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rsync(1)                                                              rsync(1)




NAME

       rsync - faster, flexible replacement for rcp


SYNOPSIS

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... [USER@]HOST:DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... [USER@]HOST::DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC

       rsync [OPTION]... [USER@]HOST:SRC [DEST]

       rsync [OPTION]... [USER@]HOST::SRC [DEST]

       rsync [OPTION]... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC [DEST]



DESCRIPTION

       rsync is a program that behaves in much the same way that rcp does, but
       has many more options and uses  the  rsync  remote-update  protocol  to
       greatly  speed  up  file  transfers  when the destination file is being
       updated.

       The rsync remote-update protocol allows rsync to transfer just the dif-
       ferences between two sets of files across the network connection, using
       an efficient  checksum-search  algorithm  described  in  the  technical
       report that accompanies this package.

       Some of the additional features of rsync are:


       o      support  for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permis-
              sions

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files  that  CVS  would
              ignore

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support  for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for
              mirroring)




GENERAL

       Rsync copies files either to or from a remote host, or locally  on  the
       current  host  (it  does  not  support copying files between two remote
       hosts).

       There are two different ways for rsync  to  contact  a  remote  system:
       using  a  remote-shell program as the transport (such as ssh or rsh) or
       contacting an rsync daemon directly via TCP.  The  remote-shell  trans-
       port  is used whenever the source or destination path contains a single
       colon (:) separator after a host specification.   Contacting  an  rsync
       daemon  directly happens when the source or destination path contains a
       double colon (::) separator after a  host  specification,  OR  when  an
       rsync://  URL  is  specified (see also the "USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES
       VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for an exception to this  latter
       rule).

       As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a desti-
       nation, the files are listed in an output format similar to "ls -l".

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a remote
       host, the copy occurs locally (see also the --list-only option).



SETUP

       See the file README for installation instructions.

       Once  installed,  you  can use rsync to any machine that you can access
       via a remote shell (as well as some that you can access using the rsync
       daemon-mode  protocol).   For remote transfers, a modern rsync uses ssh
       for its communications, but it may have been configured to use  a  dif-
       ferent remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You  can also specify any remote shell you like, either by using the -e
       command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment  variable.

       Note  that  rsync  must be installed on both the source and destination
       machines.



USAGE

       You use rsync in the same way you use rcp. You must  specify  a  source
       and a destination, one of which may be remote.

       Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

              rsync -t *.c foo:src/


       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current
       directory to the directory src on the machine foo. If any of the  files
       already  exist on the remote system then the rsync remote-update proto-
       col is used to update the file by sending only the differences. See the
       tech report for details.

              rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp


       This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on
       the machine foo into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the local  machine.
       The  files  are  transferred in "archive" mode, which ensures that sym-
       bolic links, devices, attributes,  permissions,  ownerships,  etc.  are
       preserved  in  the transfer.  Additionally, compression will be used to
       reduce the size of data portions of the transfer.

              rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp


       A trailing slash on the source changes this behavior to avoid  creating
       an  additional  directory level at the destination.  You can think of a
       trailing / on a source as meaning "copy the contents of this directory"
       as  opposed  to  "copy  the  directory  by name", but in both cases the
       attributes of the containing directory are transferred to the  contain-
       ing  directory on the destination.  In other words, each of the follow-
       ing commands copies the files in the same way, including their  setting
       of the attributes of /dest/foo:

              rsync -av /src/foo /dest
              rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo


       Note  also  that  host  and  module references don't require a trailing
       slash to copy the contents of the default directory.  For example, both
       of these copy the remote directory's contents into "/dest":

              rsync -av host: /dest
              rsync -av host::module /dest


       You  can  also  use rsync in local-only mode, where both the source and
       destination don't have a ':' in the name. In this case it behaves  like
       an improved copy command.

       Finally,  you can list all the (listable) modules available from a par-
       ticular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:

              rsync somehost.mydomain.com::


       See the following section for more details.



ADVANCED USAGE

       The syntax for requesting multiple files from a  remote  host  involves
       using quoted spaces in the SRC.  Some examples:

              rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest


       This  would copy file1 and file2 into /dest from an rsync daemon.  Each
       additional arg must include the same "modname/"  prefix  as  the  first
       one,  and  must  be  preceded  by a single space.  All other spaces are
       assumed to be a part of the filenames.

              rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest


       This would copy file1 and file2 into /dest using a remote shell.   This
       word-splitting  is  done  by the remote shell, so if it doesn't work it
       means that the remote shell isn't configured to split its args based on
       whitespace  (a  very  rare  setting,  but not unknown).  If you need to
       transfer a filename that contains whitespace,  you'll  need  to  either
       escape  the  whitespace in a way that the remote shell will understand,
       or use wildcards in place of the spaces.  Two examples of this are:

              rsync -av host:'file\ name\ with\ spaces' /dest
              rsync -av host:file?name?with?spaces /dest


       This latter example assumes that your shell  passes  through  unmatched
       wildcards.  If it complains about "no match", put the name in quotes.



CONNECTING TO AN RSYNC DAEMON

       It  is  also possible to use rsync without a remote shell as the trans-
       port.  In this case you will directly connect to a remote rsync daemon,
       typically  using  TCP port 873.  (This obviously requires the daemon to
       be running on the remote system, so refer to the STARTING AN RSYNC DAE-
       MON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)

       Using  rsync  in  this  way is the same as using it with a remote shell
       except that:


       o      you either use a double colon :: instead of a  single  colon  to
              separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

       o      the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.

       o      the remote daemon may print a message of the day when  you  con-
              nect.

       o      if  you  specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list
              of accessible paths on the daemon will be shown.

       o      if you specify no local destination then a listing of the speci-
              fied files on the remote daemon is provided.

       o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option.


       An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":

           rsync -av host::src /dest


       Some  modules  on  the remote daemon may require authentication. If so,
       you will receive a password prompt when you connect. You can avoid  the
       password  prompt  by setting the environment variable RSYNC_PASSWORD to
       the password you want to use or using the --password-file option.  This
       may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING:  On  some  systems  environment  variables  are visible to all
       users. On those systems using --password-file is recommended.

       You may establish the connection via a web proxy by setting  the  envi-
       ronment  variable  RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to your
       web proxy.  Note that your web proxy's configuration must support proxy
       connections to port 873.



USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION

       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such
       as named modules) without actually allowing any new socket  connections
       into  a  system  (other  than what is already required to allow remote-
       shell access).  Rsync supports connecting to  a  host  using  a  remote
       shell  and  then  spawning a single-use "daemon" server that expects to
       read its config file in the home dir of the remote user.  This  can  be
       useful if you want to encrypt a daemon-style transfer's data, but since
       the daemon is started up fresh by the remote user, you may not be  able
       to  use  features  such as chroot or change the uid used by the daemon.
       (For another way to encrypt a daemon transfer, consider  using  ssh  to
       tunnel  a  local  port to a remote machine and configure a normal rsync
       daemon on that remote host to only allow connections from "localhost".)

       From  the user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell con-
       nection uses nearly the same command-line syntax as a normal rsync-dae-
       mon  transfer,  with  the only exception being that you must explicitly
       set the remote shell program on the command-line with the --rsh=COMMAND
       option.   (Setting  the  RSYNC_RSH  in the environment will not turn on
       this functionality.)  For example:

           rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest


       If you need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that
       the  user@  prefix  in  front  of the host is specifying the rsync-user
       value (for a module that  requires  user-based  authentication).   This
       means  that  you  must give the '-l user' option to ssh when specifying
       the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short version of the
       --rsh option:

           rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest


       The  "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will be
       used to log-in to the "module".



STARTING AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS

       In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have
       a daemon already running (or it needs to have configured something like
       inetd to spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular
       port).   For  full  information on how to start a daemon that will han-
       dling incoming socket connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5) man  page  --
       that  is  the  config  file  for  the  daemon, and it contains the full
       details for how to run the daemon (including stand-alone and inetd con-
       figurations).

       If  you're  using  one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer,
       there is no need to manually start an rsync daemon.



EXAMPLES

       Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

       To backup my wife's home directory, which consists  of  large  MS  Word
       files and mail folders, I use a cron job that runs

              rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup


       each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my machine
       "arvidsjaur".

       To synchronize my samba source trees I use the following Makefile  tar-
       gets:

           get:
                   rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
           put:
                   rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
           sync: get put


       this  allows  me  to  sync with a CVS directory at the other end of the
       connection. I then do CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves
       a lot of time as the remote CVS protocol isn't very efficient.

       I mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the com-
       mand:

       rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

       This is launched from cron every few hours.



OPTIONS SUMMARY

       Here is a short summary of the options available in rsync. Please refer
       to the detailed description below for a complete description.

        -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
        -q, --quiet                 suppress non-error messages
            --no-motd               suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
        -c, --checksum              skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
        -a, --archive               archive mode; same as -rlptgoD (no -H)
            --no-OPTION             turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
        -r, --recursive             recurse into directories
        -R, --relative              use relative path names
            --no-implied-dirs       don't send implied dirs with --relative
        -b, --backup                make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
            --backup-dir=DIR        make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
            --suffix=SUFFIX         backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
        -u, --update                skip files that are newer on the receiver
            --inplace               update destination files in-place
            --append                append data onto shorter files
        -d, --dirs                  transfer directories without recursing
        -l, --links                 copy symlinks as symlinks
        -L, --copy-links            transform symlink into referent file/dir
            --copy-unsafe-links     only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
            --safe-links            ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
        -k, --copy-dirlinks         transform symlink to dir into referent dir
        -K, --keep-dirlinks         treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir
        -H, --hard-links            preserve hard links
        -p, --perms                 preserve permissions
            --executability         preserve executability
            --chmod=CHMOD           affect file and/or directory permissions
        -o, --owner                 preserve owner (super-user only)
        -g, --group                 preserve group
            --devices               preserve device files (super-user only)
            --specials              preserve special files
        -D                          same as --devices --specials
        -t, --times                 preserve times
        -O, --omit-dir-times        omit directories when preserving times
            --super                 receiver attempts super-user activities
        -S, --sparse                handle sparse files efficiently
        -n, --dry-run               show what would have been transferred
        -W, --whole-file            copy files whole (without rsync algorithm)
        -x, --one-file-system       don't cross filesystem boundaries
        -B, --block-size=SIZE       force a fixed checksum block-size
        -e, --rsh=COMMAND           specify the remote shell to use
            --rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the rsync to run on remote machine
            --existing              skip creating new files on receiver
            --ignore-existing       skip updating files that exist on receiver
            --remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
            --del                   an alias for --delete-during
            --delete                delete extraneous files from dest dirs
            --delete-before         receiver deletes before transfer (default)
            --delete-during         receiver deletes during xfer, not before
            --delete-after          receiver deletes after transfer, not before
            --delete-excluded       also delete excluded files from dest dirs
            --ignore-errors         delete even if there are I/O errors
            --force                 force deletion of dirs even if not empty
            --max-delete=NUM        don't delete more than NUM files
            --max-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
            --min-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
            --partial               keep partially transferred files
            --partial-dir=DIR       put a partially transferred file into DIR
            --delay-updates         put all updated files into place at end
        -m, --prune-empty-dirs      prune empty directory chains from file-list
            --numeric-ids           don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
            --timeout=TIME          set I/O timeout in seconds
        -I, --ignore-times          don't skip files that match size and time
            --size-only             skip files that match in size
            --modify-window=NUM     compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
        -T, --temp-dir=DIR          create temporary files in directory DIR
        -y, --fuzzy                 find similar file for basis if no dest file
            --compare-dest=DIR      also compare received files relative to DIR
            --copy-dest=DIR         ... and include copies of unchanged files
            --link-dest=DIR         hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
        -z, --compress              compress file data during the transfer
            --compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
        -C, --cvs-exclude           auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
        -f, --filter=RULE           add a file-filtering RULE
        -F                          same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
                                    repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
            --exclude=PATTERN       exclude files matching PATTERN
            --exclude-from=FILE     read exclude patterns from FILE
            --include=PATTERN       don't exclude files matching PATTERN
            --include-from=FILE     read include patterns from FILE
            --files-from=FILE       read list of source-file names from FILE
        -0, --from0                 all *from/filter files are delimited by 0s
            --address=ADDRESS       bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
            --port=PORT             specify double-colon alternate port number
            --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
            --blocking-io           use blocking I/O for the remote shell
            --stats                 give some file-transfer stats
        -8, --8-bit-output          leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
        -h, --human-readable        output numbers in a human-readable format
            --progress              show progress during transfer
        -P                          same as --partial --progress
        -i, --itemize-changes       output a change-summary for all updates
            --out-format=FORMAT     output updates using the specified FORMAT
            --log-file=FILE         log what we're doing to the specified FILE
            --log-file-format=FMT   log updates using the specified FMT
            --password-file=FILE    read password from FILE
            --list-only             list the files instead of copying them
            --bwlimit=KBPS          limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes per second
            --write-batch=FILE      write a batched update to FILE
            --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
            --read-batch=FILE       read a batched update from FILE
            --protocol=NUM          force an older protocol version to be used
            --checksum-seed=NUM     set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
        -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
        -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
        -E, --extended-attributes   copy extended attributes, resource forks
            --cache                 disable fcntl(F_NOCACHE)
            --version               print version number
       (-h) --help                  show this help (see below for -h comment)


       Rsync  can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following options
       are accepted:

            --daemon                run as an rsync daemon
            --address=ADDRESS       bind to the specified address
            --bwlimit=KBPS          limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes per second
            --config=FILE           specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
            --no-detach             do not detach from the parent
            --port=PORT             listen on alternate port number
            --log-file=FILE         override the "log file" setting
            --log-file-format=FMT   override the "log format" setting
            --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
        -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
        -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
        -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
        -h, --help                  show this help (if used after --daemon)




OPTIONS

       rsync uses the GNU long options  package.  Many  of  the  command  line
       options  have  two  variants,  one short and one long.  These are shown
       below, separated by commas. Some options only have a long variant.  The
       '='  for  options  that take a parameter is optional; whitespace can be
       used instead.


