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shred(1)                         User Commands                        shred(1)


       shred - overwrite a file to hide its contents, and optionally delete it


       shred [OPTION]... FILE...


       Overwrite the specified FILE(s) repeatedly, in order to make it  harder
       for even very expensive hardware probing to recover the data.

       If FILE is -, shred standard output.

       Mandatory  arguments  to  long  options are mandatory for short options

       -f, --force
              change permissions to allow writing if necessary

       -n, --iterations=N
              overwrite N times instead of the default (3)

              get random bytes from FILE

       -s, --size=N
              shred this many bytes (suffixes like K, M, G accepted)

       -u     truncate and remove file after overwriting

              like -u but give control on HOW to delete;  See below

       -v, --verbose
              show progress

       -x, --exact
              do not round file sizes up to the next full block;

              this is the default for non-regular files

       -z, --zero
              add a final overwrite with zeros to hide shredding

       --help display this help and exit

              output version information and exit

       Delete FILE(s) if --remove (-u) is specified.  The default  is  not  to
       remove  the  files because it is common to operate on device files like
       /dev/hda, and those files usually should not be removed.  The  optional
       HOW  parameter  indicates  how to remove a directory entry: 'unlink' =>
       use a standard unlink call.  'wipe' => also first  obfuscate  bytes  in
       the  name.   'wipesync' => also sync each obfuscated byte to disk.  The
       default mode is 'wipesync', but note it can be expensive.

       CAUTION: Note that shred relies on a very  important  assumption:  that
       the  file system overwrites data in place.  This is the traditional way
       to do things, but many modern file system designs do not  satisfy  this
       assumption.   The following are examples of file systems on which shred
       is not effective, or is not guaranteed to be effective in all file sys-
       tem modes:

       * log-structured or journaled file systems, such as those supplied with
       AIX and Solaris (and JFS, ReiserFS, XFS, Ext3, etc.)

       * file systems that write redundant data and  carry  on  even  if  some
       writes fail, such as RAID-based file systems

       *  file  systems  that  make snapshots, such as Network Appliance's NFS

       * file systems that cache in temporary locations, such as NFS version 3

       * compressed file systems

       In  the  case  of  ext3 file systems, the above disclaimer applies (and
       shred is thus of limited  effectiveness)  only  in  data=journal  mode,
       which  journals  file  data  in addition to just metadata.  In both the
       data=ordered (default) and data=writeback modes, shred works as  usual.
       Ext3  journaling  modes  can  be  changed  by adding the data=something
       option to the mount  options  for  a  particular  file  system  in  the
       /etc/fstab file, as documented in the mount man page (man mount).

       In  addition, file system backups and remote mirrors may contain copies
       of the file that cannot be removed, and that will allow a shredded file
       to be recovered later.


       Written by Colin Plumb.


       GNU coreutils online help: <>
       Report shred translation bugs to <>


       Copyright  (C) 2016 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+: GNU
       GPL version 3 or later <>.
       This is free software: you are free  to  change  and  redistribute  it.
       There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.


       Full documentation at: <>
       or available locally via: info '(coreutils) shred invocation'

GNU coreutils 8.26               November 2016                        shred(1)

coreutils 8.26 - Generated Fri Jan 6 11:00:45 CST 2017
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