suppressible warnings.

              (.hushBell) Don't sound the X bell when an error occurs.

              (.hushLostChars)  Causes  xdvi to suppress warnings about refer-
              ences to characters which are not defined in the font.

              (.hushChecksums) Causes xdvi to suppress warnings about checksum
              mismatches between the dvi file and the font file.

              (.hushStdout)  Suppresses printing of status messages to stdout.
              Note that errors or warnings will still  be  printed  to  stderr
              even if this option is used.

       -icongeometry geometry
              (.iconGeometry) Specifies the initial position for the icon.

              (.iconic)  Causes  the xdvi window to start in the iconic state.
              The default is to start with the window open.

              (.install) If xdvi is running under a PseudoColor  visual,  then
              (by  default) it will check for TrueColor visuals with more bits
              per pixel, and switch to such a visual if  one  exists.   If  no
              such visual exists, it will use the current visual and colormap.
              If -install is selected, however, it will still use a  TrueColor
              visual  with a greater depth, if one is available; otherwise, it
              will install its own colormap on the  current  visual.   If  the
              current visual is not PseudoColor, then xdvi will not switch the
              visual or colormap, regardless of its options.  The default val-
              ue  of  the install resource is the special value, maybe.  There
              is no +install option.  See also -noinstall, and the GREYSCALING
              AND COLORMAPS section.

       -interpreter filename
              (.interpreter)  Use filename as the Ghostscript interpreter.  By
              default it uses gs.

       -keep  (.keepPosition) Sets a flag to indicate  that  xdvi  should  not
              move  to  the home position when moving to a new page.  See also
              the `k' keystroke. This flag is honored by  all  page  switching
              actions  and  by up-or-previous() / down-or-next(), although the
              latter only honor the horizontal position, not the vertical one.
              This allows for a "continuous" scrolling back an forth through a
              document with a display window narrower than a page width.

       -l     (.listFonts) List the names of all fonts used.

              Prints licensing information.

              (.linkColor) Color used for unvisited hyperlinks (`Blue2' by de-
              fault).  Hyperlinks  are  unvisited before you click on them, or
              after the DVI file has been reloaded.  The value should  be  ei-
              ther a valid X color name (such as DarkGoldenrod4) or a hexadec-
              imal color string (such as #8b6508).  See also -visitedlinkcolor
              and -linkstyle.

              (.LinkStyle)  Determines  the style in which hyperlinks are dis-
              played. Possible values and their meanings are:

               0       No highlighting of links
               1       Underline links with link color
               2       No underlining, color text with link color
               3       Underline and display text colored with
                       link color

              The values for link color are specified by the options/resources
              -linkcolor and -visitedlinkcolor (which see).

       -margins dimen
              (.Margin)  Specifies  the  size  of both the top margin and side
              margin.  This determines the ``home'' position of the page with-
              in  the  window as follows.  If the entire page fits in the win-
              dow, then the margin settings are ignored.  If, even  after  re-
              moving  the  margins  from the left, right, top, and bottom, the
              page still cannot fit in the window, then the page is put in the
              window  such  that the top and left margins are hidden, and pre-
              sumably the upper left-hand corner of the text on the page  will
              be  in the upper left-hand corner of the window.  Otherwise, the
              text is centered in the window.  The dimension should be a deci-
              mal number optionally followed by any of the two-letter abbrevi-
              ations for units accepted by TeX (pt, pc, in, bp,  cm,  mm,  dd,
              cc, or sp).  By default, the unit will be cm (centimeters).  See
              also -sidemargin, -topmargin, and the keystroke `M.'

       -mfmode mode-def
              (.mfMode) Specifies a mode-def string,  which  can  be  used  in
              searching  for  fonts (see ENVIRONMENT, below).  Generally, when
              changing the mode-def, it is also necessary to change  the  font
              size  to  the  appropriate value for that mode.  This is done by
              adding a colon and the value in dots per inch; for example, -mf-
              mode  ljfour:600.   This method overrides any value given by the
              pixelsPerInch resource or the  -p  command-line  argument.   The
              metafont  mode  is also passed to metafont during automatic cre-
              ation of fonts.  By default, it is unspecified.

       -mgs size
              Same as -mgs1.

       -mgs[n] size
              (.magnifierSize[n]) Specifies the size of the window to be  used
              for the ``magnifying glass'' for Button n.  The size may be giv-
              en as an integer (indicating that the magnifying glass is to  be
              square),  or  it may be given in the form widthxheight.  See the
              MOUSE ACTIONS section.  Defaults are 200x150, 400x250,  700x500,
              1000x800, and 1200x1200.

       -mousemode [0|1|2]
              (.mouseMode) Specifies the default mode of xdvi at startup: Mag-
              nifier (0), Text Selection Mode (1) or Ruler Mode (2).  See  the
              section MODES, below, for more information.

              (.color)  Turns  off the use of color specials.  This option can
              be toggled with the `C' keystroke.  (Note: -nocolor  corresponds
              to color:off; +nocolor to color:on.)

              (.fork)  With  the  -sourceposition and -unique options, the de-
              fault behavior is for xdvi to put  itself  into  the  background
              (like  a daemon) if there is no appropriate instance of xdvi al-
              ready running.  This argument makes it run in the foreground in-
              stead.  This is useful for debugging, or if your client applica-
              tion cannot deal well with a program  self-backgrounding  itself
              in this way -- e.g. the IPC functions in emacs are known to have
              problems with this.  If no -sourceposition or  -unique  argument
              is given, then this option has no effect.  (Note: -nofork corre-
              sponds to fork:off; +nofork to fork:on.)

              (.ghostscript) Inhibits the use of  Ghostscript  for  displaying
              PostScript<tm>  specials.   (Note: -noghostscript corresponds to
              ghostscript:off; +noghostscript to ghostscript:on.)

              (.grey) Turns off the use of greyscale anti-aliasing when print-
              ing  shrunken  bitmaps.  (Note: -nogrey corresponds to grey:off;
              +nogrey to grey:on.)  See also the `G' keystroke.

              (.gsSafer) Normally, if Ghostscript is used to render PostScript
              specials,  the  Ghostscript  interpreter  is run with the option
              -dSAFER.   The  -nogssafer  option  runs   Ghostscript   without
              -dSAFER.   The -dSAFER option in Ghostscript disables PostScript
              operators such as  deletefile,  to  prevent  possibly  malicious
              PostScript  programs  from having any effect.  If the -safer op-
              tion is specified, then this option has no effect; in that  case
              Ghostscript  is always run with -dSAFER.  (Note: -nogssafer cor-
              responds to gsSafer:off; +nogssafer to gsSafer:on.)

              (.install) Inhibit the default behavior of switching to a  True-
              Color  visual  if one is available with more bits per pixel than
              the current visual.  (Note: -noinstall corresponds  install:off;
              there  is  no  +noinstall  option.)   See also -install, and the
              GREYSCALING AND COLORMAPS section.

              (.makePk) Turns off automatic generation of font files that can-
              not  be  found  by other means.  (Note: -nomakepk corresponds to
              makePk:off; +nomakepk to makePK:on.)

              (.matchInverted) Don't highlight string search  matches  in  in-
              verted  color; instead, draw a rectangle in highlight color (see
              the -hl option) around the match. This option is activated auto-
              matically  if  the  display  isn't running in TrueColor.  (Note:
              -nomatchinverted corresponds to  matchInverted:off;  +nomatchin-
              verted to matchInverted:on.)

              (.omega)  This will disable the use of Omega extensions when in-
              terpreting DVI files.  By default, the  additional  opcodes  129
              and  134  are  recognized by xdvi as Omega extensions and inter-
              preted as requests to set 2-byte characters. The  only  drawback
              is  that the virtual font array will require 65536 positions in-
              stead of the default 256 positions, i.e. the memory requirements
              of  xdvi  will be slightly larger. If you find this unacceptable
              or encounter another problem with the Omega extensions, you  can
              switch  this extension off by using -noomega (but please do send
              a bug report if you find such problems - see the bug address  in
              the AUTHORS section below).
              (Note:  -noomega  corresponds  to omega: off; +noomega to omega:

              (.prescan) By default, xdvi does a preliminary scan of  the  dvi
              file  to  process any papersize specials; this is especially im-
              portant at startup since the paper size may be needed to  deter-
              mine  the  window size.  If PostScript<tm> is in use, then pres-
              canning is also necessary in order to  properly  process  header
              files.   In  addition, prescanning is needed to correctly deter-
              mine the background color of a page.  This option turns off such
              prescanning.   (Prescanning will be automatically be turned back
              on if xdvi detects any of the specials mentioned above.)  (Note:
              -noscan corresponds to prescan:off; +noscan to prescan:on.)

              (.tempFile)  As mentioned in the section DESCRIPTION above, xdvi
              will create a temporary copy of the DVI file so that it  can  be
              accessed  without  interruptions  even  while  the file is being
              rewritten by TeX.  Since this introduces the overhead of copying
              the  file  every time it has changed, the -notempfile allows you
              to turn off this behaviour. In this case, exposing parts of  the
              window while the DVI file is being written by TeX will erase the
              current window contents until the DVI  file  can  be  completely
              (Note:  -notempfile  corresponds to tempFile:off; +notempfile to

              (.type1) This will disable the use of the  FreeType  library  to
              display PostScript<tm> Type 1 fonts.  Use this option as a work-
              around when you encounter problems with the display  of  Type  1
              fonts  (but  please  don't  forget  to send a bug report in this
              case, to the URL mentioned in the section AUTHORS below).
              (Note: -notype1fonts corresponds to type1:off; +notype1fonts  to

              (.xi2Scrolling)  This  will  disable  the use of high-resolution
              scrolling using the XInput 2.1 features of the X  Server.   When
              enabled,  horizontal  and  vertical scrolling is done in smaller
              increments than would correspond to a single click  of  a  mouse
              wheel.   This  is  only available for hardware that supports the
              feature, generally touchpads.  It is not  available  for  tradi-
              tional  wheel  mice.   If suitable hardware is not present or if
              the X server does not support XInput 2.1  or  higher,  then  the
              high-resolution  scrolling  feature is turned off and has no ef-
              (Note:   -noxi2scrolling   corresponds   to    xi2Scrolling:off;
              +noxi2scrolling, to xi2Scrolling:on.)