       --help Print a short help page  describing  the  options  available  in
              rsync  and exit.  For backward-compatibility with older versions
              of rsync, the help will also be output if you use the -h  option
              without any other args.


       --version
              print the rsync version number and exit.


       -v, --verbose
              This  option  increases  the amount of information you are given
              during the transfer.  By default, rsync works silently. A single
              -v  will  give you information about what files are being trans-
              ferred and a brief summary at the end. Two -v  flags  will  give
              you  information  on  what  files are being skipped and slightly
              more information at the end. More than two -v flags should  only
              be used if you are debugging rsync.

              Note that the names of the transferred files that are output are
              done using a default --out-format of  "%n%L",  which  tells  you
              just  the  name of the file and, if the item is a link, where it
              points.  At the single -v level of verbosity, this does not men-
              tion when a file gets its attributes changed.  If you ask for an
              itemized list of changed attributes (either --itemize-changes or
              adding  "%i"  to  the  --out-format setting), the output (on the
              client) increases to mention all items that are changed  in  any
              way.  See the --out-format option for more details.


       -q, --quiet
              This  option  decreases  the amount of information you are given
              during the transfer, notably  suppressing  information  messages
              from  the remote server. This flag is useful when invoking rsync
              from cron.


       --no-motd
              This option affects the information that is output by the client
              at the start of a daemon transfer.  This suppresses the message-
              of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also affects the list of  modules
              that  the daemon sends in response to the "rsync host::" request
              (due to a limitation in the rsync protocol), so omit this option
              if you want to request the list of modules from the deamon.


       -I, --ignore-times
              Normally  rsync  will  skip  any files that are already the same
              size and have the same  modification  time-stamp.   This  option
              turns  off  this "quick check" behavior, causing all files to be
              updated.


       --size-only
              Normally rsync will not transfer any files that are already  the
              same  size  and  have the same modification time-stamp. With the
              --size-only option, files will not be transferred if  they  have
              the  same  size,  regardless  of  timestamp. This is useful when
              starting to use rsync after using another mirroring system which
              may not preserve timestamps exactly.


       --modify-window
              When  comparing  two  timestamps, rsync treats the timestamps as
              being equal if they differ by no  more  than  the  modify-window
              value.   This  is  normally  0 (for an exact match), but you may
              find it useful to set this to a larger value in some situations.
              In  particular,  when  transferring to or from an MS Windows FAT
              filesystem (which represents times with a 2-second  resolution),
              --modify-window=1 is useful (allowing times to differ by up to 1
              second).


       -c, --checksum
              This forces the sender to checksum every regular  file  using  a
              128-bit MD4 checksum.  It does this during the initial file-sys-
              tem scan as it builds the  list  of  all  available  files.  The
              receiver  then  checksums its version of each file (if it exists
              and it has the same size  as  its  sender-side  counterpart)  in
              order  to  decide  which  files  need  to be updated: files with
              either a changed size or a changed  checksum  are  selected  for
              transfer.   Since  this  whole-file checksumming of all files on
              both sides of the connection occurs in addition to the automatic
              checksum verifications that occur during a file's transfer, this
              option can be quite slow.

              Note that rsync always verifies that each transferred  file  was
              correctly  reconstructed  on  the receiving side by checking its
              whole-file checksum, but that automatic after-the-transfer veri-
              fication  has nothing to do with this option's before-the-trans-
              fer "Does this file need to be updated?" check.


       -a, --archive
              This is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of saying  you
              want  recursion  and want to preserve almost everything (with -H
              being a notable omission).  The  only  exception  to  the  above
              equivalence  is when --files-from is specified, in which case -r
              is not implied.

              Note that -a does not preserve hardlinks, because finding multi-
              ply-linked  files is expensive.  You must separately specify -H.


       --no-OPTION
              You may turn off one or more implied options  by  prefixing  the
              option  name with "no-".  Not all options may be prefixed with a
              "no-": only options that are  implied  by  other  options  (e.g.
              --no-D,  --no-perms)  or have different defaults in various cir-
              cumstances (e.g. --no-whole-file, --no-blocking-io,  --no-dirs).
              You  may  specify either the short or the long option name after
              the "no-" prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same as --no-relative).

              For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don't want -o
              (--owner),  instead  of  converting  -a  into -rlptgD, you could
              specify -a --no-o (or -a --no-owner).

              The order of the options is important:  if  you  specify  --no-r
              -a,  the -r option would end up being turned on, the opposite of
              -a --no-r.  Note also that the side-effects of the  --files-from
              option  are  NOT  positional, as it affects the default state of
              several options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see  the
              --files-from option for more details).


       -r, --recursive
              This  tells  rsync  to  copy  directories recursively.  See also
              --dirs (-d).


       -R, --relative
              Use relative paths. This means that the full path  names  speci-
              fied on the command line are sent to the server rather than just
              the last parts of the filenames.  This  is  particularly  useful
              when  you want to send several different directories at the same
              time. For example, if you used this command:

                 rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/


              ... this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the  remote
              machine. If instead you used

                 rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/


              then  a  file  named  /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be created on the
              remote machine -- the full path name is preserved.  To limit the
              amount  of  path  information  that  is  sent, you have a couple
              options:  (1) With a modern rsync on the sending side (beginning
              with  2.6.7),  you  can insert a dot and a slash into the source
              path, like this:

                 rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/


              That would create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote  machine.   (Note
              that  the dot must be followed by a slash, so "/foo/." would not
              be abbreviated.)  (2) For older rsync versions, you  would  need
              to  use  a  chdir  to  limit the source path.  For example, when
              pushing files:

                 (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)


              (Note that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell,  so
              that  the  "cd" command doesn't remain in effect for future com-
              mands.)  If you're pulling files, use this idiom (which  doesn't
              work with an rsync daemon):

                 rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
                     remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/



       --no-implied-dirs
              This  option  affects  the  default  behavior  of the --relative
              option.  When it is specified, the  attributes  of  the  implied
              directories from the source names are not included in the trans-
              fer.  This means that the corresponding  path  elements  on  the
              destination  system  are  left  unchanged if they exist, and any
              missing implied directories are created with default attributes.
              This even allows these implied path elements to have big differ-
              ences, such as being a symlink to a directory on one side of the
              transfer, and a real directory on the other side.

              For  instance,  if a command-line arg or a files-from entry told
              rsync to transfer  the  file  "path/foo/file",  the  directories
              "path"  and  "path/foo" are implied when --relative is used.  If
              "path/foo" is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system,  the
              receiving  rsync would ordinarily delete "path/foo", recreate it
              as a directory, and receive the file  into  the  new  directory.
              With    --no-implied-dirs,    the    receiving   rsync   updates
              "path/foo/file" using the existing path  elements,  which  means
              that  the file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another way
              to  accomplish  this   link   preservation   is   to   use   the
              --keep-dirlinks  option  (which  will  also  affect  symlinks to
              directories in the rest of the transfer).

              In  a  similar  but  opposite  scenario,  if  the  transfer   of
              "path/foo/file"  is requested and "path/foo" is a symlink on the
              sending side,  running  without  --no-implied-dirs  would  cause
              rsync  to  transform  "path/foo"  on  the receiving side into an
              identical symlink, and then attempt to transfer "path/foo/file",
              which  might  fail  if the duplicated symlink did not point to a
              directory on the receiving side.   Another  way  to  avoid  this
              sending  of  a  symlink  as  an  implied  directory  is  to  use
              --copy-unsafe-links, or  --copy-dirlinks  (both  of  which  also
              affect  symlinks  in  the  rest  of  the  transfer  -- see their
              descriptions for full details).


       -b, --backup
              With this option, preexisting destination files are  renamed  as
              each  file is transferred or deleted.  You can control where the
              backup file goes and what (if any) suffix  gets  appended  using
              the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

              Note   that   if   you   don't  specify  --backup-dir,  (1)  the
              --omit-dir-times option will be implied, and (2) if --delete  is
              also  in  effect  (without  --delete-excluded), rsync will add a
              "protect" filter-rule for the backup suffix to the  end  of  all
              your existing excludes (e.g. -f "P *~").  This will prevent pre-
              viously backed-up files from being deleted.  Note  that  if  you
              are  supplying  your  own filter rules, you may need to manually
              insert your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up in  the
              list  so  that  it  has  a  high enough priority to be effective
              (e.g., if your rules specify a trailing  inclusion/exclusion  of
              '*', the auto-added rule would never be reached).


       --backup-dir=DIR
              In  combination  with  the  --backup option, this tells rsync to
              store all backups in the specified directory  on  the  receiving
              side.   This can be used for incremental backups.  You can addi-
              tionally specify a backup suffix using the --suffix option (oth-
              erwise  the files backed up in the specified directory will keep
              their original filenames).


       --suffix=SUFFIX
              This option allows you to override  the  default  backup  suffix
              used with the --backup (-b) option. The default suffix is a ~ if
              no --backup-dir was specified, otherwise it is an empty  string.


       -u, --update
              This  forces rsync to skip any files which exist on the destina-
              tion and have a modified time that  is  newer  than  the  source
              file.   (If an existing destination file has a modify time equal
              to the source file's, it will be updated if the sizes  are  dif-
              ferent.)

              In  the current implementation of --update, a difference of file
              format between the sender and receiver is always  considered  to
              be important enough for an update, no matter what date is on the
              objects.  In other words, if the source has  a  directory  or  a
              symlink  where  the  destination  has a file, the transfer would
              occur regardless of the timestamps.  This might  change  in  the
              future  (feel free to comment on this on the mailing list if you
              have an opinion).


       --inplace
              This causes rsync not to create a new copy of the file and  then
              move  it  into place.  Instead rsync will overwrite the existing
              file, meaning that the rsync algorithm can't accomplish the full
              amount of network reduction it might be able to otherwise (since
              it does not yet try to sort data  matches).   One  exception  to
              this  is if you combine the option with --backup, since rsync is
              smart enough to use the backup file as the basis  file  for  the
              transfer.

              This  option  is  useful for transfer of large files with block-
              based changes or appended data, and also  on  systems  that  are
              disk bound, not network bound.

              The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does
              not delete the  file),  but  conflicts  with  --partial-dir  and
              --delay-updates.  Prior to rsync 2.6.4 --inplace was also incom-
              patible with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

              WARNING: The file's data will be in an inconsistent state during
              the transfer (and possibly afterward if the transfer gets inter-
              rupted), so you should not use this option to update files  that
              are  in  use.   Also  note that rsync will be unable to update a
              file in-place that is not writable by the receiving user.


       --append
              This causes rsync to update a file by appending  data  onto  the
              end  of  the  file,  which  presumes  that the data that already
              exists on the receiving side is identical with the start of  the
              file  on  the  sending side.  If that is not true, the file will
              fail the  checksum  test,  and  the  resend  will  do  a  normal
              --inplace  update to correct the mismatched data.  Only files on
              the receiving side that are shorter than the corresponding  file
              on  the  sending  side (as well as new files) are sent.  Implies
              --inplace, but does  not  conflict  with  --sparse  (though  the
              --sparse  option  will  be  auto-disabled  if  a  resend  of the
              already-existing data is required).


