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rsync(1)                                                              rsync(1)


       rsync - a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool


       Local:  rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

       Access via remote shell:
         Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
         Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST

       Access via rsync daemon:
         Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
               rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
         Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
               rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST

       Usages with just one SRC arg and no DEST arg will list the source files
       instead of copying.


       Rsync is a fast and extraordinarily versatile file  copying  tool.   It
       can  copy  locally,  to/from  another  host  over  any remote shell, or
       to/from a remote rsync daemon.  It offers a  large  number  of  options
       that  control  every  aspect  of  its behavior and permit very flexible
       specification of the set of files to be copied.  It is famous  for  its
       delta-transfer  algorithm,  which  reduces the amount of data sent over
       the network by sending only the differences between  the  source  files
       and  the  existing  files in the destination.  Rsync is widely used for
       backups and mirroring and as an improved copy command for everyday use.

       Rsync  finds  files  that  need to be transferred using a "quick check"
       algorithm (by default) that looks for files that have changed  in  size
       or   in  last-modified  time.   Any  changes  in  the  other  preserved
       attributes (as requested by options) are made on the  destination  file
       directly  when  the quick check indicates that the file's data does not
       need to be updated.

       Some of the additional features of rsync are:

       o      support for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and  permis-

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a  CVS  exclude  mode for ignoring the same files that CVS would

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal  for


       Rsync  copies  files either to or from a remote host, or locally on the
       current host (it does not support  copying  files  between  two  remote

       There  are  two  different  ways  for rsync to contact a remote system:
       using a remote-shell program as the transport (such as ssh or  rsh)  or
       contacting  an  rsync daemon directly via TCP.  The remote-shell trans-
       port is used whenever the source or destination path contains a  single
       colon  (:)  separator  after a host specification.  Contacting an rsync
       daemon directly happens when the source or destination path contains  a
       double  colon  (::)  separator  after  a host specification, OR when an
       rsync:// URL is specified (see also the  "USING  RSYNC-DAEMON  FEATURES
       VIA  A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for an exception to this latter

       As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a desti-
       nation, the files are listed in an output format similar to "ls -l".

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a remote
       host, the copy occurs locally (see also the --list-only option).

       Rsync refers to the local side as the "client" and the remote  side  as
       the  "server".  Don't confuse "server" with an rsync daemon -- a daemon
       is always a  server,  but  a  server  can  be  either  a  daemon  or  a
       remote-shell spawned process.


       See the file README for installation instructions.

       Once  installed,  you  can use rsync to any machine that you can access
       via a remote shell (as well as some that you can access using the rsync
       daemon-mode  protocol).   For remote transfers, a modern rsync uses ssh
       for its communications, but it may have been configured to use  a  dif-
       ferent remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You  can also specify any remote shell you like, either by using the -e
       command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment  variable.

       Note  that  rsync  must be installed on both the source and destination


       You use rsync in the same way you use rcp. You must  specify  a  source
       and a destination, one of which may be remote.

       Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

              rsync -t *.c foo:src/

       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current
       directory to the directory src on the machine foo. If any of the  files
       already  exist on the remote system then the rsync remote-update proto-
       col is used to update the file by sending only the differences. See the
       tech report for details.

              rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on
       the machine foo into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the local  machine.
       The  files  are  transferred in "archive" mode, which ensures that sym-
       bolic links, devices, attributes,  permissions,  ownerships,  etc.  are
       preserved  in  the transfer.  Additionally, compression will be used to
       reduce the size of data portions of the transfer.

              rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

       A trailing slash on the source changes this behavior to avoid  creating
       an  additional  directory level at the destination.  You can think of a
       trailing / on a source as meaning "copy the contents of this directory"
       as  opposed  to  "copy  the  directory  by name", but in both cases the
       attributes of the containing directory are transferred to the  contain-
       ing  directory on the destination.  In other words, each of the follow-
       ing commands copies the files in the same way, including their  setting
       of the attributes of /dest/foo:

              rsync -av /src/foo /dest
              rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

       Note  also  that  host  and  module references don't require a trailing
       slash to copy the contents of the default directory.  For example, both
       of these copy the remote directory's contents into "/dest":

              rsync -av host: /dest
              rsync -av host::module /dest

       You  can  also  use rsync in local-only mode, where both the source and
       destination don't have a ':' in the name. In this case it behaves  like
       an improved copy command.

