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```xcalc(1)                                                              xcalc(1)

```

## NAME

```       xcalc - scientific calculator for X

```

## SYNOPSIS

```       xcalc [-stipple] [-rpn] [-toolkitoption...]

```

## DESCRIPTION

```       xcalc  is  a scientific calculator desktop accessory that can emulate a
TI-30 or an HP-10C.

```

## OPTIONS

```       xcalc accepts all of the standard toolkit command  line  options  along

-stipple
This  option  indicates  that  the background of the calculator
should be drawn using a stipple of  the  foreground  and  back-
ground colors.  On monochrome displays improves the appearance.

-rpn    This option indicates that Reverse Polish  Notation  should  be
used.  In this mode the calculator will look and behave like an
HP-10C.  Without this flag, it will emulate a TI-30.

```

## OPERATION

```       Pointer Usage: Operations may be performed with pointer button 1, or in
some  cases, with the keyboard.  Many common calculator operations have
keyboard accelerators.  To quit, press pointer button 3 on the  AC  key
of the TI calculator, or the ON key of the HP calculator.

Calculator Key Usage (TI mode): The numbered keys, the +/- key, and the
+, -, *, /, and = keys all do exactly what you would  expect  them  to.
It should be noted that the operators obey the standard rules of prece-
dence.  Thus, entering "3+4*5=" results in "23", not "35".  The  paren-
theses  can  be used to override this.  For example, "(1+2+3)*(4+5+6)="
results in "6*15=90".

The entire number in the calculator display can be selected,  in  order
to paste the result of a calculation into text.

The  action  procedures  associated with each function are given below.
These are useful if you are interested in defining a custom calculator.
The  action  used for all digit keys is digit(n), where n is the corre-
sponding digit, 0..9.

1/x       Replaces the number in the display with its reciprocal.   The
corresponding action procedure is reciprocal().

x^2       Squares  the number in the display.  The corresponding action
procedure is square().

SQRT      Takes the square root of the number in the display.  The cor-
responding action procedure is squareRoot().

CE/C      When  pressed  once, clears the number in the display without
clearing the state of the machine.  Allows you to re-enter  a
number  if  you make a mistake.  Pressing it twice clears the
state, also.  The corresponding action procedure for TI  mode
is clear().

AC        Clears  the  display, the state, and the memory.  Pressing it
with the third pointer button turns off  the  calculator,  in
that it exits the program.  The action procedure to clear the
state is off(); to quit, quit().

INV       Invert  function.   See  the  individual  function  keys  for
details.  The corresponding action procedure is inverse().

sin       Computes  the  sine  of  the number in the display, as inter-
preted  by  the  current  DRG  mode  (see  DRG,  below).   If
inverted,  it computes the arcsine.  The corresponding action
procedure is sine().

cos       Computes the cosine, or arccosine when inverted.  The  corre-
sponding action procedure is cosine().

tan       Computes  the tangent, or arctangent when inverted.  The cor-
responding action procedure is tangent().

DRG       Changes the DRG mode, as indicated by 'DEG', 'RAD', or 'GRAD'
at  the  bottom of the calculator ``liquid crystal'' display.
When in 'DEG' mode, numbers in the display are taken as being
and vice-versa.  Example:   put  the  calculator  into  'DEG'
mode,  and  enter  "45 INV DRG".  The display should now show
something along the lines of ".785398", which is  45  degrees
converted  to radians.  The corresponding action procedure is
degree().

e         The constant 'e'.  (2.7182818...).  The corresponding  action
procedure is e().

EE        Used  for  entering exponential numbers.  For example, to get
"-2.3E-4" you'd enter "2 . 3 +/- EE 4 +/-".  The  correspond-
ing action procedure is scientific().

log       Calculates  the  log  (base 10) of the number in the display.
When inverted, it raises "10.0" to the number in the display.
For  example,  entering  "3 INV log" should result in "1000".
The corresponding action procedure is logarithm().

ln        Calculates the log (base e) of the  number  in  the  display.
When  inverted,  it  raises "e" to the number in the display.
For example, entering "e ln" should result in "1".  The  cor-
responding action procedure is naturalLog().

y^x       Raises  the  number on the left to the power of the number on
the right.  For example "2 y^x 3 =" results in "8", which  is
2^3.   For a further example, "(1+2+3) y^x (1+2) =" equals "6
y^x 3" which equals "216".  The corresponding  action  proce-
dure is power().

not       Performs  a  bitwise not.  The corresponding action procedure
is not().

and       Performs a bitwise and.  The corresponding  action  procedure
is and().

or        Performs a bitwise or.  The corresponding action procedure is
or().

xor       Performs a bitwise exclusive or.   The  corresponding  action
procedure is xor().

trunc     Truncates  the number in the display to an integer.  The cor-
responding action procedure is trunc().