       -d, --dirs
              Tell the sending  side  to  include  any  directories  that  are
              encountered.  Unlike --recursive, a directory's contents are not
              copied unless the directory name specified is "." or ends with a
              trailing  slash (e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).  Without this
              option or the --recursive option, rsync will skip  all  directo-
              ries it encounters (and output a message to that effect for each
              one).  If you specify both --dirs and  --recursive,  --recursive
              takes precedence.


       -l, --links
              When  symlinks are encountered, recreate the symlink on the des-
              tination.


       -L, --copy-links
              When symlinks are encountered, the item that they point to  (the
              referent) is copied, rather than the symlink.  In older versions
              of rsync, this option also had the side-effect  of  telling  the
              receiving  side to follow symlinks, such as symlinks to directo-
              ries.  In a modern rsync such as this one, you'll need to  spec-
              ify  --keep-dirlinks  (-K) to get this extra behavior.  The only
              exception is when sending files to an rsync that is too  old  to
              understand -K -- in that case, the -L option will still have the
              side-effect of -K on that older receiving rsync.


       --copy-unsafe-links
              This tells rsync to copy the referent  of  symbolic  links  that
              point  outside  the  copied  tree.   Absolute  symlinks are also
              treated like ordinary files, and so  are  any  symlinks  in  the
              source  path itself when --relative is used.  This option has no
              additional effect if --copy-links was also specified.


       --safe-links
              This tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links which  point  out-
              side  the  copied  tree. All absolute symlinks are also ignored.
              Using this option in conjunction with --relative may give  unex-
              pected results.


       -K, --copy-dirlinks
              This  option  causes  the  sending  side to treat a symlink to a
              directory as though it were a real directory.  This is useful if
              you  don't  want  symlinks to non-directories to be affected, as
              they would be using --copy-links.

              Without this option, if the sending side has replaced  a  direc-
              tory  with  a  symlink  to  a directory, the receiving side will
              delete anything that is in the way of the new symlink, including
              a  directory  hierarchy  (as  long  as --force or --delete is in
              effect).

              See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous option for the receiv-
              ing side.


       -K, --keep-dirlinks
              This  option  causes  the receiving side to treat a symlink to a
              directory as though it were a real directory,  but  only  if  it
              matches  a real directory from the sender.  Without this option,
              the receiver's symlink would be deleted and replaced with a real
              directory.

              For  example,  suppose  you transfer a directory "foo" that con-
              tains a file "file", but "foo" is a symlink to  directory  "bar"
              on  the receiver.  Without --keep-dirlinks, the receiver deletes
              symlink "foo", recreates it as a  directory,  and  receives  the
              file into the new directory.  With --keep-dirlinks, the receiver
              keeps the symlink and "file" ends up in "bar".

              See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous option for the sending
              side.


       -H, --hard-links
              This  tells  rsync to look for hard-linked files in the transfer
              and link together the corresponding files on the receiving side.
              Without  this  option,  hard-linked  files  in  the transfer are
              treated as though they were separate files.

              Note that rsync can only detect hard links if both parts of  the
              link are in the list of files being sent.


       -p, --perms
              This  option  causes  the receiving rsync to set the destination
              permissions to be the same as the source permissions.  (See also
              the  --chmod  option for a way to modify what rsync considers to
              be the source permissions.)

              When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:


              o      Existing files (including  updated  files)  retain  their
                     existing  permissions,  though the --executability option
                     might change just the execute permission for the file.

              o      New files get their "normal" permission bits set  to  the
                     source file's permissions masked with the receiving end's
                     umask setting, and their special permission bits disabled
                     except  in the case where a new directory inherits a set-
                     gid bit from its parent directory.


              Thus,  when  --perms  and  --executability  are  both  disabled,
              rsync's  behavior  is the same as that of other file-copy utili-
              ties, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

              In summary: to give destination files (both  old  and  new)  the
              source permissions, use --perms.  To give new files the destina-
              tion-default   permissions   (while   leaving   existing   files
              unchanged),  make  sure  that  the --perms option is off and use
              --chmod=ugo=rwX (which ensures  that  all  non-masked  bits  get
              enabled).   If you'd care to make this latter behavior easier to
              type, you could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this
              line  in  the  file  ~/.popt  (this  defines  the -s option, and
              includes --no-g to use the  default  group  of  the  destination
              dir):

                 rsync alias -s --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX


              You  could  then  use  this new option in a command such as this
              one:

                 rsync -asv src/ dest/


              (Caveat: make sure that -a does not follow -s, or  it  will  re-
              enable the "--no-*" options.)

              The  preservation  of the destination's setgid bit on newly-cre-
              ated directories when --perms is off was added in  rsync  2.6.7.
              Older  rsync  versions  erroneously  preserved the three special
              permission bits for newly-created files when  --perms  was  off,
              while  overriding  the  destination's  setgid  bit  setting on a
              newly-created directory.  (Keep in mind that it is  the  version
              of the receiving rsync that affects this behavior.)


       --executability
              This  option causes rsync to preserve the executability (or non-
              executability) of regular files when --perms is not enabled.   A
              regular  file is considered to be executable if at least one 'x'
              is turned on in its permissions.  When an  existing  destination
              file's  executability  differs  from  that  of the corresponding
              source file, rsync modifies the destination  file's  permissions
              as follows:


              o      To  make  a  file non-executable, rsync turns off all its
                     'x' permissions.

              o      To make a file executable, rsync turns on each  'x'  per-
                     mission  that has a corresponding 'r' permission enabled.


              If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.


       --chmod
              This option tells rsync to apply  one  or  more  comma-separated
              "chmod"  strings to the permission of the files in the transfer.
              The resulting value is treated as though it was the  permissions
              that  the  sending  side supplied for the file, which means that
              this option can seem to have no  effect  on  existing  files  if
              --perms is not enabled.

              In  addition  to  the  normal  parsing  rules  specified  in the
              chmod(1) manpage, you can specify an item that should only apply
              to  a  directory  by prefixing it with a 'D', or specify an item
              that should only apply to a file by prefixing  it  with  a  'F'.
              For example:

              --chmod=Dg+s,ug+w,Fo-w,+X


              It  is  also  legal to specify multiple --chmod options, as each
              additional option is just appended to the  list  of  changes  to
              make.

              See  the --perms and --executability options for how the result-
              ing permission value can be applied to the files in  the  trans-
              fer.


       -o, --owner
              This  option  causes  rsync  to set the owner of the destination
              file to be the same as the source file, but only if the  receiv-
              ing  rsync  is being run as the super-user (see also the --super
              option to force rsync to attempt super-user activities).   With-
              out  this  option,  the owner is set to the invoking user on the
              receiving side.

              The preservation of ownership will associate matching  names  by
              default,  but  may fall back to using the ID number in some cir-
              cumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full discus-
              sion).


       -g, --group
              This  option  causes  rsync  to set the group of the destination
              file to be the same as the source file.  If the  receiving  pro-
              gram  is  not  running  as  the super-user (or if --no-super was
              specified), only groups that the invoking user on the  receiving
              side is a member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the
              group is set to the default group of the invoking  user  on  the
              receiving side.

              The  preservation  of  group information will associate matching
              names by default, but may fall back to using the  ID  number  in
              some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full
              discussion).


       --devices
              This option causes rsync to transfer character and block  device
              files  to  the  remote  system  to recreate these devices.  This
              option has no effect if the receiving rsync is not  run  as  the
              super-user and --super is not specified.


       --specials
              This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named
              sockets and fifos.


       -D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.


       -t, --times
              This tells rsync to transfer modification times along  with  the
              files  and  update them on the remote system.  Note that if this
              option is not used, the optimization that  excludes  files  that
              have  not  been  modified cannot be effective; in other words, a
              missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it
              used -I, causing all files to be updated (though the rsync algo-
              rithm will make the update fairly efficient if the files haven't
              actually changed, you're much better off using -t).


       -O, --omit-dir-times
              This tells rsync to omit directories when it is preserving modi-
              fication times (see --times).  If NFS is sharing the directories
              on the receiving side, it is a good idea to use -O.  This option
              is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-dir.


       --super
              This tells the receiving side to attempt  super-user  activities
              even if the receiving rsync wasn't run by the super-user.  These
              activities include: preserving users  via  the  --owner  option,
              preserving  all  groups (not just the current user's groups) via
              the --groups option,  and  copying  devices  via  the  --devices
              option.   This  is useful for systems that allow such activities
              without being the super-user, and also  for  ensuring  that  you
              will get errors if the receiving side isn't being running as the
              super-user.  To turn off super-user activities,  the  super-user
              can use --no-super.


       -S, --sparse
              Try  to  handle  sparse  files  efficiently so they take up less
              space on the destination.  Conflicts with --inplace because it's
              not possible to overwrite data in a sparse fashion.

              NOTE:  Don't  use  this option when the destination is a Solaris
              "tmpfs" filesystem. It doesn't seem to handle  seeks  over  null
              regions correctly and ends up corrupting the files.


       -n, --dry-run
              This  tells  rsync to not do any file transfers, instead it will
              just report the actions it would have taken.


       -W, --whole-file
              With this option the incremental rsync algorithm is not used and
              the  whole  file  is  sent  as-is  instead.  The transfer may be
              faster if this option is used when  the  bandwidth  between  the
              source  and destination machines is higher than the bandwidth to
              disk  (especially  when  the  "disk"  is  actually  a  networked
              filesystem).   This is the default when both the source and des-
              tination are specified as local paths.


       -x, --one-file-system
              This tells rsync to avoid crossing a  filesystem  boundary  when
              recursing.   This  does  not limit the user's ability to specify
              items to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync's  recursion
              through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified,
              and also the analogous recursion on the  receiving  side  during
              deletion.  Also keep in mind that rsync treats a "bind" mount to
              the same device as being on the same filesystem.

              If this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point directo-
              ries  from  the copy.  Otherwise, it includes an empty directory
              at each mount-point it encounters (using the attributes  of  the
              mounted  directory  because  those of the underlying mount-point
              directory are inaccessible).

              If rsync has been told to collapse symlinks (via --copy-links or
              --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on another device
              is treated like a mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories  are
              unaffected by this option.


       --existing, --ignore-non-existing
              This  tells rsync to skip creating files (including directories)
              that do not exist yet on the destination.   If  this  option  is
              combined  with  the  --ignore-existing  option, no files will be
              updated (which can be useful if all you want to do is to  delete
              extraneous files).


       --ignore-existing
              This  tells  rsync  to skip updating files that already exist on
              the destination (this does not ignore  existing  directores,  or
              nothing would get done).  See also --existing.


       --remove-source-files
              This  tells  rsync  to  remove  from  the sending side the files
              (meaning non-directories) that are a part of  the  transfer  and
              have been successfully duplicated on the receiving side.


       --delete
              This  tells  rsync to delete extraneous files from the receiving
              side (ones that aren't on the sending side), but  only  for  the
              directories  that  are  being synchronized.  You must have asked
              rsync to send the whole directory (e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without
              using  a  wildcard  for  the directory's contents (e.g. "dir/*")
              since the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus  gets
              a  request  to  transfer individual files, not the files' parent
              directory.  Files that  are  excluded  from  transfer  are  also
              excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded
              option or mark the rules as only matching on  the  sending  side
              (see the include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

              Prior to rsync 2.6.7, this option would have  no  effect  unless
              --recursive was in effect.  Beginning with 2.6.7, deletions will
              also occur when --dirs (-d) is in effect, but only for  directo-
              ries whose contents are being copied.

              This  option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!  It is a very
              good idea to run first using the --dry-run option  (-n)  to  see
              what  files would be deleted to make sure important files aren't
              listed.

              If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of
              any  files  at  the  destination will be automatically disabled.
              This is to prevent temporary filesystem failures  (such  as  NFS
              errors)  on the sending side causing a massive deletion of files
              on  the  destination.   You   can   override   this   with   the
              --ignore-errors option.

              The   --delete   option   may   be  combined  with  one  of  the
              --delete-WHEN   options   without   conflict,   as    well    as
              --delete-excluded.    However,  if  none  of  the  --delete-WHEN
              options  are  specified,  rsync  will   currently   choose   the
              --delete-before  algorithm.  A future version may change this to
              choose the --delete-during algorithm.  See also  --delete-after.


       --delete-before
              Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be done
              before the transfer starts.  This is the default if --delete  or
              --delete-excluded  is specified without one of the --delete-WHEN
              options.  See --delete (which is implied) for  more  details  on
              file-deletion.

              Deleting  before  the  transfer  is helpful if the filesystem is
              tight for space and removing extraneous files would help to make
              the  transfer  possible.   However,  it  does  introduce a delay
              before the start of the transfer, and this delay might cause the
              transfer to timeout (if --timeout was specified).