       Finally,  you can list all the (listable) modules available from a par-
       ticular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:


       See the following section for more details.


       The syntax for requesting multiple files from a remote host is done  by
       specifying  additional remote-host args in the same style as the first,
       or with the hostname omitted.  For instance, all these work:

              rsync -av host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
              rsync -av host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/file3 /dest/
              rsync -av host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}

       Older versions of rsync required using quoted spaces in the  SRC,  like
       these examples:

              rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest
              rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

       This  word-splitting  still works (by default) in the latest rsync, but
       is not as easy to use as the first method.

       If you need to transfer a filename that contains  whitespace,  you  can
       either specify the --protect-args (-s) option, or you'll need to escape
       the whitespace in a way that the remote  shell  will  understand.   For

              rsync -av host:'file\ name\ with\ spaces' /dest


       It  is  also possible to use rsync without a remote shell as the trans-
       port.  In this case you will directly connect to a remote rsync daemon,
       typically  using  TCP port 873.  (This obviously requires the daemon to
       be running on the remote system, so refer to the STARTING AN RSYNC DAE-
       MON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)

       Using  rsync  in  this  way is the same as using it with a remote shell
       except that:

       o      you either use a double colon :: instead of a  single  colon  to
              separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

       o      the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.

       o      the remote daemon may print a message of the day when  you  con-

       o      if  you  specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list
              of accessible paths on the daemon will be shown.

       o      if you specify no local destination then a listing of the speci-
              fied files on the remote daemon is provided.

       o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option.

       An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":

           rsync -av host::src /dest

       Some  modules  on  the remote daemon may require authentication. If so,
       you will receive a password prompt when you connect. You can avoid  the
       password  prompt  by setting the environment variable RSYNC_PASSWORD to
       the password you want to use or using the --password-file option.  This
       may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING:  On  some  systems  environment  variables  are visible to all
       users. On those systems using --password-file is recommended.

       You may establish the connection via a web proxy by setting  the  envi-
       ronment  variable  RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to your
       web proxy.  Note that your web proxy's configuration must support proxy
       connections to port 873.

       You  may  also establish a daemon connection using a program as a proxy
       by setting the environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the  commands
       you  wish  to  run  in place of making a direct socket connection.  The
       string may contain the escape "%H" to represent the hostname  specified
       in  the  rsync  command  (so  use "%%" if you need a single "%" in your
       string).  For example:

         export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
         rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
         rsync -av rsync:://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

       The command specified above uses ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost,
       which  forwards all data to port 873 (the rsync daemon) on the targeth-
       ost (%H).


       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such
       as  named modules) without actually allowing any new socket connections
       into  a  system  (other  than  what  is  already  required   to   allow
       remote-shell  access).   Rsync  supports  connecting  to a host using a
       remote shell and  then  spawning  a  single-use  "daemon"  server  that
       expects  to  read  its  config file in the home dir of the remote user.
       This can be useful if you want to  encrypt  a  daemon-style  transfer's
       data,  but since the daemon is started up fresh by the remote user, you
       may not be able to use features such as chroot or change the  uid  used
       by the daemon.  (For another way to encrypt a daemon transfer, consider
       using ssh to tunnel a local port to a remote machine  and  configure  a
       normal  rsync daemon on that remote host to only allow connections from

       From the user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell  con-
       nection uses nearly the same command-line syntax as a normal rsync-dae-
       mon transfer, with the only exception being that  you  must  explicitly
       set the remote shell program on the command-line with the --rsh=COMMAND
       option.  (Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environment  will  not  turn  on
       this functionality.)  For example:

           rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

       If you need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that
       the user@ prefix in front of the  host  is  specifying  the  rsync-user
       value  (for  a  module  that requires user-based authentication).  This
       means that you must give the '-l user' option to  ssh  when  specifying
       the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short version of the
       --rsh option:

           rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

       The "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will  be
       used to log-in to the "module".