       -offsets dimen
              (.Offset) Specifies the size of both the horizontal and vertical
              offsets of the output on the page.  By decree  of  the  Stanford
              TeX  Project,  the default TeX page origin is always 1 inch over
              and down from the top-left page corner, even  when  non-American
              paper  sizes  are  used.  Therefore, the default offsets are 1.0
              inch.  The argument dimen should be a decimal number  optionally
              followed  by  any  of the two-letter abbreviations for units ac-
              cepted by TeX (pt, pc, in, bp, cm, mm, dd, cc, or sp).   By  de-
              fault, the unit will be cm (centimeters).  See also -xoffset and

       -p pixels
              (.pixelsPerInch) Defines the size of the fonts to use, in pixels
              per  inch.   The  default value is 600.  This option is provided
              only for backwards compatibility; the preferred  way is  to  set
              both the resolution and the Metafont mode via the -mfmode option
              (which see).

       -paper papertype
              (.paper) Specifies the size of the printed page.  Note  that  in
              most  cases it's best to specify the paper size in the TeX input
              file via the line


              which will be recognized by both dvips and xdvi;  in  that  case
              the use of a `-paper' option should be unnecessary.
              The paper size may be specified in the form widthxheight option-
              ally followed by a unit, where width and height are decimal num-
              bers giving the width and height of the paper, respectively, and
              the unit is any of the two-letter abbreviations  for  units  ac-
              cepted  by  TeX (pt, pc, in, bp, cm, mm, dd, cc, or sp).  By de-
              fault, the unit is cm (centimeters).
              There are also synonyms which may be used: us (8.5x11in),  legal
              (8.5x14in),  foolscap  (13.5x17in),  as  well  as  the ISO sizes
              a1-a7, b1-b7, c1-c7.  Each of these also has a landscape or `ro-
              tated'  variant: usr (11x8.5in), a1r-a7r, etc. For compatibility
              with dvips, the formats letter (8.5x11in), ledger (17x11in)  and
              tabloid  (11x17in)  are also supported (these don't have rotated
              Any of the above sizes may be preceded by  a  plus  sign  (`+');
              this causes the paper size given here to override any paper size
              given in the dvi file.  The default paper size is 21 x  29.7  cm
              (A4 size).

       -pause (.pause)  This option provides a simple implementation of incre-
              mental (stepwise) display, which can be used for  presentations.
              When  this  option  is  used, xdvi will pause the display of the
              current page whenever it  encounters  a  special  special-string
              (xdvi:pause  by default; the string can be customized via -paus-
              especial, see below), and the cursor will change its shape.  The
              action  unpause-or-next()  (by  default  bound to the Space key)
              will display the next portion of the page up  to  the  following
              special-string,  or  until the end of the page is reached.  When
              the option is not used, specials containing special-string  will
              be ignored.

       -pausespecial special-string
              (.pauseSpecial)  Sets  the  special  string  that causes xdvi to
              pause when the -pause option is active.  The  default  value  of
              special-string is xdvi:pause.

       -postscript flag
              (.postscript)  If flag = 0, rendering of PostScript<tm> specials
              is disabled; instead,  bounding  boxes  will  be  displayed  (if
              available).  A  value of 1 (the default) switches PostScript<tm>
              specials on. With a value of 2, the PostScript<tm> specials  are
              displayed  along  with  their bounding boxes; this allows you to
              visually check the correctness of the bounding boxes. The values
              can  also  be  toggled at runtime with the `v' keystroke and the
              corresponding numerical prefix arguments 0, 1 and 2.

       -ps2pdfpath path
              (.ps2pdfPath) Use path as a conversion program  from  PostScript
              to PDF. The program or script should accept two command-line ar-
              guments: The PostScript file as first argument, and the PDF out-
              put file as second argument.

       -rulecolor color
              (.ruleColor) Determines the color of the rules used for the mag-
              nifier (default: foreground color).

       -q     (.noInitFile) Ignore the $HOME/.xdvirc startup file (i.e.  don't
              read it at startup, and don't write it at exit). This forces the
              defaults defined in $HOME/.Xdefaults to be used. See  FILES  for
              more information on $HOME/.xdvirc.

       -rv    (.reverseVideo) Causes the page to be displayed with white char-
              acters on a black background, instead of vice versa.

       -S density
              (.densityPercent) Same as -density (which see).

       -s shrink
              (.shrinkFactor) Defines the initial shrink factor.  The  default
              value  is  8.   If shrink is given as 0, then the initial shrink
              factor is computed so that the page fits within the  window  (as
              if the `s' keystroke were given without a number).

       -safer (.safer) This option turns on all available security options; it
              is designed for use when xdvi is called by a  browser  that  ob-
              tains  a dvi or TeX file from another site.  This option selects
              +nogssafer and +allowshell.

       -sidemargin dimen
              (.sideMargin) Specifies the side margin (see -margins).

       -sourceposition line[:col][ ]filename
              This option makes xdvi search in the dvi file for the place cor-
              responding  to  the  indicated line (and, optionally, column) in
              the .tex source file, and highlight the place found by drawing a
              rectangle in the highlight color (see the -hl option) around the
              corresponding text.  In addition, when run  with  this  argument
              (and  the -nofork option is not given, which see), xdvi will al-
              ways return immediately:  if it finds another instance  of  xdvi
              already  showing  dvi_file,  then it will cause that instance to
              raise its window and move to the given place in  the  dvi  file;
              otherwise  it  will start up its own instance in the background.
              If several instances of xdvi are displaying the  respective  dvi
              file,  the instance which was last raised to the foreground will
              be used.

              The space before filename is only needed if the filename  starts
              with  a digit.  When the space is used, the argument needs to be
              enclosed in quotes to prevent the shell from misinterpreting the
              space as argument separator.

              This  option requires that dvi_file be prepared with source spe-
              cial information.  See the section on SOURCE  SPECIALS  for  de-
              tails on how to do this.

              Here  is  a more detailed description of how the filename in the
              -sourceposition argument is matched with  the  filename  in  the
              source specials:

              1. If  neither  of the filenames contains a path name component,
                 the filenames are compared ignoring the `.tex' extensions  in
                 both filenames.

              2. Otherwise, if one of the filenames does contain a path compo-
                 nent (e.g.: ./test.tex, ../test.tex, /my/homedir/tex/test.tex
                 or  any combination of these), both filenames are expanded to
                 a full path, with any occurrences of ../ and ./ expanded, and
                 multiple slashes removed.
                 The  pathname  in the -sourceposition is expanded relative to
                 the current working directory of the xdvi -sourceposition in-
                 vocation,  and  the  pathnames in the source specials are ex-
                 panded relative to the path of the  current  DVI  file  being
                 The  path  names are then compared ignoring the `.tex' exten-
                 sions in both path names.

              (.statusline) This option is obsolete; use -expertmode  flag in-
              stead (which see).

       -text-encoding encoding
              (.textEncoding)  Use encoding as the text encoding of the string
              in the "Find" window. Usually, this should not be  needed  since
              the encoding is determined from the locale settings.

              (.thorough)  Xdvi  will  usually  try  to ensure that overstrike
              characters (e.g. \notin) are printed correctly.   On  monochrome
              displays,  this  is  always possible with one logical operation,
              either and or or.  On color displays, however, this may take two
              operations,  one  to  set  the appropriate bits and one to clear
              other bits.  If this is the case, then by default xdvi will  in-
              stead use the copy operation, which does not handle overstriking
              correctly.  The -thorough option chooses  the  slower  but  more
              correct choice.  See also -copy.

       -topmargin dimen
              (.topMargin)  Specifies  the  top  and bottom margins (see -mar-

              (.unique) This option will make another instance of xdvi running
              on the same display act as a `server'.  For example, the invoca-

              xdvi -unique +5 file.dvi

              will cause this other instance to load file.dvi  on  page  5  in
              place  of  the file that it is currently displaying. If there is
              already another instance of xdvi  already  displaying  the  file
              file.dvi,  then  it  will just jump to page 5.  If the other in-
              stance of xdvi is displaying a  different  file,  it  will  load
              file.dvi  instead.  Otherwise,  if  no other instance of xdvi is
              currently running on the display, this option instead  starts  a
              new  instance  of xdvi in the background (unless the -nofork op-
              tion is specified, which see) displaying page 5 of file.dvi.
              The filename and the +n option for the page number are the  only
              options available for controlling a remote instance of xdvi like
              this; all other options are currently ignored.

              Use logical TeX pages (the values of the \count0  register)  in-
              stead of physical pages for the pagelist labels and when jumping
              to a page in a document with the `g'  keystroke  (or  the  goto-
              page()  action).   This  option  can be toggled via the `T' key-

              Print information on the version of xdvi.

              (.visitedLinkColor) Color used for visited hyperlinks (`Purple4'
              by  default).  Hyperlinks become visited once you click on them.
              As for linkColor, the value should be either  a  valid  X  color
              name or a hexadecimal color string.

              (.warnSpecials)  Causes  xdvi  to  print warnings about \special
              strings that it cannot process to  stderr.  These  warnings  are
              suppressed by default.