       --delete-during, --del
              Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be done
              incrementally as the transfer happens.  This is a faster  method
              than choosing the before- or after-transfer algorithm, but it is
              only supported beginning with rsync version 2.6.4.  See --delete
              (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.


       --delete-after
              Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be done
              after the transfer has completed.  This is  useful  if  you  are
              sending  new per-directory merge files as a part of the transfer
              and you want their exclusions to  take  effect  for  the  delete
              phase  of the current transfer.  See --delete (which is implied)
              for more details on file-deletion.


       --delete-excluded
              In addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are
              not  on  the  sending  side, this tells rsync to also delete any
              files on the receiving side that are excluded  (see  --exclude).
              See the FILTER RULES section for a way to make individual exclu-
              sions behave this way on the receiver, and for a way to  protect
              files  from  --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which is implied)
              for more details on file-deletion.


       --ignore-errors
              Tells --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there  are
              I/O errors.


       --force
              This  option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when it
              is to be replaced by a non-directory.  This is only relevant  if
              deletions are not active (see --delete for details).

              Note for older rsync versions: --force used to still be required
              when using --delete-after, and  it  used  to  be  non-functional
              unless the --recursive option was also enabled.


       --max-delete=NUM
              This  tells  rsync not to delete more than NUM files or directo-
              ries (NUM must be non-zero).  This is useful when mirroring very
              large trees to prevent disasters.


       --max-size=SIZE
              This  tells  rsync to avoid transferring any file that is larger
              than the specified SIZE. The SIZE value can be suffixed  with  a
              string  to  indicate  a size multiplier, and may be a fractional
              value (e.g. "--max-size=1.5m").

              The suffixes are as  follows:  "K"  (or  "KiB")  is  a  kibibyte
              (1024),  "M"  (or  "MiB") is a mebibyte (1024*1024), and "G" (or
              "GiB") is a gibibyte (1024*1024*1024).  If you want  the  multi-
              plier  to  be  1000  instead  of  1024, use "KB", "MB", or "GB".
              (Note: lower-case is also accepted for all values.)  Finally, if
              the suffix ends in either "+1" or "-1", the value will be offset
              by one byte in the indicated direction.

              Examples:   --max-size=1.5mb-1    is    1499999    bytes,    and
              --max-size=2g+1 is 2147483649 bytes.


       --min-size=SIZE
              This  tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is smaller
              than the specified SIZE, which  can  help  in  not  transferring
              small,  junk files.  See the --max-size option for a description
              of SIZE.


       -B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
              This forces the block size used in  the  rsync  algorithm  to  a
              fixed  value.  It is normally selected based on the size of each
              file being updated.  See the technical report for details.


       -e, --rsh=COMMAND
              This option allows you to choose  an  alternative  remote  shell
              program  to  use  for communication between the local and remote
              copies of rsync. Typically, rsync is configured to  use  ssh  by
              default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.

              If  this  option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the
              remote shell COMMAND will be used to run an rsync daemon on  the
              remote  host,  and  all  data  will  be transmitted through that
              remote shell connection, rather than  through  a  direct  socket
              connection  to  a  running rsync daemon on the remote host.  See
              the section "USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CON-
              NECTION" above.

              Command-line  arguments  are  permitted in COMMAND provided that
              COMMAND is presented to rsync as a single  argument.   You  must
              use  spaces  (not tabs or other whitespace) to separate the com-
              mand and args from each other, and you can  use  single-  and/or
              double-quotes  to  preserve spaces in an argument (but not back-
              slashes).  Note that doubling a single-quote  inside  a  single-
              quoted  string  gives  you  a single-quote; likewise for double-
              quotes (though you need to pay attention to  which  quotes  your
              shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing).  Some exam-
              ples:

                  -e 'ssh -p 2234'
                  -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"'


              (Note that ssh users  can  alternately  customize  site-specific
              connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

              You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
              environment variable, which accepts the same range of values  as
              -e.

              See  also  the  --blocking-io  option  which is affected by this
              option.


       --rsync-path=PROGRAM
              Use this to specify what program is to  be  run  on  the  remote
              machine  to start-up rsync.  Often used when rsync is not in the
              default           remote-shell's           path            (e.g.
              --rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).   Note  that  PROGRAM is run
              with the help of a shell, so it can be any program,  script,  or
              command  sequence you'd care to run, so long as it does not cor-
              rupt the standard-in & standard-out that rsync is using to  com-
              municate.

              One  tricky  example  is to set a different default directory on
              the remote machine for use  with  the  --relative  option.   For
              instance:

                  rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" hst:c/d /e/



       -C, --cvs-exclude
              This  is a useful shorthand for excluding a broad range of files
              that you often don't want to transfer between systems.  It  uses
              the  same  algorithm that CVS uses to determine if a file should
              be ignored.

              The exclude list is initialized to:

                     RCS  SCCS  CVS  CVS.adm   RCSLOG   cvslog.*   tags   TAGS
                     .make.state  .nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old *.bak
                     *.BAK *.orig *.rej .del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so  *.exe
                     *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/


              then  files  listed  in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list
              and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment variable  (all
              cvsignore names are delimited by whitespace).

              Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same directory as a
              .cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed  therein.
              Unlike rsync's filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on
              whitespace.  See the cvs(1) manual for more information.

              If you're combining -C with your own --filter rules, you  should
              note that these CVS excludes are appended at the end of your own
              rules, regardless of where the -C was  placed  on  the  command-
              line.  This makes them a lower priority than any rules you spec-
              ified explicitly.  If  you  want  to  control  where  these  CVS
              excludes  get  inserted  into your filter rules, you should omit
              the -C as a command-line option and use a combination of  --fil-
              ter=:C  and  --filter=-C  (either  on  your  command-line  or by
              putting the ":C" and "-C" rules into a  filter  file  with  your
              other rules).  The first option turns on the per-directory scan-
              ning for the .cvsignore file.  The second option does a one-time
              import of the CVS excludes mentioned above.


       -f, --filter=RULE
              This  option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude cer-
              tain files from the list of files to  be  transferred.  This  is
              most useful in combination with a recursive transfer.

              You  may use as many --filter options on the command line as you
              like to build up the list of files to exclude.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed  information  on  this
              option.


       -F     The  -F  option  is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to
              your command.  The first time it is used is a shorthand for this
              rule:

                 --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'


              This  tells  rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files
              that have been sprinkled through the  hierarchy  and  use  their
              rules  to  filter the files in the transfer.  If -F is repeated,
              it is a shorthand for this rule:

                 --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'


              This filters out the .rsync-filter  files  themselves  from  the
              transfer.

              See  the  FILTER  RULES  section for detailed information on how
              these options work.


       --exclude=PATTERN
              This option is a simplified form of  the  --filter  option  that
              defaults  to  an  exclude rule and does not allow the full rule-
              parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed  information  on  this
              option.


       --exclude-from=FILE
              This option is related to the --exclude option, but it specifies
              a FILE that contains exclude patterns  (one  per  line).   Blank
              lines  in  the  file  and  lines  starting  with  ';' or '#' are
              ignored.  If FILE is -, the list  will  be  read  from  standard
              input.


       --include=PATTERN
              This  option  is  a  simplified form of the --filter option that
              defaults to an include rule and does not allow  the  full  rule-
              parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See  the  FILTER  RULES section for detailed information on this
              option.


       --include-from=FILE
              This option is related to the --include option, but it specifies
              a  FILE  that  contains  include patterns (one per line).  Blank
              lines in the file  and  lines  starting  with  ';'  or  '#'  are
              ignored.   If  FILE  is  -,  the list will be read from standard
              input.


       --files-from=FILE
              Using this option allows you to specify the exact list of  files
              to  transfer  (as read from the specified FILE or - for standard
              input).  It also tweaks the default behavior of  rsync  to  make
              transferring just the specified files and directories easier:


              o      The  --relative  (-R)  option is implied, which preserves
                     the path information that is specified for each  item  in
                     the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn
                     that off).

              o      The --dirs (-d) option  is  implied,  which  will  create
                     directories  specified  in  the  list  on the destination
                     rather than  noisily  skipping  them  (use  --no-dirs  or
                     --no-d if you want to turn that off).

              o      The  --archive  (-a)  option's  behavior  does  not imply
                     --recursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if  you  want
                     it.

              o      These  side-effects change the default state of rsync, so
                     the position of the --files-from option on  the  command-
                     line has no bearing on how other options are parsed (e.g.
                     -a works the same before or after --files-from,  as  does
                     --no-R and all other options).


              The  file  names that are read from the FILE are all relative to
              the source dir -- any leading slashes are removed  and  no  ".."
              references  are  allowed  to go higher than the source dir.  For
              example, take this command:

                 rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup


              If /tmp/foo contains the string  "bin"  (or  even  "/bin"),  the
              /usr/bin  directory will be created as /backup/bin on the remote
              host.  If it contains "bin/"  (note  the  trailing  slash),  the
              immediate  contents of the directory would also be sent (without
              needing to be explicitly mentioned in the file -- this began  in
              version  2.6.4).   In  both cases, if the -r option was enabled,
              that dir's entire hierarchy would also be transferred  (keep  in
              mind that -r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from,
              since it is not implied by -a).  Also note that  the  effect  of
              the  (enabled by default) --relative option is to duplicate only
              the path info that is read from the file -- it  does  not  force
              the duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case).

              In  addition,  the --files-from file can be read from the remote
              host instead of the local host if you specify a "host:" in front
              of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer).  As a
              short-cut, you can specify just a prefix of ":" to mean "use the
              remote end of the transfer".  For example:

                 rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy


              This  would  copy all the files specified in the /path/file-list
              file that was located on the remote "src" host.


       -0, --from0
              This tells rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from  a  file
              are  terminated  by  a  null  ('\0') character, not a NL, CR, or
              CR+LF.     This    affects    --exclude-from,    --include-from,
              --files-from, and any merged files specified in a --filter rule.
              It does not affect --cvs-exclude (since all names  read  from  a
              .cvsignore file are split on whitespace).


       -T, --temp-dir=DIR
              This  option  instructs  rsync to use DIR as a scratch directory
              when creating temporary copies of the files transferred  on  the
              receiving  side.   The default behavior is to create each tempo-
              rary file in the same directory as  the  associated  destination
              file.

              This option is most often used when the receiving disk partition
              does not have enough free space to hold a copy  of  the  largest
              file  in  the  transfer.   In  this  case (i.e. when the scratch
              directory in on a different disk partition), rsync will  not  be
              able  to rename each received temporary file over the top of the
              associated destination file,  but  instead  must  copy  it  into
              place.   Rsync does this by copying the file over the top of the
              destination file, which means that  the  destination  file  will
              contain  truncated data during this copy.  If this were not done
              this way (even if the destination file were first  removed,  the
              data  locally  copied  to  a  temporary  file in the destination
              directory, and then renamed into place) it would be possible for
              the old file to continue taking up disk space (if someone had it
              open), and thus there might not be enough room to  fit  the  new
              version on the disk at the same time.

              If  you  are using this option for reasons other than a shortage
              of  disk  space,  you  may  wish  to   combine   it   with   the
              --delay-updates  option, which will ensure that all copied files
              get put into subdirectories in the destination hierarchy, await-
              ing  the  end of the transfer.  If you don't have enough room to
              duplicate all the arriving files on the  destination  partition,
              another way to tell rsync that you aren't overly concerned about
              disk space is to use the --partial-dir option  with  a  relative
              path; because this tells rsync that it is OK to stash off a copy
              of a single file in a subdir in the destination hierarchy, rsync
              will  use  the  partial-dir  as a staging area to bring over the
              copied file, and then rename it into place from there. (Specify-
              ing  a  --partial-dir  with  an absolute path does not have this
              side-effect.)


       -y, --fuzzy
              This option tells rsync that it should look for a basis file for
              any  destination  file  that  is missing.  The current algorithm
              looks in the same directory as the destination file for either a
              file  that  has  an identical size and modified-time, or a simi-
              larly-named file.  If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file  to
              try to speed up the transfer.

              Note  that  the  use of the --delete option might get rid of any
              potential fuzzy-match files, so  either  use  --delete-after  or
              specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.


       --compare-dest=DIR
              This  option  instructs  rsync  to  use  DIR  on the destination
              machine as an additional hierarchy to compare destination  files
              against  doing transfers (if the files are missing in the desti-
              nation directory).  If a file is found in DIR that is  identical
              to  the  sender's  file, the file will NOT be transferred to the
              destination directory.  This is useful  for  creating  a  sparse
              backup of just files that have changed from an earlier backup.

              Beginning  in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories
              may be provided, which will cause rsync to search  the  list  in
              the  order  specified  for  an exact match.  If a match is found
              that differs only in attributes, a local copy is  made  and  the
              attributes  updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
              one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up  the  trans-
              fer.