       In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have
       a daemon already running (or it needs to have configured something like
       inetd to spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular
       port).  For full information on how to start a daemon  that  will  han-
       dling  incoming  socket connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5) man page --
       that is the config file for  the  daemon,  and  it  contains  the  full
       details for how to run the daemon (including stand-alone and inetd con-

       If you're using one of the remote-shell transports  for  the  transfer,
       there is no need to manually start an rsync daemon.


       Rsync  always  sorts the specified filenames into its internal transfer
       list.  This handles the merging together of the contents of identically
       named directories, makes it easy to remove duplicate filenames, and may
       confuse someone when the files are transferred  in  a  different  order
       than what was given on the command-line.

       If  you  need  a  particular  file  to be transferred prior to another,
       either separate the files into different rsync calls, or consider using
       --delay-updates  (which  doesn't  affect the sorted transfer order, but
       does make the final file-updating phase happen much more rapidly).


       Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

       To backup my wife's home directory, which consists  of  large  MS  Word
       files and mail folders, I use a cron job that runs

              rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

       each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my machine

       To synchronize my samba source trees I use the following Makefile  tar-

                   rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
                   rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
           sync: get put

       this  allows  me  to  sync with a CVS directory at the other end of the
       connection. I then do CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves
       a lot of time as the remote CVS protocol isn't very efficient.

       I mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the com-

       rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

       This is launched from cron every few hours.


       Here is a short summary of the options available in rsync. Please refer
       to the detailed description below for a complete description.

