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tail(1)                           User Commands                          tail(1)




NAME

       tail - output the last part of files


SYNOPSIS

       tail [OPTION]... [FILE]...


DESCRIPTION

       Print the last 10 lines of each FILE to standard output.  With more than
       one FILE, precede each with a header giving the file name.

       With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

       Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

       -c, --bytes=[+]NUM
              output the last NUM bytes; or use -c +NUM to output starting with
              byte NUM of each file

       -f, --follow[={name|descriptor}]
              output appended data as the file grows;

              an absent option argument means 'descriptor'

       -F     same as --follow=name --retry

       -n, --lines=[+]NUM
              output the last NUM lines, instead of the last 10; or use -n +NUM
              to output starting with line NUM

       --max-unchanged-stats=N
              with --follow=name, reopen a FILE which has not

              changed size after N (default 5) iterations to see if it has been
              unlinked or renamed (this is the usual case of rotated log files);
              with inotify, this option is rarely useful

       --pid=PID
              with -f, terminate after process ID, PID dies

       -q, --quiet, --silent
              never output headers giving file names

       --retry
              keep trying to open a file if it is inaccessible

       -s, --sleep-interval=N
              with -f, sleep for approximately N seconds (default 1.0) between
              iterations; with inotify and --pid=P, check process P at least
              once every N seconds

       -v, --verbose
              always output headers giving file names

       -z, --zero-terminated
              line delimiter is NUL, not newline

       --help display this help and exit

       --version
              output version information and exit

       NUM may have a multiplier suffix: b 512, kB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M
       1024*1024, GB 1000*1000*1000, G 1024*1024*1024, and so on for T, P, E, Z,
       Y.  Binary prefixes can be used, too: KiB=K, MiB=M, and so on.

       With --follow (-f), tail defaults to following the file descriptor, which
       means that even if a tail'ed file is renamed, tail will continue to track
       its end.  This default behavior is not desirable when you really want to
       track the actual name of the file, not the file descriptor (e.g., log
       rotation).  Use --follow=name in that case.  That causes tail to track
       the named file in a way that accommodates renaming, removal and creation.


AUTHOR

       Written by Paul Rubin, David MacKenzie, Ian Lance Taylor, and Jim
       Meyering.


REPORTING BUGS

       GNU coreutils online help: <https://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>
       Report any translation bugs to <https://translationproject.org/team/>


COPYRIGHT

       Copyright © 2022 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+: GNU GPL
       version 3 or later <https://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
       This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.  There
       is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.


SEE ALSO

       head(1)

       Full documentation <https://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/tail>
       or available locally via: info '(coreutils) tail invocation'



GNU coreutils 9.1                  April 2022                            tail(1)

coreutils 9.1 - Generated Fri Aug 12 07:50:58 CDT 2022
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