              If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it is relative to the destination
              directory.  See also --copy-dest and --link-dest.


       --copy-dest=DIR
              This option behaves like --compare-dest,  but  rsync  will  also
              copy  unchanged  files found in DIR to the destination directory
              using a local copy.  This is useful for doing transfers to a new
              destination  while leaving existing files intact, and then doing
              a flash-cutover when all files  have  been  successfully  trans-
              ferred.

              Multiple  --copy-dest  directories  may  be provided, which will
              cause rsync to search the list in the  order  specified  for  an
              unchanged  file.  If a match is not found, a basis file from one
              of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

              If DIR is a relative path, it is  relative  to  the  destination
              directory.  See also --compare-dest and --link-dest.


       --link-dest=DIR
              This  option  behaves  like --copy-dest, but unchanged files are
              hard linked from DIR to the destination  directory.   The  files
              must be identical in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions,
              possibly  ownership)  in  order  for  the  files  to  be  linked
              together.  An example:

                rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/


              Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may
              be provided, which will cause rsync to search the  list  in  the
              order  specified  for  an exact match.  If a match is found that
              differs only in  attributes,  a  local  copy  is  made  and  the
              attributes  updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
              one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up  the  trans-
              fer.

              Note  that if you combine this option with --ignore-times, rsync
              will not link any files together because it only links identical
              files  together as a substitute for transferring the file, never
              as an additional check after the file is updated.

              If DIR is a relative path, it is  relative  to  the  destination
              directory.  See also --compare-dest and --copy-dest.

              Note  that  rsync  versions  prior to 2.6.1 had a bug that could
              prevent --link-dest from working properly for  a  non-super-user
              when  -o  was specified (or implied by -a).  You can work-around
              this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old rsync.


       -z, --compress
              With  this  option, rsync compresses the file data as it is sent
              to the destination machine, which reduces  the  amount  of  data
              being  transmitted  -- something that is useful over a slow con-
              nection.

              Note that this  option  typically  achieves  better  compression
              ratios  than can be achieved by using a compressing remote shell
              or a compressing transport because it  takes  advantage  of  the
              implicit  information  in  the matching data blocks that are not
              explicitly sent over the connection.


       --compress-level=NUM
              Explicitly set the compression level  to  use  (see  --compress)
              instead  of  letting it default.  If NUM is non-zero, the --com-
              press option is implied.


       --numeric-ids
              With this option rsync will transfer numeric group and user  IDs
              rather  than using user and group names and mapping them at both
              ends.

              By default rsync will use the username and groupname  to  deter-
              mine  what  ownership  to  give files. The special uid 0 and the
              special group 0 are never mapped via user/group  names  even  if
              the --numeric-ids option is not specified.

              If a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no
              match on the destination system, then the numeric  ID  from  the
              source  system  is  used  instead.  See also the comments on the
              "use chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for  information
              on how the chroot setting affects rsync's ability to look up the
              names of the users and groups and what you can do about it.


       --timeout=TIMEOUT
              This option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in  seconds.
              If no data is transferred for the specified time then rsync will
              exit. The default is 0, which means no timeout.


       --address
              By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when connect-
              ing  to  an  rsync  daemon.   The --address option allows you to
              specify a specific IP address (or hostname)  to  bind  to.   See
              also this option in the --daemon mode section.


       --port=PORT
              This  specifies  an alternate TCP port number to use rather than
              the default of 873.  This is only needed if you  are  using  the
              double-colon  (::) syntax to connect with an rsync daemon (since
              the URL syntax has a way to specify the port as a  part  of  the
              URL).  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.


       --sockopts
              This  option can provide endless fun for people who like to tune
              their systems to the utmost degree. You can  set  all  sorts  of
              socket  options  which  may  make transfers faster (or slower!).
              Read the man page for the setsockopt() system call  for  details
              on  some  of  the  options you may be able to set. By default no
              special socket options are set. This only affects direct  socket
              connections  to  a remote rsync daemon.  This option also exists
              in the --daemon mode section.


       --blocking-io
              This tells rsync to use blocking I/O  when  launching  a  remote
              shell  transport.   If  the remote shell is either rsh or remsh,
              rsync defaults to using blocking I/O, otherwise it  defaults  to
              using  non-blocking  I/O.   (Note  that ssh prefers non-blocking
              I/O.)


       -i, --itemize-changes
              Requests a simple itemized list of the changes  that  are  being
              made to each file, including attribute changes.  This is exactly
              the same as specifying --out-format='%i %n%L'.   If  you  repeat
              the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only if the
              receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv  with
              older  versions  of  rsync, but that also turns on the output of
              other verbose messages).

              The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that  is  9  letters  long.
              The  general  format  is  like  the string YXcstpogz, where Y is
              replaced by the type of update being done, X is replaced by  the
              file-type,  and  the other letters represent attributes that may
              be output if they are being modified.

              The update types that replace the Y are as follows:


              o      A < means that a file is being transferred to the  remote
                     host (sent).

              o      A  >  means that a file is being transferred to the local
                     host (received).

              o      A c means that a local change/creation is  occurring  for
                     the  item  (such  as  the  creation of a directory or the
                     changing of a symlink, etc.).

              o      A h means that the item is a hard link  to  another  item
                     (requires --hard-links).

              o      A  .  means that the item is not being updated (though it
                     might have attributes that are being modified).


              The file-types that replace the X are: f for a file, a d  for  a
              directory,  an  L for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S for a
              special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

              The other letters in the string above  are  the  actual  letters
              that  will be output if the associated attribute for the item is
              being updated or a "." for no change.  Three exceptions to  this
              are:  (1)  a newly created item replaces each letter with a "+",
              (2) an identical item replaces the dots with spaces, and (3)  an
              unknown attribute replaces each letter with a "?" (this can hap-
              pen when talking to an older rsync).

              The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:


              o      A  c means the checksum of the file is different and will
                     be updated by the file transfer (requires --checksum).

              o      A s means the size of the file is different and  will  be
                     updated by the file transfer.

              o      A t means the modification time is different and is being
                     updated to the sender's  value  (requires  --times).   An
                     alternate  value  of T means that the time will be set to
                     the transfer time, which happens  anytime  a  symlink  is
                     transferred,  or  when  a  file  or device is transferred
                     without --times.

              o      A p means the permissions are  different  and  are  being
                     updated to the sender's value (requires --perms).

              o      An o means the owner is different and is being updated to
                     the sender's value (requires --owner and super-user priv-
                     ileges).

              o      A  g means the group is different and is being updated to
                     the sender's value (requires --group and the authority to
                     set the group).

              o      The z slot is reserved for future use.


              One  other  output  is  possible:  when deleting files, the "%i"
              will output the string "*deleting" for each item that  is  being
              removed  (assuming that you are talking to a recent enough rsync
              that it logs deletions instead of outputting them as  a  verbose
              message).


       --out-format=FORMAT
              This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync client outputs
              to the user on a per-update basis.  The format is a text  string
              containing  embedded  single-character escape sequences prefixed
              with a percent (%) character.  For a list of the possible escape
              characters, see the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf man-
              page.

              Specifying this option will mention each file,  dir,  etc.  that
              gets  updated in a significant way (a transferred file, a recre-
              ated symlink/device, or a touched directory).  In  addition,  if
              the  itemize-changes  escape (%i) is included in the string, the
              logging of names increases to mention any item that  is  changed
              in  any  way  (as long as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4).
              See the --itemize-changes option for a description of the output
              of "%i".

              The --verbose option implies a format of "%n%L", but you can use
              --out-format without --verbose if you like, or you can  override
              the format of its per-file output using this option.

              Rsync will output the out-format string prior to a file's trans-
              fer unless one of the transfer-statistic escapes  is  requested,
              in  which  case  the  logging  is  done at the end of the file's
              transfer.  When this late logging is in effect and --progress is
              also  specified,  rsync  will  also  output the name of the file
              being transferred prior to its progress  information  (followed,
              of course, by the out-format output).


       --log-file=FILE
              This  option  causes  rsync  to  log what it is doing to a file.
              This is similar to the logging that a daemon does,  but  can  be
              requested  for  the client side and/or the server side of a non-
              daemon transfer.  If specified as a client option, transfer log-
              ging  will  be  enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L".  See
              the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

              Here's a example command that requests the remote  side  to  log
              what is happening:

                rsync -av --rsync-path="rsync --log-file=/tmp/rlog" src/ dest/


              This  is  very  useful  if you need to debug why a connection is
              closing unexpectedly.


       --log-file-format=FORMAT
              This allows you to specify exactly what  per-update  logging  is
              put into the file specified by the --log-file option (which must
              also be specified for this option to have any effect).   If  you
              specify  an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned in
              the log file.  For a list of the possible escape characters, see
              the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.


       --stats
              This  tells  rsync  to  print a verbose set of statistics on the
              file transfer, allowing you to  tell  how  effective  the  rsync
              algorithm is for your data.

              The current statistics are as follows:

              o      Number  of  files  is  the  count  of all "files" (in the
                     generic sense),  which  includes  directories,  symlinks,
                     etc.

              o      Number  of files transferred is the count of normal files
                     that were updated via the rsync algorithm, which does not
                     include created dirs, symlinks, etc.

              o      Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in the
                     transfer.  This does not count any size  for  directories
                     or  special files, but does include the size of symlinks.

              o      Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files
                     sizes for just the transferred files.

              o      Literal  data  is  how much unmatched file-update data we
                     had to send to  the  receiver  for  it  to  recreate  the
                     updated files.

              o      Matched  data  is  how much data the receiver got locally
                     when recreating the updated files.

              o      File list size is how big the file-list data was when the
                     sender sent it to the receiver.  This is smaller than the
                     in-memory size for the file list due to some  compressing
                     of duplicated data when rsync sends the list.

              o      File  list  generation time is the number of seconds that
                     the sender spent creating the file list.  This requires a
                     modern  rsync on the sending side for this to be present.

              o      File list transfer time is the number of seconds that the
                     sender spent sending the file list to the receiver.

              o      Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync
                     sent from the client side to the server side.

              o      Total bytes received is  the  count  of  all  non-message
                     bytes  that  rsync  received  by the client side from the
                     server side.  "Non-message" bytes  means  that  we  don't
                     count  the  bytes  for  a verbose message that the server
                     sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent.



       -8, --8-bit-output
              This tells rsync to leave all high-bit characters  unescaped  in
              the  output  instead  of  trying  to test them to see if they're
              valid in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones.   All
              control  characters (but never tabs) are always escaped, regard-
              less of this option's setting.

              The escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is to  output  a  literal
              backslash  (\)  and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3 octal dig-
              its.  For example, a newline would output as "\#012".  A literal
              backslash that is in a filename is not escaped unless it is fol-
              lowed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).


       -h, --human-readable
              Output numbers in a more human-readable format.  This makes  big
              numbers output using larger units, with a K, M, or G suffix.  If
              this option was specified once, these  units  are  K  (1000),  M
              (1000*1000),  and G (1000*1000*1000); if the option is repeated,
              the units are powers of 1024 instead of 1000.


       --partial
              By default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file  if
              the  transfer  is  interrupted. In some circumstances it is more
              desirable to keep partially transferred files. Using the  --par-
              tial  option  tells  rsync to keep the partial file which should
              make a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much  faster.


       --partial-dir=DIR
              A  better way to keep partial files than the --partial option is
              to specify a DIR that will be used  to  hold  the  partial  data
              (instead  of  writing  it  out to the destination file).  On the
              next transfer, rsync will use a file found in this dir  as  data
              to  speed  up  the resumption of the transfer and then delete it
              after it has served its purpose.

              Note that if --whole-file is specified (or  implied),  any  par-
              tial-dir  file  that  is  found for a file that is being updated
              will simply be removed (since rsync  is  sending  files  without
              using the incremental rsync algorithm).

              Rsync will create the DIR if it is missing (just the last dir --
              not the whole path).  This makes it easy to use a relative  path
              (such  as  "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial")  to have rsync create
              the partial-directory in the destination file's  directory  when
              needed,  and  then  remove  it  again  when  the partial file is
              deleted.

              If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add
              an  exclude rule at the end of all your existing excludes.  This
              will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files that may exist
              on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion
              of partial-dir items on the receiving  side.   An  example:  the
              above   --partial-dir   option   would  add  the  equivalent  of
              "--exclude=.rsync-partial/" at  the  end  of  any  other  filter
              rules.