       -watchfile n
              (.watchFile) If this option is set to a value larger than 0, xd-
              vi will check the DVI file for changes every n seconds.  If  the
              DVI file has been completely written by TeX, it will be reloaded
              automatically.  Fractional values (e.g. `2.5') are possible. The
              default for this option is 0, i.e. no watching.
              Since  xdvi  cannot  handle  partial  DVI files, it tries not to
              reload the file while it is being rewritten.   However,  use  of
              the magnifier or switching of pages requires reading (a part of)
              the DVI file, and if the tempfile option is switched  off,  this
              will erase the current contents of the window until the DVI file
              can be read entirely.

       -wheelunit pixels
              (.wheelUnit) Sets the number of pixels that a motion of a  wheel
              mouse  will  move  the  image up, down, left, or right. (See the
              wheel and hwheel actions, below, for more information on  this.)
              If  set  to zero, the wheel mouse functionality is (essentially)
              disabled.  The default value is 80.

       -xoffset dimen
              (.xOffset) Specifies the size of the horizontal  offset  of  the
              output on the page.  See -offsets.

       -yoffset dimen
              (.yOffset) Specifies the size of the vertical offset of the out-
              put on the page.  See -offsets.


       Xdvi recognizes the following keystrokes  when  typed  in  its  window.
       Each  may  optionally be preceded by a (positive or negative) number, a
       `prefix argument', whose interpretation will depend on  the  particular
       keystroke.  This prefix argument can be discarded by pressing the ``Es-
       cape'' key.  If present, the ``Help'', ``Prior'' and ``Next'' keys  are
       synonyms for `?', `b', and `f' keys, respectively.

       The  key  bindings  listed here are those that xdvi assigns by default.
       The names appearing in brackets at the beginning  of  the  descriptions
       are  the  names  of  the actions associated with the keys; these can be
       used to customize the key bindings, as explained in more detail in  the
       section  CUSTOMIZATION  below.  If  only a lowercase binding is listed,
       both upper- and lowercase keys will work for that binding.

       ESC key
              [discard-number()] The escape key discards the numerical  prefix
              for all actions (useful when you mistyped a number).

       Return key
              [forward-page()] Moves to the next page (or to the nth next page
              if a number is given).  Synonyms are `n', `f' and Line Feed.

       Backspace key
              [back-page()] Moves to the previous  page  (or  back  n  pages).
              Synonyms are `p', `b' and Ctrl-h.

       Delete key
              [up-or-previous()]  Moves  up two-thirds of a window-full, or to
              the top of the previous page if already at the top of the  page.
              With  a float argument, moves up the corresponding fraction of a

       Space key
              [unpause-or-next()] Moves down two-thirds of a  window-full,  or
              to the next page if already at the bottom of the page.
              When the option -pause special-string is used and the display is
              currently paused, this key will instead display the next portion
              of the page until the next special-string or the end of the page
              is encountered.  See the description of the  -pause  option  for
              details.  The  action [down-or-next()] does a similar thing, but
              without pausing; it is not bound to a key by default.

       Ctrl-Home (Xaw), Ctrl-osfBeginLine (Motif)
              [goto-page(1)] Moves to the first page of the document.

       Ctrl-End (Xaw), Ctrl-osfEndLine (Motif)
              [goto-page()] Moves to the last page of the document.

       Home (Xaw), osfBeginLine (Motif)
              [home-or-top()] Move to the ``home'' position of the page, or to
              the  top  of the page if the keep flag is set (in this case, the
              page doesn't scroll horizontally).

       End (Xaw), osfEndLine (Motif)
              [end-or-bottom()] Move to the ``end'' position of the page  (the
              lower  right-hand  corner),  or to the bottom of the page if the
              keep flag is set (in this case, the page doesn't scroll horizon-

       Down arrow
              [down(0.015)] Scrolls page down.

       Up arrow
              [up(0.015)] Scrolls page up.

       Right arrow
              [right(0.015)] Scrolls page right.

       Left arrow
              [left(0.015)] Scrolls page left.

              [change-density(25)]  Increase  the darkness of the fonts in the
              DVI window by adding to the gamma value (see also the  `S'  key-

              [change-density(-25)]  Decrease the darkness of the fonts in the
              DVI window by subtracting from the gamma value (see also the `S'

       Ctrl-+ [set-shrink-factor(+)]  Increase the shrink factor (see also the
              `s' keystroke).

       Ctrl-- [set-shrink-factor(-)] Decrease the shrink factor (see also  the
              `s' keystroke).

       Ctr-[  [pagehistory-delete-backward()]  Delete  the current item in the
              page history and move to the history  item  before  the  deleted
              one.  With a prefix argument n, delete n previous history items.
              See PAGE HISTORY for details.

       [      [pagehistory-back()] Move back in the  page  history  (see  PAGE
              HISTORY for details). With a prefix argument n, move back n his-
              tory items.

       Ctr-]  [pagehistory-delete-forward()] Delete the current  item  in  the
              page history and move to the history item after the deleted one.
              With a prefix argument n, delete n next history items. See  PAGE
              HISTORY for details.

       ]      [pagehistory-forward()]  Move  forward  in the page history (see
              PAGE HISTORY for details). With a prefix argument n,  move  for-
              ward n history items.

       ^      [home()]  Move  to  the  ``home'' position of the page.  This is
              normally the upper left-hand corner of the  page,  depending  on
              the margins as described in the -margins option, above.

       ?      [help()] Same as the h key (which see).

       B      [htex-back()]  This key jumps back to the previous hyperlink an-
              chor. See the section HYPERLINKS for more information  on  navi-
              gating the links.

       b      [back-page()]  Moves  to  the  previous  page (or back n pages).
              Synonyms are `p', Ctrl-h and Backspace.

       C      [set-color()] This key toggles the use of color  specials.   The
              key  sequences  `0C'  and `1C' turn interpretation of color spe-
              cials off and on, respectively.  See also the -nocolor option.

       c      [center()] Moves the page so that the  point  currently  beneath
              the mouse cursor is moved to the middle of the window, and warps
              the mouse cursor to the same place.

       D      [toggle-grid-mode()] This key toggles the use of a grid  on  the
              displayed  page.   If  no  number  is  given,  the  grid mode is
              switched on or off.  By prepending a number from 1 to 3, 3  dif-
              ferent grid levels can be set.  The units of the grid are inches
              or centimeters, depending on whether the paper format is  letter
              (in) or a4 (cm).

       d      [down()]  Moves  page  down  two thirds of a window-full. With a
              float argument to ``down'', moves down the  corresponding  frac-
              tion of a window-full.

       Ctrl-f [find()] Pop up a window to search for a string in the DVI file.
              See the section STRING SEARCH, below, for more details.

       f      [forward-page()] Moves to the next page (or to the nth next page
              if a number is given).  Synonyms are `n', Return, and Line Feed.

       G      [set-greyscaling()] This key toggles the use of greyscale  anti-
              aliasing  for displaying shrunken bitmaps.  In addition, the key
              sequences `0G' and `1G' clear and set this  flag,  respectively.
              See also the -nogrey option.

              If  given a numeric argument that is not 0 or 1, greyscale anti-
              aliasing is turned on, and the gamma resource is set to the val-
              ue divided by 100. E.g. `150G' turns on greyscale and sets gamma
              to 1.5.

       Ctrl-g [find-next()] Find the next match string in the DVI  file;  this
              can  be used instead of pressing the `Find' button in the search

       g      [goto-page()] Moves to the page with the  given  number.  If  no
              page number is given, xdvi jumps to the last page.
              If the option/resource useTeXpages is active, the numbers corre-
              spond to the actual page numbers in the TeX file; otherwise, ab-
              solute  page  numbers  (starting from 1) are used. In the latter
              case, the page numbers can be changed with  the  `P'  keystroke,
              below.   Note  that  with  the useTeXpages option it is possible
              that the same page number occurs multiple times; in such a case,
              xdvi will use the first page number that matches.

       h      Pops  up  a help window with a short explanation of the most im-
              portant key bindings and concepts.

       k      [set-keep-flag()] Normally when xdvi switches pages, it moves to
              the  home  position as well.  The `k' keystroke toggles a `keep-
              position' flag which, when set, will keep the same position when
              moving  between  pages.   Also  `0k' and `1k' clear and set this
              flag, respectively.  See also the -keep option.

       Ctrl-l [fullscreen(toggle)] Toggles fullscreen mode (see  the  descrip-
              tion  of  the  -fullscreen option for more information on this).
              This is even more flaky  than  using  the  command-line  option:
              There is no universal standard how a window could change its own
              geometry or window decorations at run-time,  so  this  will  not
              work with most window managers or desktops. Generally, it's bet-
              ter to use the window manager controls to  change  the  size  or
              decorations of the xdvi window.

       l      [left()] Moves page left two thirds of a window-full.

       M      [set-margins()] Sets the margins so that the point currently un-
              der the mouse cursor defines the upper left-hand corner  of  the
              text  in  the page.  Note that the command does not move the im-
              age, but only determines the margins for the page switching com-
              mands. For details on how the margins are used, see the -margins

       m      [toggle-mark()] Toggles the mark for the  current  page  in  the
              page  list.  When a page is marked, it is displayed with a small
              star `*' next to the page number.  The marked pages can then  be
              printed or saved to a file.  A page or several pages can also be
              marked by clicking or dragging Mouse-2 in the page list.

       Ctrl-n [toggle-mark()forward-page()] Toggles the mark for  the  current
              page in the page list, and moves to the next page. This lets you
              quickly mark a series of subsequent pages.

       n      [forward-page()] Moves to the next page (or to the nth next page
              if a number is given).  Synonyms are `f', Return, and Line Feed.

       Ctrl-o [select-dvi-file()] Read a new dvi file. A file-selection widget
              is  popped  up  for you to choose the DVI file from. If a prefix
              argument n is given, the n th file  from  the  file  history  is
              opened instead.

       P      [declare-page-number()]  ``This is page number n.''  This can be
              used to make the `g' keystroke refer to a different page  number
              than  the  physical  page.  (If you want to use `logical' or TeX
              page numbers instead of physical pages, consider using  the  op-
              tion  -useTeXpages  instead.)  The argument n should be given as
              prefix to this key.