        -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
            --info=FLAGS            fine-grained informational verbosity
            --debug=FLAGS           fine-grained debug verbosity
            --msgs2stderr           special output handling for debugging
        -q, --quiet                 suppress non-error messages
            --no-motd               suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
        -c, --checksum              skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
        -a, --archive               archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
            --no-OPTION             turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
        -r, --recursive             recurse into directories
        -R, --relative              use relative path names
            --no-implied-dirs       don't send implied dirs with --relative
        -b, --backup                make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
            --backup-dir=DIR        make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
            --suffix=SUFFIX         backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
        -u, --update                skip files that are newer on the receiver
            --inplace               update destination files in-place
            --append                append data onto shorter files
            --append-verify         --append w/old data in file checksum
        -d, --dirs                  transfer directories without recursing
        -l, --links                 copy symlinks as symlinks
        -L, --copy-links            transform symlink into referent file/dir
            --copy-unsafe-links     only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
            --safe-links            ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
            --munge-links           munge symlinks to make them safer
        -k, --copy-dirlinks         transform symlink to dir into referent dir
        -K, --keep-dirlinks         treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir
        -H, --hard-links            preserve hard links
        -p, --perms                 preserve permissions
        -E, --executability         preserve executability
            --chmod=CHMOD           affect file and/or directory permissions
        -A, --acls                  preserve ACLs (implies -p)
        -X, --xattrs                preserve extended attributes
        -o, --owner                 preserve owner (super-user only)
        -g, --group                 preserve group
            --devices               preserve device files (super-user only)
            --specials              preserve special files
        -D                          same as --devices --specials
        -t, --times                 preserve modification times
        -O, --omit-dir-times        omit directories from --times
        -J, --omit-link-times       omit symlinks from --times
            --super                 receiver attempts super-user activities
            --fake-super            store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
        -S, --sparse                handle sparse files efficiently
            --preallocate           allocate dest files before writing
        -n, --dry-run               perform a trial run with no changes made
        -W, --whole-file            copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
        -x, --one-file-system       don't cross filesystem boundaries
        -B, --block-size=SIZE       force a fixed checksum block-size
        -e, --rsh=COMMAND           specify the remote shell to use
            --rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the rsync to run on remote machine
            --existing              skip creating new files on receiver
            --ignore-existing       skip updating files that exist on receiver
            --remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
            --del                   an alias for --delete-during
            --delete                delete extraneous files from dest dirs
            --delete-before         receiver deletes before xfer, not during
            --delete-during         receiver deletes during the transfer
            --delete-delay          find deletions during, delete after
            --delete-after          receiver deletes after transfer, not during
            --delete-excluded       also delete excluded files from dest dirs
            --ignore-missing-args   ignore missing source args without error
            --delete-missing-args   delete missing source args from destination
            --ignore-errors         delete even if there are I/O errors
            --force                 force deletion of dirs even if not empty
            --max-delete=NUM        don't delete more than NUM files
            --max-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
            --min-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
            --partial               keep partially transferred files
            --partial-dir=DIR       put a partially transferred file into DIR
            --delay-updates         put all updated files into place at end
        -m, --prune-empty-dirs      prune empty directory chains from file-list
            --numeric-ids           don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
            --usermap=STRING        custom username mapping
            --groupmap=STRING       custom groupname mapping
            --chown=USER:GROUP      simple username/groupname mapping
            --timeout=SECONDS       set I/O timeout in seconds
            --contimeout=SECONDS    set daemon connection timeout in seconds
        -I, --ignore-times          don't skip files that match size and time
            --size-only             skip files that match in size
            --modify-window=NUM     compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
        -T, --temp-dir=DIR          create temporary files in directory DIR
        -y, --fuzzy                 find similar file for basis if no dest file
            --compare-dest=DIR      also compare received files relative to DIR
            --copy-dest=DIR         ... and include copies of unchanged files
            --link-dest=DIR         hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
        -z, --compress              compress file data during the transfer
            --compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
            --skip-compress=LIST    skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
        -C, --cvs-exclude           auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
        -f, --filter=RULE           add a file-filtering RULE
        -F                          same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
                                    repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
            --exclude=PATTERN       exclude files matching PATTERN
            --exclude-from=FILE     read exclude patterns from FILE
            --include=PATTERN       don't exclude files matching PATTERN
            --include-from=FILE     read include patterns from FILE
            --files-from=FILE       read list of source-file names from FILE
        -0, --from0                 all *from/filter files are delimited by 0s
        -s, --protect-args          no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
            --address=ADDRESS       bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
            --port=PORT             specify double-colon alternate port number
            --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
            --blocking-io           use blocking I/O for the remote shell
            --outbuf=N|L|B          set out buffering to None, Line, or Block
            --stats                 give some file-transfer stats
        -8, --8-bit-output          leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
        -h, --human-readable        output numbers in a human-readable format
            --progress              show progress during transfer
        -P                          same as --partial --progress
        -i, --itemize-changes       output a change-summary for all updates
        -M, --remote-option=OPTION  send OPTION to the remote side only
            --out-format=FORMAT     output updates using the specified FORMAT
            --log-file=FILE         log what we're doing to the specified FILE
            --log-file-format=FMT   log updates using the specified FMT
            --password-file=FILE    read daemon-access password from FILE
            --list-only             list the files instead of copying them
            --bwlimit=RATE          limit socket I/O bandwidth
            --write-batch=FILE      write a batched update to FILE
            --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
            --read-batch=FILE       read a batched update from FILE
            --protocol=NUM          force an older protocol version to be used
            --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC    request charset conversion of filenames
            --checksum-seed=NUM     set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
        -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
        -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
            --version               print version number
       (-h) --help                  show this help (see below for -h comment)

       Rsync  can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following options
       are accepted:

            --daemon                run as an rsync daemon
            --address=ADDRESS       bind to the specified address
            --bwlimit=RATE          limit socket I/O bandwidth
            --config=FILE           specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
        -M, --dparam=OVERRIDE       override global daemon config parameter
            --no-detach             do not detach from the parent
            --port=PORT             listen on alternate port number
            --log-file=FILE         override the "log file" setting
            --log-file-format=FMT   override the "log format" setting
            --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
        -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
        -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
        -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
        -h, --help                  show this help (if used after --daemon)