              If you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need to add
              your own exclude/hide/protect rule for the  partial-dir  because
              (1)  the  auto-added  rule may be ineffective at the end of your
              other rules, or (2) you may wish  to  override  rsync's  exclude
              choice.   For  instance,  if you want to make rsync clean-up any
              left-over partial-dirs that may  be  lying  around,  you  should
              specify --delete-after and add a "risk" filter rule, e.g.  -f 'R
              .rsync-partial/'.  (Avoid using --delete-before or --delete-dur-
              ing unless you don't need rsync to use any of the left-over par-
              tial-dir data during the current run.)

              IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not  be  writable  by  other
              users or it is a security risk.  E.g. AVOID "/tmp".

              You  can  also  set  the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR
              environment variable.  Setting this in the environment does  not
              force  --partial to be enabled, but rather it affects where par-
              tial files  go  when  --partial  is  specified.   For  instance,
              instead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along with --progress,
              you could set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in  your  environment
              and  then  just  use  the  -P  option  to turn on the use of the
              .rsync-tmp dir for partial transfers.  The only times  that  the
              --partial  option  does  not look for this environment value are
              (1) when --inplace was specified (since --inplace conflicts with
              --partial-dir),  and (2) when --delay-updates was specified (see
              below).

              For the purposes of the daemon-config's  "refuse  options"  set-
              ting, --partial-dir does not imply --partial.  This is so that a
              refusal of the --partial option can  be  used  to  disallow  the
              overwriting  of destination files with a partial transfer, while
              still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.


       --delay-updates
              This option puts the temporary file from each updated file  into
              a holding directory until the end of the transfer, at which time
              all the files are renamed into place in rapid succession.   This
              attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic.
              By default the files are placed into a directory named  ".~tmp~"
              in  each  file's  destination directory, but if you've specified
              the --partial-dir option, that directory will be  used  instead.
              See  the  comments in the --partial-dir section for a discussion
              of how this ".~tmp~" dir will be excluded from the transfer, and
              what  you  can do if you wnat rsync to cleanup old ".~tmp~" dirs
              that might  be  lying  around.   Conflicts  with  --inplace  and
              --append.

              This  option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit per
              file transferred) and also requires enough free  disk  space  on
              the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated
              files.  Note also that you should not use an  absolute  path  to
              --partial-dir  unless (1) there is no chance of any of the files
              in the transfer having the same  name  (since  all  the  updated
              files  will  be put into a single directory if the path is abso-
              lute) and (2) there are no mount points in the hierarchy  (since
              the  delayed  updates  will  fail  if they can't be renamed into
              place).

              See also the "atomic-rsync" perl script in the "support"  subdir
              for  an  update  algorithm  that  is  even  more atomic (it uses
              --link-dest and a parallel hierarchy of files).


       -m, --prune-empty-dirs
              This option tells the receiving rsync to get rid of empty direc-
              tories  from  the  file-list,  including nested directories that
              have no non-directory children.  This is useful for avoiding the
              creation  of  a  bunch  of  useless directories when the sending
              rsync  is  recursively  scanning  a  hierarchy  of  files  using
              include/exclude/filter rules.

              Because the file-list is actually being pruned, this option also
              affects what directories get deleted when a  delete  is  active.
              However,  keep  in  mind that excluded files and directories can
              prevent existing items from being deleted  (because  an  exclude
              hides source files and protects destination files).

              You  can  prevent  the pruning of certain empty directories from
              the file-list by using a global "protect" filter.  For instance,
              this  option would ensure that the directory "emptydir" was kept
              in the file-list:

              --filter 'protect emptydir/'


              Here's an example that copies all .pdf  files  in  a  hierarchy,
              only  creating the necessary destination directories to hold the
              .pdf files, and ensures that any superfluous files and  directo-
              ries  in  the  destination  are removed (note the hide filter of
              non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

              rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */' src/ dest


              If you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files,  the
              more  time-honored  options  of  "--include='*/'  --exclude='*'"
              would work fine in place of the hide-filter  (if  that  is  more
              natural to you).


       --progress
              This  option  tells  rsync  to  print  information  showing  the
              progress of the transfer. This gives a bored user  something  to
              watch.  Implies --verbose if it wasn't already specified.

              While  rsync  is  transferring  a  regular  file,  it  updates a
              progress line that looks like this:

                    782448  63%  110.64kB/s    0:00:04


              In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes  or
              63% of the sender's file, which is being reconstructed at a rate
              of 110.64 kilobytes per second, and the transfer will finish  in
              4 seconds if the current rate is maintained until the end.

              These  statistics  can be misleading if the incremental transfer
              algorithm is in use.  For example, if the sender's file consists
              of the basis file followed by additional data, the reported rate
              will probably drop dramatically when the receiver  gets  to  the
              literal data, and the transfer will probably take much longer to
              finish than the receiver  estimated  as  it  was  finishing  the
              matched part of the file.

              When  the  file  transfer  finishes, rsync replaces the progress
              line with a summary line that looks like this:

                   1238099 100%  146.38kB/s    0:00:08  (xfer#5, to-check=169/396)


              In this example, the file was 1238099 bytes long in  total,  the
              average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes
              per second over the 8 seconds that it took to complete,  it  was
              the 5th transfer of a regular file during the current rsync ses-
              sion, and there are 169 more files for the receiver to check (to
              see  if  they  are  up-to-date  or not) remaining out of the 396
              total files in the file-list.


       -P     The -P option is equivalent to --partial --progress.   Its  pur-
              pose  is to make it much easier to specify these two options for
              a long transfer that may be interrupted.


       --password-file
              This option allows you to provide  a  password  in  a  file  for
              accessing  a  remote rsync daemon. Note that this option is only
              useful when accessing an rsync daemon using the built in  trans-
              port,  not  when using a remote shell as the transport. The file
              must not be world readable. It should contain just the  password
              as a single line.


       --list-only
              This  option will cause the source files to be listed instead of
              transferred.  This option is  inferred  if  there  is  a  single
              source  arg  and no destination specified, so its main uses are:
              (1) to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg  into
              a  file-listing command, (2) to be able to specify more than one
              local source arg (note: be sure to include the destination),  or
              (3)  to  avoid  the  automatically  added  "-r --exclude='/*/*'"
              options that rsync usually uses as a  compatibility  kluge  when
              generating  a non-recursive listing.  Caution: keep in mind that
              a source arg with a wild-card is expanded by the shell into mul-
              tiple args, so it is never safe to try to list such an arg with-
              out using this option.  For example:

                  rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/



       --bwlimit=KBPS
              This option allows you to specify a  maximum  transfer  rate  in
              kilobytes  per  second. This option is most effective when using
              rsync with large files (several megabytes and up).  Due  to  the
              nature  of  rsync  transfers,  blocks  of data are sent, then if
              rsync determines the transfer was too fast, it will wait  before
              sending  the  next data block. The result is an average transfer
              rate equaling the specified limit. A value of zero specifies  no
              limit.


       --write-batch=FILE
              Record  a  file  that  can later be applied to another identical
              destination with --read-batch. See the "BATCH MODE" section  for
              details, and also the --only-write-batch option.


       --only-write-batch=FILE
              Works like --write-batch, except that no updates are made on the
              destination system when  creating  the  batch.   This  lets  you
              transport  the  changes to the destination system via some other
              means and then apply the changes via --read-batch.

              Note that you can feel free to write the batch directly to  some
              portable  media:  if this media fills to capacity before the end
              of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer to the
              destination  and repeat the whole process to get the rest of the
              changes (as long as you don't mind a partially updated  destina-
              tion system while the multi-update cycle is happening).

              Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a
              remote system  because  this  allows  the  batched  data  to  be
              diverted  from  the sender into the batch file without having to
              flow over the wire to the receiver (when pulling, the sender  is
              remote, and thus can't write the batch).


       --read-batch=FILE
              Apply  all of the changes stored in FILE, a file previously gen-
              erated by --write-batch.  If FILE is -, the batch data  will  be
              read  from  standard  input.   See  the "BATCH MODE" section for
              details.


       --protocol=NUM
              Force an older protocol version to be used.  This is useful  for
              creating  a  batch file that is compatible with an older version
              of rsync.  For instance, if rsync 2.6.4 is being used  with  the
              --write-batch  option,  but  rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to
              run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when
              creating  the  batch file to force the older protocol version to
              be used in the batch file (assuming you can't upgrade the  rsync
              on the reading system).


       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
              Tells  rsync  to  prefer  IPv4/IPv6 when creating sockets.  This
              only affects sockets that rsync has direct control over, such as
              the  outgoing  socket  when directly contacting an rsync daemon.
              See also these options in the --daemon mode section.


       --checksum-seed=NUM
              Set the MD4 checksum seed to  the  integer  NUM.   This  4  byte
              checksum  seed  is  included in each block and file MD4 checksum
              calculation.  By default the checksum seed is generated  by  the
              server and defaults to the current time() .  This option is used
              to set a specific checksum seed, which is  useful  for  applica-
              tions  that  want repeatable block and file checksums, or in the
              case where the user wants a more  random  checksum  seed.   Note
              that  setting NUM to 0 causes rsync to use the default of time()
              for checksum seed.

       -E, --extended-attributes
              Apple specific option  to  copy  extended  attributes,  resource
              forks,  and  ACLs.   Requires at least Mac OS X 10.4 or suitably
              patched rsync.

       --cache
              Apple specific option to enable filesystem caching of rsync file
              i/o Otherwise fcntl(F_NOCACHE) is used to limit memory growth.




DAEMON OPTIONS

       The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:


       --daemon
              This  tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon you
              start running may be accessed using an rsync  client  using  the
              host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

              If  standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that it is
              being run via inetd, otherwise it will detach from  the  current
              terminal  and  become a background daemon.  The daemon will read
              the config file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by  a  client
              and respond to requests accordingly.  See the rsyncd.conf(5) man
              page for more details.


       --address
              By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when run as a
              daemon  with  the  --daemon option.  The --address option allows
              you to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to  bind  to.
              This  makes  virtual  hosting  possible  in conjunction with the
              --config option.  See also the "address" global  option  in  the
              rsyncd.conf manpage.


       --bwlimit=KBPS
              This  option  allows  you  to specify a maximum transfer rate in
              kilobytes per second for the data the daemon sends.  The  client
              can still specify a smaller --bwlimit value, but their requested
              value will be rounded down if they try to exceed  it.   See  the
              client version of this option (above) for some extra details.


       --config=FILE
              This  specifies an alternate config file than the default.  This
              is only relevant when --daemon is  specified.   The  default  is
              /etc/rsyncd.conf  unless  the  daemon  is  running over a remote
              shell program and the remote user is not the super-user; in that
              case  the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory (typi-
              cally $HOME).


       --no-detach
              When running as a daemon, this option  instructs  rsync  to  not
              detach  itself  and become a background process.  This option is
              required when running as a service on Cygwin, and  may  also  be
              useful when rsync is supervised by a program such as daemontools
              or AIX's System Resource Controller.  --no-detach is also recom-
              mended  when  rsync is run under a debugger.  This option has no
              effect if rsync is run from inetd or sshd.


       --port=PORT
              This specifies an alternate TCP port number for  the  daemon  to
              listen  on  rather than the default of 873.  See also the "port"
              global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.


       --log-file=FILE
              This option tells the rsync daemon to  use  the  given  log-file
              name instead of using the "log file" setting in the config file.


       --log-file-format=FORMAT
              This option tells the rsync  daemon  to  use  the  given  FORMAT
              string  instead  of using the "log format" setting in the config
              file.  It also enables "transfer logging" unless the  string  is
              empty, in which case transfer logging is turned off.


       --sockopts
              This  overrides  the  socket  options setting in the rsyncd.conf
              file and has the same syntax.


       -v, --verbose
              This option increases the amount of information the daemon  logs
              during  its  startup phase.  After the client connects, the dae-
              mon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the
              client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's con-
              fig section.


       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
              Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming sock-
              ets  that  the  rsync daemon will use to listen for connections.
              One of these options may be required in older versions of  Linux
              to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if you see an "address
              already in use" error when nothing else is using the  port,  try
              specifying --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting the daemon).


       -h, --help
              When  specified after --daemon, print a short help page describ-
              ing the options available for starting an rsync daemon.




FILTER RULES

       The filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files to  trans-
       fer  (include)  and  which  files  to skip (exclude).  The rules either
       directly specify include/exclude patterns or  they  specify  a  way  to
       acquire  more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a file).

       As the list of files/directories to transfer  is  built,  rsync  checks
       each  name  to  be transferred against the list of include/exclude pat-
       terns in turn, and the first matching pattern is acted on:  if it is an
       exclude pattern, then that file is skipped; if it is an include pattern
       then that filename is not skipped; if no  matching  pattern  is  found,
       then the filename is not skipped.