       Ctrl-p [print()] Opens a popup window for printing  the  DVI  file,  or
              parts of it.  See the section PRINT DIALOG for an explanation of
              the options available, and the resources to  customize  the  de-
              fault behaviour.

       p      [back-page()]  Moves  to  the  previous  page (or back n pages).
              Synonyms are `b', Ctrl-h and Backspace.

       q      [quit()] Quits the program.

       Ctrl-r [forward-page(0)] Redisplays the current page.

       R      [reread-dvi-file()] Forces the dvi file to be reread.  This  al-
              lows you to preview many versions of the same file while running
              xdvi only once.

       r      [right()] Moves page right two thirds of a window-full.

       Ctrl-s [save()] Opens a popup window for saving the DVI file, or  parts
              of it. See the section SAVE DIALOG below for more information on

       S      [set-density()] Sets the density factor to be used when  shrink-
              ing  bitmaps.  This should be a number between 0 and 100; higher
              numbers produce lighter characters.  If greyscaling mode  is  in
              effect,  this changes the value of gamma instead.  The new value
              of gamma is the given number divided by 100; negative values are

       s      [set-shrink-factor()]  Changes  the  shrink  factor to the given
              number.  If no number is given, the smallest factor  that  makes
              the  entire  page  fit in the window will be used.  (Margins are
              ignored in this computation.)

       T      [use-tex-pages()] Use logical  TeX  pages  (the  values  of  the
              \count0 register) instead of physical pages for the pagelist la-
              bels and when jumping to a page in a document  via  goto-page().
              See also the -useTeXpages option.

       t      [switch-magnifier-units()]  Switches the units used for the mag-
              nifier tick marks, and for reporting the  distance  between  the
              mouse  pointer  and the ruler centre in ruler mode (see the sec-
              tion MODES).  The default value is specified by the  X  resource
              tickUnits  (`mm'  by default). The units toggle through the fol-
              lowing values; except for `px', they  all  correspond  to  TeX's
              units: mm (millimeters) pt (TeX points), in (inches), sp (scaled
              points, the unit used internally  by  TeX)  bp  (big  points  or
              `PostScript  points'), cc (cicero points), dd (didot points), pc
              (pica), and px (screen pixels).

       Ctrl-u [back-page()toggle-mark()] Moves to the previous page, and  tog-
              gles  the mark for that page. This is the dual action to Ctrl-n.

       u      [up()] Moves page up two thirds of a window-full. With  a  float
              argument  to  ``up'',  moves  up the corresponding fraction of a

       Ctrl-v [show-source-specials()] Show bounding boxes  for  every  source
              special  on the current page, and print the strings contained in
              these specials to stderr. With prefix 1, show every bounding box
              on the page. This is for debugging purposes mainly.

       V      [set-gs-alpha()]  This  key  toggles  the anti-aliasing of Post-
              Script<tm> specials when Ghostscript is used  as  renderer.   In
              addition  the  key  sequences  `0V'  and `1V' clear and set this
              flag, respectively.  See also the -gsalpha option.

       v      [set-ps()] This key toggles the rendering of PostScript<tm> spe-
              cials between 3 states:

              - specials (like EPS graphics) are displayed;

              -  specials  are  displayed  along  with  their bounding box (if

              - only the bounding box is displayed.

              The states can also be selected directly by using `1v', `2v' and
              `0v' respectively.  See also the -postscript option.

       Ctrl-x [source-what-special()] Display  information  about  the  source
              special  next to the mouse cursor in the statusline. This is the
              same special that would be found by source-special(), but  with-
              out invoking the editor. For debugging purposes.

       x      [set-expert-mode()]  Toggles  expert  mode,  in  which  the sta-
              tusline, the scrollbars, the menu buttons,  the  toolbar  (Motif
              only)  and the page list are not shown.  Typing `1x' toggles the
              display of the statusline at the bottom of  the  window.  Typing
              `2x'  toggles  the scrollbars (if available). For Xaw, `x' tog-
              gles the menu buttons and the page list, for Motif,  it  toggles
              the page list. In Motif, the additional bindings `4x' toggle the
              toolbar, and `5x' the menu bar.
              Without a prefix argument, all of the mentioned GUI elements are
              either switched on (if they had been invisible before) or off.
              Toggling the scrollbars may behave erratically with the Xaw wid-
              gets; e.g. the scrollbars may reappear after resizing  the  win-
              dow,  and at certain window sizes one of the scrollbars may fail
              to disappear.
              See also the option -expertmode (the numbers above correspond to
              the bits in the argument to -expertmode).


       The  mouse  actions  can be customized by setting the X resource mouse-
       Translations.  Since there are three different  mouse  modes  (see  the
       section MODES below), there is a special action mouse-modes which lists
       the actions for each  of  the  three  modes:  mouse-modes("ACTIONS-FOR-
       MODE1",  "ACTIONS-FOR-MODE2",  "ACTIONS-FOR-MODE3").  If only one argu-
       ment is specified, this action is used  for  all  modes.   The  default
       bindings are as follows:

            xdvi.mouseTranslations: \
            <Btn1Down>: mouse-modes("do-href()magnifier(*2)", "text-selection()", "ruler()")\n\
            <Btn2Down>: mouse-modes("do-href-newwindow()magnifier(*2)", "text-selection()", "ruler()")\n\
            <Btn3Down>: mouse-modes("magnifier(*3)")\n\
            <Btn4Down>: mouse-modes("wheel(-0.2)")\n\
            <Btn5Down>: mouse-modes("wheel(0.2)")\n\
            <Btn6Down>: mouse-modes("hwheel(-0.2)")\n\
            <Btn7Down>: mouse-modes("hwheel(0.2)")\n\

       All  of these actions are described in more detail below.  Note the use
       of quote symbols around the action  strings,  which  are  necessary  to
       group  them  into  one argument.  Buttons 4, 5, 6, and 7 refer to wheel
       movements (wheel up/down/left/right) on wheel mice.  Not all mice  sup-
       port horizontal scrolling.

       The X Toolkit routines that implement translations do not support event
       types of Btn6Down or Btn7Down.  Because of this,  xdvi  implements  its
       own parser for translations given in mouseTranslations.  This parser is
       more limited than the parser built in to the  X  Toolkit.   The  string
       given  in mouseTranslations should not begin with ``#replace'', ``#aug-
       ment'', or ``#override''.  Modifiers of the form @keysym are  not  sup-
       ported,  and  the  event  type must be of the form BtnDown or BtnnDown,
       where n is a positive integer without leading zeroes.  Also, some limi-
       tations apply to the action field.


              Usually,  if  a  binding specifies more then one action, all ac-
              tions are executed in a sequence.  The  hyperlink  bindings  do-
              href() and do-href-newwindow() are special in that they are used
              as an alternative to other actions that might follow them if the
              mouse  is  currently located on a hyperlink.  In this case, none
              of the other actions will be executed; otherwise, only the other
              actions are executed.
              The action do-href() jumps to the link target in the current xd-
              vi window (eventually switching to another page),  and  do-href-
              newwindow()  opens  a  new instance of xdvi for the link target.
              In both cases, the location of the  target  is  indicated  by  a
              small  arrow  drawn  in  the same color as a visited link in the
              left corner of the window.

       magnifier(n x m)

              This action will pop up a ``magnifying glass'' which  shows  the
              unshrunk image of the region around the mouse pointer.  The mag-
              nifier disappears when the mouse button is released. Moving  the
              mouse  cursor while holding the button down will move the magni-
              Different mouse buttons produce different sized windows, as  in-
              dicated  by the argument of the magnifier() action. Its argument
              is either a string of the form widthxheight,  as  in  the  -mgsn
              command-line option, or one of the strings *1 through *5, refer-
              ring to the value specified by the corresponding -mgsn option.



              Drags the page with the mouse. This action should have  one  pa-
              rameter, the character ``|'', ``-'', or ``+'', indicating verti-
              cal dragging only, horizontal dragging only, or dragging in  all

              This  action  starts a ``reverse search'', opening the editor at
              the location in the TeX file corresponding to the pointer  loca-
              tion  in  the DVI file.  See the section on SOURCE SPECIALS, be-
              low, for more information on this.

              This action can be used to scroll the image with a wheel  mouse,
              where  it  is  usually  bound  to mouse button 4 (wheel up) or 5
              (wheel down).  The action takes one parameter, giving  the  dis-
              tance  to scroll the image.  If the parameter contains a decimal
              point, the distance is given in wheel units; otherwise,  pixels.
              A negative value scrolls up, a positive value scrolls down.

              This  action can be used to scroll the image horizontally with a
              wheel mouse, where it is usually bound to mouse button 6  (wheel
              left)  or 7 (wheel right).  The action takes one parameter, giv-
              ing the distance to scroll the image.  If the parameter contains
              a  decimal  point,  the distance is given in wheel units; other-
              wise, pixels.  A negative value scrolls left, a  positive  value
              scrolls  right.  Not all mice support horizontal scrolling; this
              is mostly for touchpads, trackpads, etc.

              This action allows you to mark a rectangular region of  text  in
              the  DVI  file.  The text is put into the X selection buffer and
              can be pasted into other applications (e.g. text editors).  This
              works  similar  to the Plain text option in the Save dialog; see
              the discussion there for more information on encoding issues.

              This action creates a cross-shaped ruler. Moving the  mouse  and
              holding  the  button  down  drags the ruler and lets you measure
              distances on the page.  See the section Ruler Mode for more  in-
              formation on this.


       The following actions are not bound to a key by default, but are avail-
       able for customization.