       Rsync accepts both long (double-dash + word) and short  (single-dash  +
       letter)  options.  The full list of the available options are described
       below.  If an option can be specified in more than one way, the choices
       are  comma-separated.   Some  options  only  have a long variant, not a
       short.  If the option takes a parameter, the parameter is  only  listed
       after  the  long variant, even though it must also be specified for the
       short.  When specifying a  parameter,  you  can  either  use  the  form
       --option=param  or  replace the '=' with whitespace.  The parameter may
       need to be quoted in some manner for it to  survive  the  shell's  com-
       mand-line parsing.  Keep in mind that a leading tilde (~) in a filename
       is substituted by your shell, so --option=~/foo  will  not  change  the
       tilde into your home directory (remove the '=' for that).

       --help Print  a  short  help  page  describing the options available in
              rsync and exit.  For backward-compatibility with older  versions
              of  rsync, the help will also be output if you use the -h option
              without any other args.

              print the rsync version number and exit.

       -v, --verbose
              This option increases the amount of information  you  are  given
              during the transfer.  By default, rsync works silently. A single
              -v will give you information about what files are  being  trans-
              ferred  and a brief summary at the end. Two -v options will give
              you information on what files are  being  skipped  and  slightly
              more  information  at  the  end. More than two -v options should
              only be used if you are debugging rsync.

              In a modern rsync, the -v option is equivalent to the setting of
              groups  of  --info  and  --debug options.  You can choose to use
              these newer options in addition to, or in place of using  --ver-
              bose, as any fine-grained settings override the implied settings
              of -v.  Both --info and --debug have a way to ask for help  that
              tells  you  exactly what flags are set for each increase in ver-

              This option lets you have fine-grained control over the informa-
              tion  output  you  want  to see.  An individual flag name may be
              followed by a level number, with 0 meaning to silence that  out-
              put,  1  being  the  default  output  level,  and higher numbers
              increasing the output of  that  flag  (for  those  that  support
              higher  levels).   Use --info=help to see all the available flag
              names, what they output, and what flag names are added for  each
              increase in the verbose level.  Some examples:

                  rsync -a --info=progress2 src/ dest/
                  rsync -avv --info=stats2,misc1,flist0 src/ dest/

              Note  that  --info=name's output is affected by the --out-format
              and --itemize-changes (-i) options.  See those options for  more
              information on what is output and when.

              This  option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the server
              side might reject your attempts at fine-grained control (if  one
              or more flags needed to be send to the server and the server was
              too old to understand them).

              This option lets you have fine-grained control  over  the  debug
              output you want to see.  An individual flag name may be followed
              by a level number, with 0 meaning  to  silence  that  output,  1
              being  the  default  output level, and higher numbers increasing
              the output of that flag (for those that support higher  levels).
              Use  --debug=help to see all the available flag names, what they
              output, and what flag names are added for each increase  in  the
              verbose level.  Some examples:

                  rsync -avvv --debug=none src/ dest/
                  rsync -avA --del --debug=del2,acl src/ dest/

              Note   that  some  debug  messages  will  only  be  output  when
              --msgs2stderr is specified, especially those pertaining  to  I/O
              and buffer debugging.

              This  option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the server
              side might reject your attempts at fine-grained control (if  one
              or more flags needed to be send to the server and the server was
              too old to understand them).

              This option changes rsync to send all  its  output  directly  to
              stderr  rather  than to send messages to the client side via the
              protocol (which normally  outputs  info  messages  via  stdout).
              This is mainly intended for debugging in order to avoid changing
              the data sent via the protocol, since the  extra  protocol  data
              can  change  what  is  being tested.  Keep in mind that a daemon
              connection does not have a stderr channel to send messages  back
              to  the  client  side,  so  if you are doing any daemon-transfer
              debugging using this option, you should start up a daemon  using
              --no-detach  so that you can see the stderr output on the daemon

              This option has the side-effect  of  making  stderr  output  get
              line-buffered  so  that  the merging of the output of 3 programs
              happens in a more readable manner.