       Rsync  builds  an ordered list of filter rules as specified on the com-
       mand-line.  Filter rules have the following syntax:

              RULE [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME]
              RULE,MODIFIERS [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME]


       You have your choice of using either  short  or  long  RULE  names,  as
       described below.  If you use a short-named rule, the ',' separating the
       RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.  The PATTERN or FILENAME that fol-
       lows  (when present) must come after either a single space or an under-
       score (_).  Here are the available rule prefixes:

              exclude, - specifies an exclude pattern.
              include, + specifies an include pattern.
              merge, . specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.
              dir-merge, : specifies a per-directory merge-file.
              hide, H specifies a pattern for hiding files from the  transfer.
              show, S files that match the pattern are not hidden.
              protect,  P  specifies a pattern for protecting files from dele-
              tion.
              risk, R files that match the pattern are not protected.
              clear, ! clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)


       When rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as  are
       comment lines that start with a "#".

       Note that the --include/--exclude command-line options do not allow the
       full range of rule parsing as described above -- they  only  allow  the
       specification of include/exclude patterns plus a "!" token to clear the
       list (and the normal comment parsing when rules are read from a  file).
       If  a  pattern  does  not  begin with "- " (dash, space) or "+ " (plus,
       space), then the rule will be interpreted as if "+ "  (for  an  include
       option) or "- " (for an exclude option) were prefixed to the string.  A
       --filter option, on the other hand, must always contain either a  short
       or long rule name at the start of the rule.

       Note  also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take one
       rule/pattern each. To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options  on
       the  command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option, or
       the --include-from/--exclude-from options.



INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERN RULES

       You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the "+",
       "-",  etc.  filter  rules  (as  introduced  in the FILTER RULES section
       above).  The include/exclude rules  each  specify  a  pattern  that  is
       matched  against  the  names  of  the files that are going to be trans-
       ferred.  These patterns can take several forms:


       o      if the pattern starts with a / then it is anchored to a particu-
              lar  spot  in  the  hierarchy  of files, otherwise it is matched
              against the end of the pathname.  This is similar to a leading ^
              in  regular  expressions.   Thus "/foo" would match a file named
              "foo" at either the "root of the transfer" (for a  global  rule)
              or in the merge-file's directory (for a per-directory rule).  An
              unqualified "foo" would match any file or directory named  "foo"
              anywhere  in  the  tree  because the algorithm is applied recur-
              sively from the top down; it behaves as if each  path  component
              gets  a  turn at being the end of the file name.  Even the unan-
              chored "sub/foo" would match at any point in the hierarchy where
              a  "foo" was found within a directory named "sub".  See the sec-
              tion on ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for a full discussion
              of  how  to  specify  a  pattern that matches at the root of the
              transfer.

       o      if the pattern ends with a / then it will only  match  a  direc-
              tory, not a file, link, or device.

       o      rsync  chooses  between doing a simple string match and wildcard
              matching by checking if the pattern contains one of these  three
              wildcard characters: '*', '?', and '[' .

       o      a  '*'  matches  any  non-empty  path  component  (it  stops  at
              slashes).

       o      use '**' to match anything, including slashes.

       o      a '?' matches any character except a slash (/).

       o      a  '['  introduces  a  character  class,  such   as   [a-z]   or
              [[:alpha:]].

       o      in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be used to escape a wild-
              card character, but it is matched literally  when  no  wildcards
              are present.

       o      if  the  pattern  contains  a / (not counting a trailing /) or a
              "**", then it is matched against the  full  pathname,  including
              any leading directories. If the pattern doesn't contain a / or a
              "**", then it is matched only against the final component of the
              filename.   (Remember  that the algorithm is applied recursively
              so "full filename" can actually be any portion of  a  path  from
              the starting directory on down.)

       o      a  trailing  "dir_name/***" will match both the directory (as if
              "dir_name/" had been specified) and all the files in the  direc-
              tory  (as  if "dir_name/**" had been specified).  (This behavior
              is new for version 2.6.7.)


       Note that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied  by
       -a),  every subcomponent of every path is visited from the top down, so
       include/exclude patterns get applied recursively to each subcomponent's
       full  name (e.g. to include "/foo/bar/baz" the subcomponents "/foo" and
       "/foo/bar" must not be excluded).  The exclude patterns actually short-
       circuit  the  directory  traversal  stage when rsync finds the files to
       send.  If a pattern excludes a particular parent directory, it can ren-
       der  a deeper include pattern ineffectual because rsync did not descend
       through that excluded section of the hierarchy.  This  is  particularly
       important  when  using  a  trailing '*' rule.  For instance, this won't
       work:

              + /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
              + /file-is-included
              - *


       This fails because the parent directory "some" is excluded by  the  '*'
       rule,  so  rsync  never  visits  any  of  the  files  in  the "some" or
       "some/path" directories.  One solution is to ask for all directories in
       the  hierarchy  to  be  included by using a single rule: "+ */" (put it
       somewhere   before   the   "-   *"   rule),   and   perhaps   use   the
       --prune-empty-dirs option.  Another solution is to add specific include
       rules for all the parent dirs that need to be visited.   For  instance,
       this set of rules works fine:

              + /some/
              + /some/path/
              + /some/path/this-file-is-found
              + /file-also-included
              - *


       Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:


       o      "- *.o" would exclude all filenames matching *.o

       o      "-  /foo"  would  exclude a file (or directory) named foo in the
              transfer-root directory

       o      "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo

       o      "- /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is at  two
              levels  below  a directory named foo in the transfer-root direc-
              tory

       o      "- /foo/**/bar" would exclude any file named  bar  two  or  more
              levels  below  a directory named foo in the transfer-root direc-
              tory

       o      The combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include  all
              directories  and  C  source files but nothing else (see also the
              --prune-empty-dirs option)

       o      The combination of "+ foo/", "+  foo/bar.c",  and  "-  *"  would
              include  only the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo directory
              must be explicitly included or it would be excluded by the "*")




MERGE-FILE FILTER RULES

       You can merge whole files into your filter rules by specifying either a
       merge  (.)  or a dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER
       RULES section above).

       There are two kinds of merged files -- single-instance ('.')  and  per-
       directory  (':').   A  single-instance merge file is read one time, and
       its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the "."
       rule.   For  per-directory merge files, rsync will scan every directory
       that it traverses for the named file, merging  its  contents  when  the
       file exists into the current list of inherited rules.  These per-direc-
       tory rule files must be created on the sending side because it  is  the
       sending side that is being scanned for the available files to transfer.
       These rule files may also need to be transferred to the receiving  side
       if you want them to affect what files don't get deleted (see PER-DIREC-
       TORY RULES AND DELETE below).

       Some examples:

              merge /etc/rsync/default.rules
              . /etc/rsync/default.rules
              dir-merge .per-dir-filter
              dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
              :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes


       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:


       o      A - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude  pat-
              terns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A  + specifies that the file should consist of only include pat-
              terns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A C is a way to specify that the file should be read in  a  CVS-
              compatible  manner.   This  turns on 'n', 'w', and '-', but also
              allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified.  If no file-
              name is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed.

       o      A  e  will  exclude  the merge-file name from the transfer; e.g.
              "dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "-  .rules".

       o      An  n  specifies that the rules are not inherited by subdirecto-
              ries.

       o      A w specifies  that  the  rules  are  word-split  on  whitespace
              instead  of the normal line-splitting.  This also turns off com-
              ments.  Note: the space that separates the prefix from the  rule
              is  treated  specially,  so "- foo + bar" is parsed as two rules
              (assuming that prefix-parsing wasn't also disabled).

       o      You may also specify any of the modifiers for  the  "+"  or  "-"
              rules  (below)  in order to have the rules that are read in from
              the file default to having that  modifier  set.   For  instance,
              "merge,-/  .excl" would treat the contents of .excl as absolute-
              path excludes, while "dir-merge,s .filt" and  ":sC"  would  each
              make  all  their  per-directory  rules apply only on the sending
              side.


       The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-":


       o      A "/" specifies that the include/exclude rule should be  matched
              against the absolute pathname of the current item.  For example,
              "-/ /etc/passwd" would exclude the  passwd  file  any  time  the
              transfer  was  sending  files from the "/etc" directory, and "-/
              subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is in a dir named
              "subdir",  even if "foo" is at the root of the current transfer.

       o      A "!" specifies that the include/exclude should take  effect  if
              the pattern fails to match.  For instance, "-! */" would exclude
              all non-directories.

       o      A C is used to indicate that all the  global  CVS-exclude  rules
              should  be  inserted  as  excludes in place of the "-C".  No arg
              should follow.

       o      An s is used to indicate that the rule applies  to  the  sending
              side.   When  a rule affects the sending side, it prevents files
              from being transferred.  The default is for  a  rule  to  affect
              both sides unless --delete-excluded was specified, in which case
              default rules become sender-side only.  See also  the  hide  (H)
              and  show (S) rules, which are an alternate way to specify send-
              ing-side includes/excludes.

       o      An r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the  receiving
              side.  When a rule affects the receiving side, it prevents files
              from being deleted.  See the s modifier for more info.  See also
              the  protect  (P) and risk (R) rules, which are an alternate way
              to specify receiver-side includes/excludes.


       Per-directory rules are inherited in all subdirectories of  the  direc-
       tory  where  the merge-file was found unless the 'n' modifier was used.
       Each subdirectory's rules are prefixed to the  inherited  per-directory
       rules  from its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher priority
       than the inherited rules.   The  entire  set  of  dir-merge  rules  are
       grouped  together in the spot where the merge-file was specified, so it
       is possible to override dir-merge rules via a rule that  got  specified
       earlier in the list of global rules.  When the list-clearing rule ("!")
       is read from a per-directory file, it only clears the  inherited  rules
       for the current merge file.

       Another  way  to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file from being
       inherited is to anchor it with a leading slash.  Anchored  rules  in  a
       per-directory merge-file are relative to the merge-file's directory, so
       a pattern "/foo" would only match the file "foo" in the directory where
       the dir-merge filter file was found.

       Here's  an  example  filter  file  which  you'd specify via --filter=".
       file":

              merge /home/user/.global-filter
              - *.gz
              dir-merge .rules
              + *.[ch]
              - *.o


       This will merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter  file  at
       the  start of the list and also turns the ".rules" filename into a per-
       directory filter file.  All rules read in prior to  the  start  of  the
       directory  scan follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a leading slash
       matches at the root of the transfer).

       If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent
       directory of the first transfer directory, rsync will scan all the par-
       ent dirs from that starting point to the  transfer  directory  for  the
       indicated  per-directory  file.   For instance, here is a common filter
       (see -F):

              --filter=': /.rsync-filter'


       That rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all  direc-
       tories  from the root down through the parent directory of the transfer
       prior to the start of the normal directory scan  of  the  file  in  the
       directories  that  are  sent  as a part of the transfer.  (Note: for an
       rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module's "path".)

       Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

              rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
              rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
              rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir


       The first two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in  "/"  and
       "/src"   before  the  normal  scan  begins  looking  for  the  file  in
       "/src/path" and its subdirectories.  The last command avoids  the  par-
       ent-dir  scan  and  only  looks  for  the ".rsync-filter" files in each
       directory that is a part of the transfer.

       If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns,
       you  should use the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the .cvsig-
       nore file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner.  You can use this  to
       affect  where  the  --cvs-exclude  (-C)  option's inclusion of the per-
       directory .cvsignore file gets placed into your rules  by  putting  the
       ":C" wherever you like in your filter rules.  Without this, rsync would
       add the dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of  all  your
       other  rules (giving it a lower priority than your command-line rules).
       For example:

              cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b
              + foo.o
              :C
              - *.old
              EOT
              rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b


       Both of the above rsync commands are identical.  Each  one  will  merge
       all the per-directory .cvsignore rules in the middle of the list rather
       than at the end.  This allows their dir-specific rules to supersede the
       rules  that  follow  the  :C  instead  of being subservient to all your
       rules.  To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of
       exclusions,  the contents of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of $CVSIG-
       NORE) you should omit the -C command-line option and instead  insert  a
       "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g. "--filter=-C".



LIST-CLEARING FILTER RULE

       You  can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!" filter
       rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).  The  "current"
       list  is  either  the  global list of rules (if the rule is encountered
       while parsing the filter options)  or  a  set  of  per-directory  rules
       (which  are  inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory can use
       this to clear out the parent's rules).



ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS

       As mentioned earlier, global include/exclude patterns are  anchored  at
       the "root of the transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which
       are anchored at the merge-file's  directory).   If  you  think  of  the
       transfer  as  a  subtree  of  names  that are being sent from sender to
       receiver, the transfer-root is where the tree starts to  be  duplicated
       in  the  destination  directory.  This root governs where patterns that
       start with a / match.