              Pops up a confirmation window to quit xdvi. To bind  it  to  the
              `q'  key instead of the default `quit()' action, put the follow-
              ing into your ~/.Xdefaults file:

              xdvi.mainTranslations: #override\
              <Key>q: quit-confirm()\n

              Similar to unpause-or-next(): Moves down two-thirds of a window-
              full,  or to the next page if already at the bottom of the page.

              This action takes one (required) argument.  It sets  the  shrink
              factor  to an integer so as to approximate the use of fonts with
              the corresponding number of dots per inch.   If  xdvi  is  using
              fonts scaled for p dots per inch, and the argument to shrink-to-
              dpi is n, then the corresponding shrink factor is the ratio p/n,
              rounded to the nearest integer.

              This action takes one (required) argument. Runs an external pro-
              gram specified by the argument, which  is  tokenized  on  white-
              space. The XDVI_FILE environment variable is set to the absolute
              pathname of the DVI file, so that the program can find the  DVI.
              As an example, to establish the key `m' as a keybinding that re-
              generates the DVI file with `make', put the following into  your
              ~/.Xdefaults file:

              xdvi.mainTranslations: #override\
              <Key>m: user-exec(xdvi-remake)\n

              where  `xdvi-remake'  names  a program in your PATH analogous to
              `cd $(dirname $XDVI_FILE) && make $(basename $XDVI_FILE)'.  (See
              also the section SIGNALS for a way to get xdvi to reload the DVI
              file once it has been regenerated.)


       Key and mouse button assignments can be changed by  setting  the  main-
       Translations  resource  to  a  string of translations as defined in the
       documentation for the X toolkit.  The actions should take the  form  of
       action names listed in the KEYSTROKES and MOUSE ACTIONS sections.

       An  exception  to this are the Motif keys osfPageUp (PgUp), osfPageDown
       (PgDown), osfBeginLine (Home) and osfEndLine (End) which are  currently
       not customizable in the Motif version.

       Key  actions  will  usually be without arguments; if they are passed an
       argument, it represents the optional number or `prefix argument'  typed
       prior to the action.

       Some  key  actions may take special arguments, as follows: The argument
       of goto-page may be the letter `e', indicating the action of  going  to
       the  end of the document.  The argument of set-shrink-factor may be the
       letter `a', indicating that the shrink factor  should  be  set  to  the
       smallest value such that the page will fit in the window, or one of the
       signs `+' or `-', indicating that the shrink factor should be increased
       or decreased, respectively.  Finally, actions that would perform a tog-
       gle, such as set-keep-flag, may receive  an  argument  `t',  indicating
       that  the  action  should toggle regardless of the current prefix argu-

       Mouse  actions  should  refer  only   to   ButtonPress   events   (e.g.
       <Btn1Down>:magnifier(*1)).  The corresponding motion and release events
       will be handled internally.  A key action  may  be  bound  to  a  mouse
       event, but not vice versa.

       Usually the string of translations should begin with ``#override'', in-
       dicating that the default key and mouse button assignments  should  not
       be discarded.

       When  keys or mouse buttons involving modifiers (such as Ctrl or Shift)
       are customized together with their non-modified equivalents, the  modi-
       fied keys should come first, for example:

            xdvi.mainTranslations: #override \
            Shift<Key>s: select-dvi-file()\n\
            Ctrl<Key>s: save()\n\
            <Key>s: find()\n

       Because  xdvi needs to capture pointer motion events, and because the X
       Toolkit translations mechanism cannot accommodate  both  motion  events
       and double-click events at the same time, it is not possible to specify
       double-click actions in xdvi customizations.  For information  on  this
       and  other  aspects of translations, see the X Toolkit Intrinsics docu-

       There is no command-line option to set the  mainTranslations  resource,
       since  changing  this resource on the command line would be cumbersome.
       To set the resource for testing purposes, use the -xrm command-line op-
       tion  provided  by  the  X toolkit.  For example, xdvi -xrm 'XDvi.main-
       Translations: #override "z":quit()' ...  or xdvi -xrm  'XDvi.mainTrans-
       lations:  #override  <Key>z:quit()' ...  will cause the key `z' to quit

       Some resources are provided to allow customization of the  geometry  of
       the  Xaw  command buttons.  Again, they are not changeable via command-
       line options, other than via the -xrm option.  All of  these  resources
       take integer values.

              The number of pixels to be placed on either side of the buttons.
              The default value is 6.

              The number of pixels between the top button and the top  of  the
              window.  The default value is 50.

              The  number of pixels between the buttons.  The default value is

              The number of pixels of additional space to be inserted  if  the
              buttonTranslations  resource  string  contains  an extra newline
              character.  The default value is 50.

              The border width of the button windows.  The default value is 1.


       The  scrollable page list on the right of the main window allows you to
       jump directly to a page in the DVI file.

              Jumps to the page the mouse is located on.

              [toggle-mark()] Toggle the mark of the current page.  The  marks
              are used by the `Print' and `Save to file' dialogs to select on-
              ly marked pages from the DVI file.

       When the mouse pointer is inside the page list, the mouse wheel switch-
       es to the next or previous page.


       The scrollbars (if present) behave in the standard way:  pushing Button
       2 in a scrollbar moves the top or left edge of the  scrollbar  to  that
       point  and  optionally drags it; pushing Button 1 moves the image up or
       right by an amount equal to the distance from the button press  to  the
       upper  left-hand corner of the window; pushing Button 3 moves the image
       down or left by the same amount.

       The scrollbars can be removed via the -expertmode flag/keystroke (which


       By default, the mouse buttons 1 to 5 will pop up a ``magnifying glass''
       that shows an unshrunken image of the page (i.e. an image at the  reso-
       lution determined by the option/X resource pixels or mfmode) at varying
       sizes. When the magnifier is moved, small  ruler-like  tick  marks  are
       displayed  at  the  edges  of  the magnifier (unless the X resource de-
       layRulers is set to false, in which case the tick marks will always  be
       displayed).   The  unit  of  the  marks is determined by the X resource
       tickUnits (mm by default). This unit can be changed at runtime via  the
       action  switch-magnifier-units(), by default bound to the keystroke `t'
       (see the description of that key, and of  switch-magnifier-units()  for
       more details on the units available).
       The  length  of  the tick marks can be changed via the X resource tick-
       Length (4 by default). A zero or negative  value  suppresses  the  tick


       Xdvi keeps a history of viewed pages, and you can move through the his-
       tory and delete items using the keys [ (pagehistory-back()),  ]  (page-
       history-forward()),  Ctr-[  (pagehistory-delete-backward())  and  Ctr-]

       When one of the history commands is used, the page history is displayed
       in  the  status line at the bottom of the window, with the current list
       item marked by square brackets `[', `]' and a left and right context of
       at most 10 items. File boundaries are marked by `#'.

       The  size of the history can be customized with the X resource pageHis-
       torySize (the default size is 1000 items). If the size is set to 0, the
       history commands are disabled.


       The  actions  do-href()  and  do-href-newwindow()  (by default bound to
       Mouse-1 and Mouse-2 if the pointer is currently located on a hyperlink)
       can  be  used to open the link target in the same window (do-href()) or
       in a new window (do-href-newwindow()).

       If the link target is not a file on  the  local  disk,  xdvi  tries  to
       launch a web browser (as specified by the -browser command line option,
       the BROWSER environment variable or the wwwBrowser X resource, in  this
       order) to retrieve the document. See the description of the BROWSER en-
       vironment variable, below, for an example setting.

       If the file is a local file, xdvi tries to determine if  it  is  a  DVI
       file.  If  it  is, xdvi will try to display the file; otherwise it will
       try to determine the MIME type of the file, and from that  an  applica-
       tion  suitable for opening the file.  This is done by parsing the files
       specified by the environment variable EXTENSIONMAPS for  a  mapping  of
       filename  extensions to MIME types, and the files determined by the en-
       vironment variable MAILCAPS for a mapping of MIME types to  application
       programs.  See the descriptions of these variables in the section ENVI-
       RONMENT, below, for a more detailed description and the default  values
       of  these  variables. If no suitable files are found, a set of built-in
       default MIME types and applications is used.

       Xdvi currently uses no heuristics apart from the filename suffix to de-
       termine the mime type of a file. If a filename has no suffix, the value
       of the resource noMimeSuffix  is  used  (by  default  application/x-un-
       known).  If the suffix doesn't match any of the suffixes in mime.types,
       the value of the resource unknownMimeSuffix is used (by default  appli-
       cation/x-unknown).   If  the mailcap entries do not list a viewer for a
       given mime type, xdvi will show a warning popup. If you want  to  avoid
       this  warning,  and for example want to always use the netscape browser
       for unknown MIME types, you  could  add  the  following  line  to  your
       ~/.mailcap file:

           application/xdvi-unknown; \
               netscape -raise -remote 'openURL(%s,new-window)'


       The keystroke Ctrl-f or the menu entry File > Find ...  (or the `Binoc-
       ulars' symbol in the toolbar, for  Motif)  opens  a  dialog  window  to
       search  for a text string or a regular expression in the DVI file.  The
       keystroke Ctrl-g jumps to the next match (like pressing the `Find' but-
       ton in the search window).

       By default, the matches are highlighted in inverted color.  If the dis-
       play isn't running in TrueColor, or if the X resource matchHighlightIn-
       verted  is  set to false or the command-line option -nomatchinverted is
       used, xdvi will instead draw a rectangle in highlight  color  (see  the
       -hl option) around the match.

       If  a match crosses a page boundary, only the part on the first page is
       highlighted.  Xdvi will scan up to 2 adjacent pages  to  match  strings
       crossing  page boundaries; but note that header or footer lines, or in-
       tervening float pages will be treated as parts  of  the  scanned  text.
       Such text will usually cause multi-page matching to fail.