       -q, --quiet
              This option decreases the amount of information  you  are  given
              during  the  transfer,  notably suppressing information messages
              from the remote server. This  option  is  useful  when  invoking
              rsync from cron.

              This option affects the information that is output by the client
              at the start of a daemon transfer.   This  suppresses  the  mes-
              sage-of-the-day  (MOTD)  text,  but  it also affects the list of
              modules that the daemon sends in response to the "rsync  host::"
              request  (due  to  a  limitation in the rsync protocol), so omit
              this option if you want to request the list of modules from  the

       -I, --ignore-times
              Normally  rsync  will  skip  any files that are already the same
              size and have the  same  modification  timestamp.   This  option
              turns  off  this "quick check" behavior, causing all files to be

              This modifies rsync's "quick check" algorithm for finding  files
              that  need  to  be  transferred, changing it from the default of
              transferring files with either  a  changed  size  or  a  changed
              last-modified  time  to just looking for files that have changed
              in size.  This is useful when starting to use rsync after  using
              another  mirroring  system  which  may  not  preserve timestamps

              When comparing two timestamps, rsync treats  the  timestamps  as
              being  equal  if  they  differ by no more than the modify-window
              value.  This is normally 0 (for an exact  match),  but  you  may
              find it useful to set this to a larger value in some situations.
              In particular, when transferring to or from an  MS  Windows  FAT
              filesystem  (which represents times with a 2-second resolution),
              --modify-window=1 is useful (allowing times to differ by up to 1

       -c, --checksum
              This changes the way rsync checks if the files have been changed
              and are in need of a transfer.  Without this option, rsync  uses
              a "quick check" that (by default) checks if each file's size and
              time of last modification match between the sender and receiver.
              This  option changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for each
              file that has a matching size.  Generating the  checksums  means
              that  both  sides  will expend a lot of disk I/O reading all the
              data in the files in the transfer (and  this  is  prior  to  any
              reading  that  will  be done to transfer changed files), so this
              can slow things down significantly.

              The sending side generates its checksums while it is  doing  the
              file-system  scan  that  builds the list of the available files.
              The receiver generates its checksums when  it  is  scanning  for
              changed files, and will checksum any file that has the same size
              as the corresponding sender's file:  files with either a changed
              size or a changed checksum are selected for transfer.

              Note  that  rsync always verifies that each transferred file was
              correctly reconstructed on the  receiving  side  by  checking  a
              whole-file  checksum  that  is  generated  as the file is trans-
              ferred, but that automatic after-the-transfer  verification  has
              nothing  to do with this option's before-the-transfer "Does this
              file need to be updated?" check.

              For protocol 30 and  beyond  (first  supported  in  3.0.0),  the
              checksum used is MD5.  For older protocols, the checksum used is

       -a, --archive
              This is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of saying  you
              want  recursion  and want to preserve almost everything (with -H
              being a notable omission).  The  only  exception  to  the  above
              equivalence  is when --files-from is specified, in which case -r
              is not implied.

              Note that -a does not preserve hardlinks, because finding multi-
              ply-linked  files is expensive.  You must separately specify -H.

              You may turn off one or more implied options  by  prefixing  the
              option  name with "no-".  Not all options may be prefixed with a
              "no-": only options that are  implied  by  other  options  (e.g.
              --no-D,  --no-perms)  or have different defaults in various cir-
              cumstances (e.g. --no-whole-file, --no-blocking-io,  --no-dirs).
              You  may  specify either the short or the long option name after
              the "no-" prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same as --no-relative).

              For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don't want -o
              (--owner),  instead  of  converting  -a  into -rlptgD, you could
              specify -a --no-o (or -a --no-owner).

              The order of the options is important:  if  you  specify  --no-r
              -a,  the -r option would end up being turned on, the opposite of
              -a --no-r.  Note also that the side-effects of the  --files-from
              option  are  NOT  positional, as it affects the default state of
              several options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see  the
              --files-from option for more details).