PI        The constant 'pi'.  (3.1415927....)  The corresponding action
procedure is pi().

x!        Computes  the  factorial  of  the number in the display.  The
number in the display must be an integer in the range  0-500,
though,  depending  on  your  math library, it might overflow
long before that.  The corresponding action procedure is fac-
torial().

(         Left  parenthesis.  The corresponding action procedure for TI
calculators is leftParen().

)         Right parenthesis.  The corresponding action procedure for TI
calculators is rightParen().

base      Changes  the  number  base,  as  indicated by 'DEC', 'HEX, or
'OCT' at the bottom of the calculator display.  When in 'DEC'
mode, numbers in the display are taken as being decimal (base
10).  In 'HEX' mode, numbers are in  hexadecimal  (base  16),
and in 'OCT' mode, numbers are in octal (base 8).  The corre-
sponding action procedure is base().

shl       Performs an arithmetic  bitwise  shift  left,   For  example,
entering  "1  shl 2" should result in "4".  The corresponding
action procedure is shl().

shr       Performs an arithmetic bitwise  shift  right,   For  example,
entering  "8  shr 1" should result in "4".  The corresponding
action procedure is shr().

mod       Performs the modulo operation, which calculates the remainder
when  dividing  the first number by the second.  For example,
entering "14 mod 8" should result in "6".  The  corresponding
action procedure is mod().

/         Division.  The corresponding action procedure is divide().

*         Multiplication.  The corresponding action procedure is multi-
ply().

-         Subtraction.  The  corresponding  action  procedure  is  sub-
tract().

=         Perform  calculation.   The  TI-specific  action procedure is
equal().

STO       Copies the number in the display to the memory location.  The
corresponding action procedure is store().

RCL       Copies  the  number  from the memory location to the display.
The corresponding action procedure is recall().

SUM       Adds the number in the display to the number  in  the  memory
location.  The corresponding action procedure is sum().

EXC       Swaps the number in the display with the number in the memory
location.  The corresponding action procedure for the TI cal-
culator is exchange().

+/-       Negate;  change  sign.  The corresponding action procedure is
negate().

.         Decimal point.  The action procedure is decimal().

Calculator Key Usage (RPN mode): The number keys, CHS (change sign), +,
-, *, /, and ENTR keys all do exactly what you would expect them to do.
Many of the remaining keys are the same as in TI mode.  The differences
are  detailed below.  The action procedure for the ENTR key is enter().

<-        This is a backspace key that can be used if you make  a  mis-
take  while entering a number.  It will erase digits from the
display.  (See BUGS).  Inverse backspace  will  clear  the  X
register.  The corresponding action procedure is back().

ON        Clears  the  display, the state, and the memory.  Pressing it
with the third pointer button turns off  the  calculator,  in
that it exits the program.  To clear state, the action proce-
dure is off; to quit, quit().

INV       Inverts the meaning of the function keys.  This would be  the
f  key on an HP calculator, but xcalc does not display multi-
ple legends on each key.  See the  individual  function  keys
for details.

10^x      Raises  "10.0"  to  the number in the top of the stack.  When
inverted, it calculates the log (base 10) of  the  number  in
the  display.   The  corresponding  action  procedure is ten-
power().

e^x       Raises "e" to the number in  the  top  of  the  stack.   When
inverted, it calculates the log (base e) of the number in the
display.  The action procedure is epower().

STO       Copies the number in the top of the stack to a  memory  loca-
tion.   There are 10 memory locations.  The desired memory is
specified by following this key with a digit key.

RCL       Pushes the number from the specified memory location onto the
stack.

SUM       Adds  the  number  on  top  of the stack to the number in the
specified memory location.

x:y       Exchanges the numbers in the top two stack positions,  the  X
and  Y registers.  The corresponding action procedure is Xex-
changeY().

R v       Rolls the stack downward.  When inverted, it rolls the  stack
upward.  The corresponding action procedure is roll().

blank     These keys were used for programming functions on the HP-10C.
Their functionality has not been duplicated in xcalc.