       This  emphasizes the fact that searching in the formatted text (the DVI
       output) works differently from searching in the source text:  Searching
       in  the  DVI  file makes it easier to skip formatting instructions, and
       makes it possible to search for e.g. hyphenation and equation  numbers;
       but  sometimes  the formatting results can also get in the way, e.g. in
       the case of footnotes. In these cases it's better to search in the  TeX
       source  instead. The use of source specials will make switching between
       the xdvi display and the editor with the TeX  source  easier;  see  the
       section SOURCE SPECIALS below for more information on this.

       The  text  extracted  from the DVI file is in encoded in UTF-8 (you can
       view that text by saving the file in UTF-8 format via the File  >  Save
       as  ...  menu item).  If xdvi has been compiled with locale, nl_langin-
       fo() and iconv support, the search term is converted from the character
       set  specified by the current locale into UTF-8. (See the output of lo-
       cale -a for a list of locale settings available on  your  system).   If
       nl_langinfo() is not available, but iconv is, you can specify the input
       encoding for iconv via the X resource textEncoding (see the  output  of
       iconv -l for a list of valid encodings). If iconv support is not avail-
       able, only the encodings ISO-8859-1  and  UTF-8  are  supported  (these
       names are case-insensitive).

       Ideographic characters from CJKV fonts are treated specially: All white
       space (spaces and newlines) before and after such characters is ignored
       in the search string and in the DVI file.

       To match a newline character, use \n in the search string; to match the
       string \n, use \\n.

       If the checkbox Regular Expression is activated, the string is  treated
       as  a  regular  expression in extended POSIX syntax, with the following

         - a? matches a zero or one times.

         - a* matches a zero or more times.

         - a+ matches a one or more times.  Note that * and + are greedy, i.e.
           they match the longest possible substring.

         - The  pattern  .  matches  any character except for newline. To also
           match a newline, use `(.|\n)'.

         - a{n} matches a exactly n times.

         - a{n,m} matches a at least n and no more than m times.

         - a|b matches a or b.  Brackets  can  be  used  for  grouping,  e.g.:

         - The  string  matched by the nth group can be referenced by \n, e.g.
           \1 refers to the first match.

         - The characters ^ and $ match the beginning and the end of  a  line,

         - [abc]  matches  any  of  the letters a, b, c, and [a-z] matches all
           characters from a to z.

         - Each item in a regular expression can also be one of the  following
           POSIX character classes:
           [[:alnum:]] [[:alpha:]] [[:blank:]] [[:cntrl:]] [[:digit:]]
           [[:graph:]] [[:lower:]] [[:print:]] [[:space:]] [[:upper:]]

           These can be negated by inserting a ^ symbol after the first brack-
           et: [^[:alpha:]]

           For more details on POSIX regular expressions, see  e.g.  the  IEEE
           Std 1003.1 standard definition available online from:


         - As  a non-standard extension, the following Perl-like abbreviations
           can be used instead of the POSIX classes:

           Symbol   Meaning                       POSIX Class

               \w   an alphanumeric character     [[:alnum:]]
               \W   a non-alphanumeric character  [^[:alnum:]]
               \d   a digit character             [[:digit:]]
               \D   a non-digit character         [^[:digit:]]
               \s   a whitespace character        [[:space:]]
               \S   a non-whitespace character    [^[:space:]]

         - The following characters are special symbols; they need to  be  es-
           caped with \ in order to match them literally:  ( ) [ ] . * ? + ^ $

         - Matches of length zero are silently skipped.

       The dialog also provides checkboxes to:

         - search backwards;

         - match in a case-sensitive manner (the default is  to  ignore  case,
           i.e. a search string Test will match both the strings test and TEST
           in the DVI file);

         - ignore line breaks and hyphens: This removes  all  hyphens  at  the
           ends  of  lines  and the following newline characters, and replaces
           all remaining newline characters by  white  spaces.  So  hyphenated
           words  will  appear as one word to the search, and a search for two
           words with a space in between will also match the words if they are
           separated by a linebreak.
           Note  that  the  hyphen removal may cause unwanted side effects for
           compound words containing hyphens that are wrapped  after  the  hy-
           phen, and that replacing the newlines affects the interpretation of
           regular expressions as follows: The . pattern will also match  new-
           lines,  and  ^  and  $ won't match begin and end of lines any more.
           (Since currently there is no option for turning off the  greediness
           of  *  and +, turning on this option will usually result in matches
           that are longer than desired.)

       The current checkbox settings are saved in the ~/.xdvirc file.


       The print dialog window allows you to print  all  pages,  marked  pages
       (click  or  drag  Mouse-2 in the page list to mark them), or a range of
       pages. Note that the page numbers always refer to physical pages, so if
       you're  using the option `use TeX pages', you may want to disable it to
       make it easier to determine the correct page  numbers  (or  avoid  this
       problem altogether by marking the pages to be printed).

       The  value  of  the  Printer  text filed is passed to dvips via the -o!
       mechanism, as a single argument after the `!'. Any arguments listed  in
       the Dvips options field are segmented at whitespace and passed as sepa-
       rate arguments to dvips.  If you e.g. want to print the file 2-up,  you
       should enter the following string into the Printer field:

                psnup -2 -q | lpr -Plp

       There  are  several resources for customizing the behaviour and the de-
       fault entries of the print dialog:


              These can be used to provide default entries for the Printer and
              the Dvips options text fields, respectively. If no paper size is
              specified in the DVI file (via e.g. \usepackage[dvips]{geometry}
              -  this is the preferred method), the input field is initialized
              with the current value of the command line option/X resource pa-
              per.   E.g.  the  option -paper a4r is translated into the dvips
              options -t a4 -t landscape.  Note that  no  check  is  performed
              whether dvips actually understands these options (it will ignore
              them if it can't); currently not all options used  by  xdvi  are
              also covered by dvips.


              These  specify  the  time  (in  milliseconds)  that the printing
              progress window will stay open after the dvips process has  ter-
              minated.  The value of dvipsHangTime is used if the process ter-
              minates successfully; dvipsFailHangTime is used if it terminates
              with an error. The default values are 1.5 and 5 seconds, respec-
              tively.  If both values are negative, the window will stay  open
              until it is closed by the user.


       This dialog allows you to save all or selected/marked pages in the cur-
       rent DVI file. You can save in one of the following formats:

         - PostScript (uses dvips to convert the  DVI  file  to  a  PostScript
           file, just like when printing to a PostScript file).

         - PDF (first uses dvips to convert the DVI file to a PostScript file,
           then uses ps2pdf to convert the PostScript file to PDF).

         - Plain text in ISO-8859-1 or UTF-8 encoding. The  latter  will  pre-
           serve  more  of the special LaTeX characters e.g. from mathematical
           mode. Note however that e.g. only few of LaTeX's mathematical  sym-
           bols can be rendered correctly as text; so this functionality works
           best for plain text documents.  If a character cannot be  displayed
           in  the  selected  charset,  it  is replaced by `\' followed by the
           hexadecimal character code.  If a character is  not  recognized  at
           all, it is replaced by `?'.

       The  programs  for  PostScript and PDF conversion can be customized via
       the command line  options  or  X  resources  -dvipspath/.dvipsPath  and
       -ps2pdfpath/.ps2pdfPath, respectively; see the explanation of these op-
       tions above for more details.


       The keystroke Ctrl-m [switch-mode()] switches between  three  different
       mouse  bindings, which can also be activated via the Modes menu (in Mo-
       tif, this is a submenu of the Options menu called Mouse Mode).  The de-
       fault mode at startup can be customized via the X resource mouseMode or
       the command-line option -mousemode.  The default startup mode is Magni-
       fier Mode.

       Note:  The  modes  are  implemented by changing the magnifier() action.
       Switching the mode will not work if Mouse-1 has been customized  to  an
       action sequence that does not contain the magnifier() action.

       Magnifier Mode
              In  this  mode,  the  mouse buttons 1 to 5 pop up a ``magnifying
              glass'' that shows an unshrunken image of the page (i.e. an  im-
              age at the resolution determined by the option/X resource pixels
              or mfmode) at varying sizes. When the magnifier is moved,  small
              ruler-like tick marks are displayed at the edges of the magnifi-
              er (unless the X resource delayRulers is set to false, in  which
              case  the  tick  marks  are  always displayed).  The unit of the
              marks is determined by the X resource tickUnits (mm by default).
              This unit can be changed at runtime via the action switch-magni-
              fier-units(), by default bound to the keystroke `t' (see the de-
              scription  of that key, and of switch-magnifier-units() for more
              details on the units available).
              The length of the tick marks can be changed via the  X  resource
              tickLength  (4  by default). A zero or negative value suppresses
              the tick marks.

       Text Selection Mode
              This mode allows you to select a rectangular region of  text  in
              the  DVI  file by holding down Mouse-1 and moving the mouse. The
              text is put into the X primary selection so that it can be past-
              ed into other X applications with Mouse-2 as usual.
              If  xdvi  has been compiled with locale, nl_langinfo() and iconv
              support, the selected text is converted into the  character  set
              of the current locale (see the output of locale -a for a list of
              locale settings available on your system).  If nl_langinfo()  is
              not  available, but iconv is, you can specify the input encoding
              for iconv via the X resource textEncoding  (see  the  output  of
              iconv -l for a list of valid encodings). If iconv support is not
              available, only the encodings ISO-8859-1 and UTF-8 are supported
              (these names are case-insensitive).
              Note that UTF-8 is the only encoding that can render all charac-
              ters (e.g. mathematical symbols) of a DVI file. If ISO-8859-1 is
              active,  characters that cannot be displayed are replaced by `\'
              followed by the hexadecimal character code.   For  other  encod-
              ings,  such  characters  may trigger iconv error messages.  If a
              character is not recognized at all, it is replaced by `?'.
              To extract larger portions of text, you can  alternatively  save
              selected  pages or the entire file in text format via the File >
              Save as ...  menu.