       -r, --recursive
              This  tells  rsync  to  copy  directories recursively.  See also
              --dirs (-d).

              Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used is  now
              an  incremental  scan that uses much less memory than before and
              begins the transfer after the scanning of the first few directo-
              ries  have  been  completed.  This incremental scan only affects
              our recursion algorithm, and does  not  change  a  non-recursive
              transfer.  It is also only possible when both ends of the trans-
              fer are at least version 3.0.0.

              Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so  these
              options  disable the incremental recursion mode.  These include:
              --delete-before,   --delete-after,    --prune-empty-dirs,    and
              --delay-updates.   Because of this, the default delete mode when
              you specify --delete is now --delete-during when  both  ends  of
              the  connection are at least 3.0.0 (use --del or --delete-during
              to request this improved deletion mode  explicitly).   See  also
              the  --delete-delay  option  that  is a better choice than using

              Incremental recursion can be disabled using the  --no-inc-recur-
              sive option or its shorter --no-i-r alias.

       -R, --relative
              Use  relative  paths. This means that the full path names speci-
              fied on the command line are sent to the server rather than just
              the  last  parts  of  the filenames. This is particularly useful
              when you want to send several different directories at the  same
              time. For example, if you used this command:

                 rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              ...  this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote
              machine. If instead you used

                 rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              then a file named /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would  be  created  on  the
              remote machine, preserving its full path.  These extra path ele-
              ments are called "implied directories" (i.e. the "foo"  and  the
              "foo/bar" directories in the above example).

              Beginning  with  rsync  3.0.0,  rsync always sends these implied
              directories as real directories in the file list, even if a path
              element  is really a symlink on the sending side.  This prevents
              some really unexpected behaviors when copying the full path of a
              file  that you didn't realize had a symlink in its path.  If you
              want to duplicate a server-side symlink, include both  the  sym-
              link via its path, and referent directory via its real path.  If
              you're dealing with an older rsync on the sending side, you  may
              need to use the --no-implied-dirs option.

              It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that
              is sent as implied directories for each path you specify.   With
              a  modern  rsync on the sending side (beginning with 2.6.7), you
              can insert a dot and a slash into the source path, like this:

                 rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              That would create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote  machine.   (Note
              that  the dot must be followed by a slash, so "/foo/." would not
              be abbreviated.)  For older rsync versions, you  would  need  to
              use a chdir to limit the source path.  For example, when pushing

                 (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

              (Note that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell,  so
              that  the  "cd" command doesn't remain in effect for future com-
              mands.)  If you're pulling files from an older rsync,  use  this
              idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):

                 rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
                     remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

              This  option  affects  the  default  behavior  of the --relative
              option.  When it is specified, the  attributes  of  the  implied
              directories from the source names are not included in the trans-
              fer.  This means that the corresponding  path  elements  on  the
              destination  system  are  left  unchanged if they exist, and any
              missing implied directories are created with default attributes.
              This even allows these implied path elements to have big differ-
              ences, such as being a symlink to a directory on  the  receiving

              For  instance,  if a command-line arg or a files-from entry told
              rsync to transfer  the  file  "path/foo/file",  the  directories
              "path"  and  "path/foo" are implied when --relative is used.  If
              "path/foo" is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system,  the
              receiving  rsync would ordinarily delete "path/foo", recreate it
              as a directory, and receive the file  into  the  new  directory.
              With    --no-implied-dirs,    the    receiving   rsync   updates
              "path/foo/file" using the existing path  elements,  which  means
              that  the file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another way
              to  accomplish  this   link   preservation   is   to   use   the
              --keep-dirlinks  option  (which  will  also  affect  symlinks to
              directories in the rest of the transfer).

              When pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may  need
              to use this option if the sending side has a symlink in the path
              you request and you wish the implied directories  to  be  trans-
              ferred as normal directories.