Finally, there are two  additional  action  procedures:  bell(),  which
rings  the  bell;  and  selection(), which performs a cut on the entire
number in the calculator's ``liquid crystal'' display.

```

## ACCELERATORS

```       Accelerators are shortcuts for entering commands.  xcalc provides  some
sample  keyboard  accelerators;  also users can customize accelerators.
The numeric keypad accelerators provided by xcalc should be intuitively
correct.   The  accelerators  defined by xcalc on the main keyboard are
given below:

TI Key   HP Key   Keyboard Accelerator   TI Function    HP Function
---------------------------------------------------------------------
SQRT     SQRT     r                      squareRoot()   squareRoot()
AC       ON       space                  clear()        clear()

AC       <-       Delete                 clear()        back()
AC       <-       Backspace              clear()        back()
AC       <-       Control-H              clear()        back()
AC                Clear                  clear()
AC       ON       q                      quit()         quit()
AC       ON       Control-C              quit()         quit()

INV      i        i                      inverse()      inverse()
sin      s        s                      sine()         sine()
cos      c        c                      cosine()       cosine()
tan      t        t                      tangent()      tangent()
DRG      DRG      d                      degree()       degree()

e                 e                      e()
ln       ln       l                      naturalLog()   naturalLog()
y^x      y^x      ^                      power()        power()

PI       PI       p                      pi()           pi()
x!       x!       !                      factorial()    factorial()
(                 (                      leftParen()
)                 )                      rightParen()

/        /        /                      divide()       divide()
*        *        *                      multiply()     multiply()
-        -        -                      subtract()     subtract()
=                 =                      equal()

0..9     0..9     0..9                   digit()        digit()
+/-      CHS      n                      negate()       negate()

x:y      x                                     XexchangeY()
ENTR     Return                                enter()
ENTR     Linefeed                              enter()

```

## CUSTOMIZATION

```       The application class name is XCalc.

xcalc has an enormous application defaults  file  which  specifies  the
position,  label,  and function of each key on the calculator.  It also
gives translations to serve as keyboard  accelerators.   Because  these
resources  are  not specified in the source code, you can create a cus-
tomized calculator by writing  a  private  application  defaults  file,
using  the Athena Command and Form widget resources to specify the size
and position of buttons, the label for each button, and the function of
each button.

The  foreground  and  background  colors  of each calculator key can be
individually specified.  For  the  TI  calculator,  a  classical  color
resource specification might be:

XCalc.ti.Command.background:          gray50
XCalc.ti.Command.foreground:          white

For each of buttons 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40, specify:
XCalc.ti.button20.background:         black
XCalc.ti.button20.foreground:         white

For each of buttons 22, 23, 24, 27, 28, 29, 32, 33, 34, 37, 38, and 39:
XCalc.ti.button22.background:         white
XCalc.ti.button22.foreground:         black

```

## WIDGET HIERARCHY

```       In order to specify resources, it is useful to know  the  hierarchy  of
the  widgets  which  compose xcalc.  In the notation below, indentation
indicates hierarchical structure.   The  widget  class  name  is  given
first, followed by the widget instance name.
XCalc xcalc
Form  ti  or  hp    (the name depends on the mode)
Form  bevel
Form  screen
Label  M
Toggle  LCD
Label  INV
Label  DEG
Label  P
Command  button1
Command  button2
Command  button3
and so on, ...
Command  button38
Command  button39
Command  button40

```

## APPLICATION RESOURCES

```       rpn (Class Rpn)
Specifies  that the rpn mode should be used.  The default is TI
mode.

stipple (Class Stipple)
Indicates that the background should be stippled.  The  default
is  ``on''  for monochrome displays, and ``off'' for color dis-
plays.

cursor (Class Cursor)
The name of the symbol used  to  represent  the  pointer.   The
default is ``hand2''.

```

## COLORS

```       If  you would like xcalc to use its ti colors, include the following in
the #ifdef COLOR section of the file you read with xrdb:

*customization:                 -color

This will cause xcalc to pick up the colors in the  app-defaults  color
customization file: /opt/local/share/X11/app-defaults/XCalc-color.

```

```       X(7), xrdb(1), the Athena Widget Set

```

## BUGS

```       HP  mode  is  not completely debugged.  In particular, the stack is not
handled properly after errors.

```

```       Copyright 1994 X Consortium
See X(7) for a full statement of rights and permissions.

```

## AUTHORS

```       John Bradley, University of Pennsylvania
Mark Rosenstein, MIT Project Athena
Donna Converse, MIT X Consortium

X Version 11                      xcalc 1.1.0                         xcalc(1)
```

xcalc 1.1.0 - Generated Mon Aug 5 07:59:14 CDT 2019
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