       Ruler Mode
              This mode provides a simple way of measuring  distances  on  the
              When  this  mode  is  activated, the mouse cursor changes into a
              thin cross, and a larger, cross-shaped ruler  is  drawn  in  the
              highlight  color  at  the mouse location. The ruler doesn't have
              units attached to it; instead, the current distance between  the
              ruler  and  the mouse cursor is continuously printed to the sta-
              When activating Ruler Mode, the ruler is at  first  attached  to
              the  mouse and can be moved around. It can then be positioned at
              a fixed place by clicking Mouse-1.  After that, the mouse cursor
              can  be  moved to measure the horizontal (dx), vertical (dy) and
              direct (shortest) (dr) distance between the ruler  center  point
              and the mouse.
              Clicking  Mouse-1 again will move the ruler to the current mouse
              position, and holding down Mouse-1 will drag the ruler around.
              In Ruler Mode, the following special keybindings extend  or  re-
              place the default bindings:

              o      [ruler-snap-origin()]  Snap  the ruler back to the origin
                     coordinate (0,0).

              t      [overrides switch-magnifier-units()] Toggle between vari-
                     ous ruler units, which can be specified by the X resource
                     tickUnits (`mm' by default).

              P      [overrides  declare-page-number()]  Print  the  distances
                     shown in the statusline to standard output.

TOOLBAR (Motif only)

       The  Motif  toolbar  can  also be customized. The XPM file used for the
       toolbar icons can be  specified  via  the  resource  toolbarPixmapFile,
       which  should  contain  a  filename  that can be found in one of XFILE-
       SEARCHPATH or XDVIINPUTS (see the section FILE SEARCHING below for more
       information  on  these  variables).  Xdvi will try to split this pixmap
       horizontally into n pieces, where each piece is as wide as  the  pixmap
       is  high  and  is treated as an image for toolbar button n.  This means
       that each icon should be a square, and that the  entire  pixmap  should
       have width n x h if h is the height of the pixmap.

       The  resource  toolbarTranslations  can be used to map icons/buttons to
       specific actions.  The resource should contain a  string  separated  by
       newline characters, similar to the resources mainTranslations and menu-
       Translations.  Every line must contain either a spacer  definition,  or
       an icon definition:

       A  spacer  definition  is  a string SPACER(n), where n is the number of
       pixels inserted as separator to the following button.

       An icon definition is a colon-separated list containing  the  following

         - the index of an icon in the pixmap file (starting from zero);

         - a long tooltip string, displayed in the status area;

         - a short tooltip string, displayed as popup;

         -  a sequence of actions to be performed when the corresponding tool-
         bar button is pushed.

       To  illustrate  this, the default value of toolbarTranslations looks as

            xdvi.toolbarTranslations: \
               0:Open a new document   (Key\\: Ctrl-f):\
                    Open file:select-dvi-file()\n\
               1:Reread this document   (Key\\: R):\
                    Reread file:reread-dvi-file()\n\
               2:Go to the first page of this document   (Key\\: 1g):\
                    Go to first page:goto-page(1)\n\
               3:Go to the previous page of this document   (Key\\: p):\
                    Go to previous page:back-page(1)\n\
               4:Go to the next page of this document   (Key\\: n):\
                    Go to next page:forward-page(1)\n\
               5:Go to the last page of this document   (Key\\: g):\
                    Go to last page:goto-page()\n\
               6:Enlarge the display   (Key\\: Ctrl-+):Zoom in:\
               7:Shrink the display   (Key\\: Ctrl--):Zoom out:\
               8:Jump back to the previous hyperlink   (Key\\: B):\
                    Back hyperlink:htex-back()\n\
               10:Print this document:Print:print()\n\
               11:Toggle marks for odd pages   (Key\\: 1m):\
                    Toggle odd:toggle-mark(1)\n\
               12:Toggle marks for even pages   (Key\\: 2m):\
                    Toggle even:toggle-mark(2)\n\
               13:Toggle mark for current page   (Key\\: 2m):\
                    Toggle current:toggle-mark()\n\
               14:Unmark all pages   (Key\\: 0m):\
                    Unmark all:toggle-mark(0)\n\
               18:Display fonts darker   (Key\\: Alt-Ctrl-+):\
                    Fonts darker:change-density(5)\n\
               19:Display fonts lighter   (Key\\: Alt-Ctrl--):\
                    Fonts lighter:change-density(-5)\n

       When the mouse remains over a toolbar button for a  certain  period,  a
       `tooltip'  window  is  shown, describing what the button does using the
       short tooltip string from the above resource. At  the  same  time,  the
       long tooltip string is displayed in the statusline.  The appearance and
       behaviour of these tooltips can be customized  via  the  following  re-

              Background color of the tooltip window.

              Font used for the tooltip.

              The  time  (in  milliseconds) the mouse pointer needs to be over
              the button before the tooltip is shown. Set  it  to  a  negative
              value to suppress the tooltips altogether.


       The  greyscale  anti-aliasing feature in xdvi will not work at its best
       if the display does not have enough colors available.  This can  happen
       if  other applications are using most of the colormap (even if they are
       iconified).  If this occurs, then xdvi will print an error message  and
       turn  on  the  -copy option.  This will result in overstrike characters
       appearing wrong; it may also result in poor display quality if the num-
       ber of available colors is very small.

       Typically  this  problem occurs on displays that allocate eight bits of
       video memory per pixel.  To see how many bits per  pixel  your  display
       uses, type xwininfo in an xterm window, and then click the mouse on the
       root window when asked.  The ``Depth:'' entry will tell  you  how  many
       bits are allocated per pixel.

       Displays using at least 15 bits per pixel are typically TrueColor visu-
       als, which do not have this problem, since their colormap is permanent-
       ly  allocated  and available to all applications.  (The visual class is
       also displayed by xwininfo.)  For more information  on  visual  classes
       see the documentation for the X Window System.

       To  alleviate  this  problem, therefore, one may (a) run with more bits
       per pixel (this may require adding more video memory or  replacing  the
       video card), (b) shut down other applications that may be using much of
       the colormap and then restart xdvi, or (c) run xdvi with  the  -install

       One  application  which is often the cause of this problem is Netscape.
       In this case there are two more alternatives to  remedying  the  situa-
       tion.  One can run ``netscape -install'' to cause Netscape to install a
       private colormap.  This can cause colors to change in bizarre ways when
       the  mouse  is moved to a different window.  Or, one can run ``netscape
       -ncols 220'' to limit Netscape to a smaller number of colors.  A small-
       er  number  will ensure that other applications have more colors avail-
       able, but will degrade the color quality in the Netscape window.


       Xdvi can display Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) files  included  in  the
       dvi file.  Such files are first searched for in the directory where the
       dvi file is, and then using normal Kpathsea rules.  There is an  excep-
       tion  to  this,  however:  if the file name begins with a backtick (`),
       then the remaining characters in the file name  give  a  shell  command
       (often  zcat) which is executed; its standard output is then sent to be
       interpreted as PostScript.  Since the execution of arbitrary shell com-
       mands  with  the user's permissions is a huge security risk, evaluation
       of these backtick commands is disabled by default. It needs to be acti-
       vated  via the -allowshell command-line option.  NOTE: You should never
       use this option when viewing documents that you  didn't  compile  your-
       self.  The  backtick  specials are not needed for uncompressing gzipped
       PostScript files, since xdvi can do that on the  fly  if  the  filename
       ends  with  .eps.gz or .eps.Z (and if the first bytes of the file indi-
       cate that the file is indeed compressed).  This is both safer and  more
       flexible  than  the backtick approach, since the default file searching
       rules will apply to such filenames too.


       Using FreeType (version 2), xdvi can render PostScript<tm> Type 1 fonts
       directly,  without the route via TeX pixel (pk) fonts. The advantage of
       this is that only one size of each font needs to  be  stored  on  disk.
       Unless  the -notype1fonts option is used, xdvi will try to render every
       font using FreeType. Only as a fallback will it invoke an external pro-
       gram  (like  mktexpk,  which in turn may invoke utilities like ps2pk or
       gsftopk) to generate a pixel font from the Type 1  source.  The  direct
       rendering  of  the  Computer  Modern  fonts should work out-of-the box,
       whereas other Type 1 fonts such as  the  35  `standard'  PostScript<tm>
       fonts  resident in printers may need to be made accessible for use with
       xdvi, unless your system administrator or TeX distribution has  already
       done  so (which is the case e.g. for current TeX Live systems). For the
       35 PostScript<tm> resident fonts, xdvik will search using  the  Fontmap
       provided  with Ghostscript, if necessary.  Also, the xdvik distribution
       comes with a utility called t1mapper to make these fonts available  for
       xdvi; see the manual page for t1mapper(1) for usage details.  This pro-
       gram is likely to be dropped in the future, however, since it is proba-
       bly not needed anymore.


       Any  of  the  specials  used  by xdvi may be preceded by the characters
       ``xdvi:''.  Doing so does not change the behavior of the special  under
       xdvi, but it tells other dvi drivers (such as e.g. dvips) to ignore the


       Some TeX implementations or macro packages provide the facility to  au-
       tomatically include so-called `source specials' into a DVI file.  These
       contain the line number, eventually a column number, and  the  filename
       of  the .tex source. This makes it possible to jump from a .dvi file to
       the corresponding place in the .tex source and vice versa (also  called
       `inverse  search'  -  jumping from the DVI file to the TeX file is also
       known as `reverse search', and jumping from the TeX  file  to  the  DVI
       file as `forward search').

       To  be  usable with xdvi, source specials in the dvi file must have one
       of the following formats:

                src:line[ ]filename
                src:line:col[ ]filename

       If filename or line are omitted, the most recent values are used.   The
       first  source  special  on  each  page  must be in one of the first two
       forms, since defaults are not inherited across pages.

       You will need a TeX implementation that provides an appropriate  switch
       (e.g.  -src)  or  a  macro  package  (such as srcltx.sty or srctex.sty,
       available from CTAN:macros/latex/contrib/supported/srcltx/)  to  insert
       such source specials into the DVI file.