       Because the matching is relative to  the  transfer-root,  changing  the
       trailing  slash on a source path or changing your use of the --relative
       option affects the path you need to use in your matching  (in  addition
       to  changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on the destination
       host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

       Let's say that we want to match two source files, one with an  absolute
       path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".
       Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

              Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
              +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
              +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
              Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz


              Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
              +/- pattern: /foo/bar               (note missing "me")
              +/- pattern: /bar/baz               (note missing "you")
              Target file: /dest/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/bar/baz


              Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
              +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar       (note full path)
              +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz      (ditto)
              Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz


              Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest
              +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar      (starts at specified path)
              +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz     (ditto)
              Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz


       The  easiest  way to see what name you should filter is to just look at
       the output when using --verbose and put a / in front of the  name  (use
       the --dry-run option if you're not yet ready to copy any files).



PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE

       Without  a  delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the
       sending side, so you can feel free to exclude  the  merge  files  them-
       selves without affecting the transfer.  To make this easy, the 'e' mod-
       ifier adds this exclude for you, as seen in these two  equivalent  com-
       mands:

              rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest
              rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest


       However,  if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you want
       some files to be excluded from being deleted, you'll need  to  be  sure
       that  the  receiving side knows what files to exclude.  The easiest way
       is to include the per-directory merge files in  the  transfer  and  use
       --delete-after,  because  this ensures that the receiving side gets all
       the same exclude rules as the sending side before it  tries  to  delete
       anything:

              rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest


       However, if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need
       to either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the com-
       mand  line),  or  you'll  need to maintain your own per-directory merge
       files on the receiving side.  An example of the first is  this  (assume
       that the remote .rules files exclude themselves):

       rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
          --delete host:src/dir /dest


       In  the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of the
       transfer, but (on the sending side) the rules are  subservient  to  the
       rules  merged  from  the .rules files because they were specified after
       the per-directory merge rule.

       In one final example, the remote side is  excluding  the  .rsync-filter
       files from the transfer, but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files
       to control what gets deleted on the receiving side.  To do this we must
       specifically  exclude the per-directory merge files (so that they don't
       get deleted) and then put rules into the local files  to  control  what
       else should not get deleted.  Like one of these commands:

           rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
               host:src/dir /dest
           rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest




BATCH MODE

       Batch mode can be used to apply the same set of updates to many identi-
       cal systems. Suppose one has a tree which is replicated on a number  of
       hosts.  Now suppose some changes have been made to this source tree and
       those changes need to be propagated to the other hosts. In order to  do
       this  using  batch  mode,  rsync  is run with the write-batch option to
       apply the changes made to the source tree to  one  of  the  destination
       trees.   The  write-batch  option causes the rsync client to store in a
       "batch file" all  the  information  needed  to  repeat  this  operation
       against other, identical destination trees.

       To  apply  the  recorded changes to another destination tree, run rsync
       with the read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch file,
       and the destination tree.  Rsync updates the destination tree using the
       information stored in the batch file.

       For convenience, one additional file is creating when  the  write-batch
       option  is used.  This file's name is created by appending ".sh" to the
       batch filename.  The .sh file  contains  a  command-line  suitable  for
       updating  a  destination tree using that batch file. It can be executed
       using a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell, optionally passing in an  alter-
       nate destination tree pathname which is then used instead of the origi-
       nal path. This is useful when the destination tree  path  differs  from
       the original destination tree path.

       Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status,
       checksum, and data block generation more than once when updating multi-
       ple  destination  trees.  Multicast  transport protocols can be used to
       transfer the batch update files in parallel  to  many  hosts  at  once,
       instead of sending the same data to every host individually.

       Examples:

              $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
              $ scp foo* remote:
              $ ssh remote ./foo.sh /bdest/dir/


              $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/
              $ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo


       In   these   examples,   rsync  is  used  to  update  /adest/dir/  from
       /source/dir/ and the information to repeat this operation is stored  in
       "foo" and "foo.sh".  The host "remote" is then updated with the batched
       data going into the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences between  the
       two  examples  reveals some of the flexibility you have in how you deal
       with batches:


       o      The first example shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be
              local  --  you can push or pull data to/from a remote host using
              either the  remote-shell  syntax  or  rsync  daemon  syntax,  as
              desired.

       o      The  first  example  uses  the  created "foo.sh" file to get the
              right rsync options when running the read-batch command  on  the
              remote host.

       o      The  second  example  reads the batch data via standard input so
              that the batch file doesn't need to  be  copied  to  the  remote
              machine first.  This example avoids the foo.sh script because it
              needed to use a modified --read-batch option, but you could edit
              the  script  file  if you wished to make use of it (just be sure
              that no other option is trying to use standard  input,  such  as
              the "--exclude-from=-" option).


       Caveats:

       The  read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is updating
       to be identical to the destination tree that was  used  to  create  the
       batch  update fileset.  When a difference between the destination trees
       is encountered the update might be discarded with  a  warning  (if  the
       file  appears  to  be  up-to-date  already)  or  the file-update may be
       attempted and then, if the file fails to verify, the  update  discarded
       with  an  error.   This  means that it should be safe to re-run a read-
       batch operation if the command got interrupted.  If you wish  to  force
       the batched-update to always be attempted regardless of the file's size
       and date, use the -I option (when reading  the  batch).   If  an  error
       occurs,  the  destination  tree will probably be in a partially updated
       state. In that case, rsync can be used in its regular (non-batch)  mode
       of operation to fix up the destination tree.

       The  rsync  version used on all destinations must be at least as new as
       the one used to generate the batch file.  Rsync will die with an  error
       if  the  protocol  version  in the batch file is too new for the batch-
       reading rsync to handle.  See also the --protocol option for a  way  to
       have  the  creating rsync generate a batch file that an older rsync can
       understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in version 2.6.3, so
       mixing versions older than that with newer versions will not work.)

       When  reading  a  batch  file,  rsync  will  force the value of certain
       options to match the data in the batch file if you didn't set  them  to
       the  same as the batch-writing command.  Other options can (and should)
       be  changed.   For  instance  --write-batch  changes  to  --read-batch,
       --files-from  is  dropped, and the --filter/--include/--exclude options
       are not needed unless one of the --delete options is specified.

       The  code  that  creates  the  BATCH.sh  file   transforms   any   fil-
       ter/include/exclude  options  into  a single list that is appended as a
       "here" document to the shell script file.  An  advanced  user  can  use
       this  to  modify  the  exclude list if a change in what gets deleted by
       --delete is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just use
       the  shell  script  as  an easy way to run the appropriate --read-batch
       command for the batched data.

       The original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the  latest
       version uses a new implementation.



SYMBOLIC LINKS

       Three  basic  behaviors  are  possible when rsync encounters a symbolic
       link in the source directory.

       By default, symbolic links are  not  transferred  at  all.   A  message
       "skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

       If --links is specified, then symlinks are recreated with the same tar-
       get on the destination.  Note that --archive implies --links.

       If --copy-links is specified, then symlinks are "collapsed" by  copying
       their referent, rather than the symlink.

       rsync  also distinguishes "safe" and "unsafe" symbolic links.  An exam-
       ple where this might be used is a web site mirror  that  wishes  ensure
       the  rsync  module  they  copy  does  not  include  symbolic  links  to
       /etc/passwd   in   the   public   section   of   the    site.     Using
       --copy-unsafe-links  will cause any links to be copied as the file they
       point to on the destination.   Using  --safe-links  will  cause  unsafe
       links  to  be  omitted altogether.  (Note that you must specify --links
       for --safe-links to have any effect.)

       Symbolic links are considered unsafe  if  they  are  absolute  symlinks
       (start  with  /),  empty, or if they contain enough ".."  components to
       ascend from the directory being copied.

       Here's a summary of how the symlink options are interpreted.  The  list
       is in order of precedence, so if your combination of options isn't men-
       tioned, use the first line that is a complete subset of your options:


       --copy-links
              Turn all symlinks into normal files (leaving no symlinks for any
              other options to affect).


       --links --copy-unsafe-links
              Turn  all unsafe symlinks into files and duplicate all safe sym-
              links.


       --copy-unsafe-links
              Turn all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily skip all safe  sym-
              links.


       --links --safe-links
              Duplicate safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.


       --links
              Duplicate all symlinks.



DIAGNOSTICS

       rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem a little cryp-
       tic. The one that seems to cause the most confusion is  "protocol  ver-
       sion mismatch -- is your shell clean?".

       This  message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote shell
       facility producing unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync  is  using
       for  its  transport.  The  way  to diagnose this problem is to run your
       remote shell like this:

              ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat


       then look at out.dat. If everything is working correctly  then  out.dat
       should  be  a zero length file. If you are getting the above error from
       rsync then you will probably find that out.dat contains  some  text  or
       data.  Look  at  the contents and try to work out what is producing it.
       The most common cause is incorrectly configured shell  startup  scripts
       (such  as  .cshrc  or .profile) that contain output statements for non-
       interactive logins.

       If you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try  specify-
       ing  the  -vv  option.   At this level of verbosity rsync will show why
       each individual file is included or excluded.



EXIT VALUES

       0      Success

       1      Syntax or usage error

       2      Protocol incompatibility

       3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

       4      Requested action not supported: an attempt was made  to  manipu-
              late  64-bit files on a platform that cannot support them; or an
              option was specified that is supported by the client and not  by
              the server.

       5      Error starting client-server protocol

       6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

       10     Error in socket I/O

       11     Error in file I/O

       12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

       13     Errors with program diagnostics

       14     Error in IPC code

       20     Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       21     Some error returned by waitpid()

       22     Error allocating core memory buffers

       23     Partial transfer due to error

       24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

       25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       30     Timeout in data send/receive




ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

       CVSIGNORE
              The  CVSIGNORE  environment variable supplements any ignore pat-
              terns in .cvsignore files. See the --cvs-exclude option for more
              details.

       RSYNC_RSH
              The  RSYNC_RSH  environment  variable allows you to override the
              default shell used as the transport  for  rsync.   Command  line
              options  are permitted after the command name, just as in the -e
              option.

       RSYNC_PROXY
              The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your
              rsync  client to use a web proxy when connecting to a rsync dae-
              mon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

       RSYNC_PASSWORD
              Setting RSYNC_PASSWORD to the required password  allows  you  to
              run  authenticated  rsync connections to an rsync daemon without
              user intervention. Note that this does not supply a password  to
              a shell transport such as ssh.

       USER or LOGNAME
              The  USER or LOGNAME environment variables are used to determine
              the default username sent to an rsync  daemon.   If  neither  is
              set, the username defaults to "nobody".

       HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the user's default
              .cvsignore file.




FILES

       /etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf



SEE ALSO

       rsyncd.conf(5) fcntl(2)



BUGS

       times are transferred as *nix time_t values

       When transferring to  FAT  filesystems  rsync  may  re-sync  unmodified
       files.  See the comments on the --modify-window option.

       file  permissions,  devices,  etc.  are transferred as native numerical
       values

       see also the comments on the --delete option

       Please report bugs! See the website at http://rsync.samba.org/



VERSION

       This man page is current for version 2.6.9 of rsync.



INTERNAL OPTIONS

       The options --server and --sender are used  internally  by  rsync,  and
       should  never  be  typed  by  a  user under normal circumstances.  Some
       awareness of these options may be needed in certain scenarios, such  as
       when  setting  up  a  login  that  can  only run an rsync command.  For
       instance, the support directory of the rsync distribution has an  exam-
       ple  script named rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used with a
       restricted ssh login.



CREDITS

       rsync is distributed under the GNU public license.  See the file  COPY-
       ING for details.

       A  WEB site is available at http://rsync.samba.org/.  The site includes
       an FAQ-O-Matic which may cover  questions  unanswered  by  this  manual
       page.

       The primary ftp site for rsync is ftp://rsync.samba.org/pub/rsync.

       We would be delighted to hear from you if you like this program.

       This  program  uses  the  excellent zlib compression library written by
       Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler.



THANKS

       Thanks to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite,  Stephen  Rothwell
       and  David  Bell for helpful suggestions, patches and testing of rsync.
       I've probably missed some people, my apologies if I have.

       Especial thanks also to: David Dykstra, Jos Backus, Sebastian  Krahmer,
       Martin Pool, Wayne Davison, J.W. Schultz.



AUTHOR

       rsync  was  originally  written  by Andrew Tridgell and Paul Mackerras.
       Many people have later contributed to it.

       Mailing  lists  for  support   and   development   are   available   at
       http://lists.samba.org



                                  6 Nov 2006                          rsync(1)

Mac OS X 10.6 - Generated Thu Sep 17 20:09:04 CDT 2009