       For reverse search, the combination Ctrl-Mouse 1 will make xdvi open an
       editor (the value of the -editor command line option) with the file and
       the  line number of the .tex source. See the description of the -editor
       option for more information and example settings.

       For forward search, xdvi has a -sourceposition option that  makes  xdvi
       jump  to  the  page in the DVI file corresponding to the given line (or
       the closest line having a source special) of  the  specified  file  and
       highlight  the found region. See the description of the -sourceposition
       option for more details.

       More information on setting up various editors for use with source spe-
       cials can be found at:



       xdvi  accepts  specials  to set the paper size for the document.  These
       specials should be of the form


       where width and height give the width and height of the paper,  respec-
       tively.   Each  of  these should appear in the form of a decimal number
       followed by any of the two-letter abbreviations for units  accepted  by
       TeX  (pt,  pc,  in, bp, cm, mm, dd, cc, or sp).  If an asterisk (*) ap-
       pears just before the width, then the measurements refer to  the  docu-
       ment  dimensions  (e.g.  pt as opposed to truept).  This allows a macro
       package to vary the page size according to elements  of  the  document;

            \special{xdvi: papersize=*\number\wd\mybox sp,
                     \number\ht\mybox sp}

       Except for the asterisk, this format is compatible with dvips.

       The  last papersize special on a page determines the size of that page.
       If there is no such special on a given page, the most recent  papersize
       is  used, or, if there are no papersize specials on any preceding page,
       then the value of the paper resource (or -paper option on  the  command
       line) is used.  Thus the paper size may vary for different pages of the
       dvi file.

       If the paper resource (or -paper command-line  option)  begins  with  a
       plus  sign  (`+'),  then all papersize specials in the dvi file are ig-


       The color specials supported by xdvi are the same as those supported by
       dvips,  except  that  the literal PostScript color specification (as in
       the AggiePattern example in the dvips documentation) is not  supported.
       There  are  also some restrictions due to the way xdvi's  drawing  rou-
       tines are implemented; e.g. the \colorbox and \fcolorbox  macros  don't
       work with xdvi.  See the section LIMITATIONS below for more information
       on these restrictions.  Xdvi supports the same list of named colors  as
       dvips does, namely:

       Apricot,  Aquamarine,  Bittersweet, Black, Blue, BlueGreen, BlueViolet,
       BrickRed, Brown, BurntOrange, CadetBlue, CarnationPink, Cerulean, Corn-
       flowerBlue, Cyan, Dandelion, DarkOrchid, Emerald, ForestGreen, Fuchsia,
       Goldenrod, Gray, Green, GreenYellow, JungleGreen, Lavender,  LimeGreen,
       Magenta,  Mahogany,  Maroon,  Melon,  MidnightBlue, Mulberry, NavyBlue,
       OliveGreen, Orange, OrangeRed, Orchid,  Peach,  Periwinkle,  PineGreen,
       Plum,  ProcessBlue,  Purple, RawSienna, Red, RedOrange, RedViolet, Rho-
       damine, RoyalBlue, RoyalPurple,  RubineRed,  Salmon,  SeaGreen,  Sepia,
       SkyBlue, SpringGreen, Tan, TealBlue, Thistle, Turquoise, Violet, Viole-
       tRed, White, WildStrawberry, Yellow, YellowGreen, YellowOrange.

       Note that these names are case sensitive.

       The documentation of the LaTeX color package provides more  details  on
       how  to use such specials with LaTeX; see the dvips documentation for a
       detailed description of the syntax and semantics of the color specials.


       When xdvi receives a SIGUSR1 signal, it rereads the dvi file.


       Xdvik  uses the same environment variables and algorithms for searching
       for font files as TeX and  friends.   See  the  documentation  for  the
       Kpathsea library, kpathsea.dvi, for a detailed description of these.

       In addition, xdvik accepts the following variables:

              Specifies which graphics display terminal to use.

              Trace  Kpathsea  lookups;  set it to -1 (= all bits on) for com-
              plete tracing.

              A list of files to be searched for mime types  entries  (as  for
              Acrobat Reader).  Earlier entries in one of these files override
              later ones.  If this variable is not set, the following  default
              path is used:


              A  list  of files to be searched for mailcap entries, as defined
              by RFC 1343. See this RFC or the mailcap(4) manual  page  for  a
              detailed description of the mailcap file format.  Currently, on-
              ly the following mailcap features are supported:

                     The entry is only used if command can be executed via the
                     system() call and if the system() call returns with value
                     0 (success).  The command string may contain  the  format
                     string %s, which will be replaced by the file name.

                     If  this  flag is used, the command will be executed in a
                     new xterm window by prepending ``xterm -e '' to the  com-
                     mand string.

              All other fields in the mailcap entry are ignored by xdvi.  Ear-
              lier entries in one of these files override later ones.  If  the
              variable is not defined, the following default path is used:


              For  security  reasons, some special characters (i.e. ( ) ` \ ;)
              are escaped in the argument before passing it to system().

              Determines the web browser used to open external links (i.e. all
              URLs  that don't start with the `file:' scheme and are not rela-
              tive links in the local DVI file), and to open links  for  which
              no  viewer has been specified in the mailcap files. The value of
              this variable is a colon-separated list of commands.  Xdvi  will
              try  each  of  them in sequence until one succeeds (i.e. doesn't
              immediately return with status 0). This allows  you  to  specify
              your  favourite  browser at the beginning, and fallback browsers
              at the end. Every occurrence of %s in the string is replaced  by
              the  target  URL; every occurrence of %% is replaced by a single
              %.  If no %s is present, the URL string is added as an extra ar-
              An example setting is:

              netscape  -raise  -remote 'openURL(%s,new-window)':xterm -e lynx
              %s:xterm -e wget %s:lynx %s:wget %s



              for more details on the BROWSER environment variable.

       GS_LIB A  colon-separated  list  of  directories  to search for Fontmap
              files, etc., as used for Ghostscript.  It has the  same  meaning
              as  it does when running Ghostscript.  In xdvik, it is used when
              searching for font files when the map file does not give a  file
              name  for  the font (this should be quite rare).  The command gs
              -h will list the default value that Ghostscript uses.  See  also
              the XDVI_GS_LIB environment variable (below).

              This  has  the same effect as GS_LIB but affects only xdvi.  Use
              this when you want to use a different value for GS_LIB when run-
              ning  xdvi, but use either the compiled-in default value or some
              other value when running Ghostscript.  If both  GS_LIB  and  XD-
              VI_GS_LIB  are  set, then xdvi uses XDVI_GS_LIB.  To use the de-
              fault value compiled in to xdvi while still retaining the abili-
              ty  to  set  GS_LIB  for  use  with Ghostscript, you can set XD-
              VI_GS_LIB to the empty string.

       TMPDIR The directory to use for storing temporary  files  created  when
              uncompressing PostScript files.

              Determines  the  editor command used for source special `reverse
              search', if neither the -editor command-line option nor the .ed-
              itor resource are  specified.   See  the description of the -ed-
              itor command line option for details on the format.

       VISUAL Determines an editor to be opened in an xterm window if  neither
              of -editor, .editor, or XEDITOR is specified.

       EDITOR Determines  an editor to be opened in an xterm window if neither
              of -editor, .editor, XEDITOR or VISUAL is specified.

              Obsolete; use BROWSER instead.


       xdvi accepts many but not all types of PostScript specials accepted  by
       dvips.  For example, it accepts most specials generated by epsf and ps-
       fig.  It does not, however, support bop-hook or eop-hook, nor  does  it
       allow  PostScript  commands  to affect the rendering of things that are
       not PostScript (for example, the ``NEAT'' and rotated ``A'' examples in
       the  dvips  manual).  These restrictions are due to the design of xdvi;
       in all likelihood they will always remain.

       LaTeX2e rotation specials are currently not supported.

       MetaPost files containing included text are not supported.

       Xdvi's color handling doesn't  support  the  \colorbox  and  \fcolorbox
       macros;   this  is  not  likely to change in the near future. This also
       means that  e.g. colored tables (as created by  the  colortbl  package)
       may render incorrectly: Text in colors different from the default fore-
       ground color may not be displayed. When the page is redrawn (e.g. after
       using  the  magnifier),  the background color of the cells may overdraw
       the text.


              A file that holds all settings that the  user  changed  via  the
              keys, the `Options' and the Xaw `Modes' menu and the dialogs, as
              X  resources.  These  resources   override   the   settings   in
              $HOME/.Xdefaults.  This file is ignored if the -q option is used
              or the noInitFile X resource is set.

              An optional configuration file for the Type 1 font setup,  which
              specifies  dvips-style map files specific to xdvik.  If used, it
              should be present in the directory determined by  the  TEXCONFIG
              environment  variable.   Its  format is similar to configuration
              files for dvips, except that it is only scanned for the names of
              map files (p and p+ directives).


       X(1),  dvips(1),  mktexpk(1),  ps2pk(1), gsftopk(1), t1mapper(1), mail-
       cap(4), the Kpathsea documentation,, and the
       Xdvik home page at


       Eric  Cooper,  CMU, did a version for direct output to a QVSS. Modified
       for X by Bob Scheifler, MIT Laboratory for Computer  Science.  Modified
       for  X11 by Mark Eichin, MIT SIPB. Additional enhancements by many oth-

       The current maintainer of the original xdvi is Paul Vojta, U.C.  Berke-

       Code  for  the xdvik variant has been contributed by many people, whose
       names are scattered across the source files.

       For the most up-to-date information, please visit:

       Please report all bugs to the SourceForge bug tracker:

Xdvik 22.87.06                    2022-02-17                           xdvi(1)

texlive-bin 2022.62882 - Generated Mon Apr 18 07:43:00 CDT 2022
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