       -b, --backup
              With  this  option, preexisting destination files are renamed as
              each file is transferred or deleted.  You can control where  the
              backup  file  goes  and what (if any) suffix gets appended using
              the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

              Note  that  if  you  don't   specify   --backup-dir,   (1)   the
              --omit-dir-times  option will be implied, and (2) if --delete is
              also in effect (without --delete-excluded),  rsync  will  add  a
              "protect"  filter-rule  for  the backup suffix to the end of all
              your existing excludes (e.g. -f "P *~").  This will prevent pre-
              viously  backed-up  files  from being deleted.  Note that if you
              are supplying your own filter rules, you may  need  to  manually
              insert  your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up in the
              list so that it has a  high  enough  priority  to  be  effective
              (e.g.,  if  your rules specify a trailing inclusion/exclusion of
              '*', the auto-added rule would never be reached).

              In combination with the --backup option,  this  tells  rsync  to
              store  all  backups  in the specified directory on the receiving
              side.  This can be used for incremental backups.  You can  addi-
              tionally specify a backup suffix using the --suffix option (oth-
              erwise the files backed up in the specified directory will  keep
              their original filenames).

              Note  that  if you specify a relative path, the backup directory
              will be relative to the destination directory, so  you  probably
              want  to  specify  either an absolute path or a path that starts
              with "../".  If an rsync daemon is the receiver, the backup  dir
              cannot  go  outside  the  module's path hierarchy, so take extra
              care not to delete it or copy into it.

              This option allows you to override  the  default  backup  suffix
              used with the --backup (-b) option. The default suffix is a ~ if
              no --backup-dir was specified, otherwise it is an empty  string.

       -u, --update
              This  forces rsync to skip any files which exist on the destina-
              tion and have a modified time that  is  newer  than  the  source
              file.   (If an existing destination file has a modification time
              equal to the source file's, it will be updated if the sizes  are

              Note  that this does not affect the copying of symlinks or other
              special files.  Also, a difference of file  format  between  the
              sender  and receiver is always considered to be important enough
              for an update, no matter what date is on the objects.  In  other
              words, if the source has a directory where the destination has a
              file, the transfer would occur regardless of the timestamps.

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
              affect  the  data  that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
              doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits  the  files  that  the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

              This  option  changes  how  rsync transfers a file when its data
              needs to be updated: instead of the default method of creating a
              new  copy  of  the file and moving it into place when it is com-
              plete, rsync instead writes the updated  data  directly  to  the
              destination file.

              This has several effects:

              o      Hard  links are not broken.  This means the new data will
                     be visible through other hard links  to  the  destination
                     file.   Moreover, attempts to copy differing source files
                     onto a multiply-linked destination file will result in  a
                     "tug  of war" with the destination data changing back and

              o      In-use binaries cannot be updated  (either  the  OS  will
                     prevent  this from happening, or binaries that attempt to
                     swap-in their data will misbehave or crash).

              o      The file's data will be in an inconsistent  state  during
                     the transfer and will be left that way if the transfer is
                     interrupted or if an update fails.

              o      A file that rsync cannot  write  to  cannot  be  updated.
                     While  a  super  user  can update any file, a normal user
                     needs to be granted write permission for the open of  the
                     file for writing to be successful.

              o      The efficiency of rsync's delta-transfer algorithm may be
                     reduced if some data in the destination file is overwrit-
                     ten  before  it  can be copied to a position later in the
                     file.  This does not apply if  you  use  --backup,  since
                     rsync is smart enough to use the backup file as the basis
                     file for the transfer.

              WARNING: you should not use this option to update files that are
              being  accessed  by  others,  so be careful when choosing to use
              this for a copy.

              This  option  is  useful  for  transferring  large  files   with
              block-based  changes  or appended data, and also on systems that
              are disk bound, not network bound.  It  can  also  help  keep  a
              copy-on-write filesystem snapshot from diverging the entire con-
              tents of a file that only has minor changes.

              The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does
              not  delete  the  file),  but  conflicts  with --partial-dir and
              --delay-updates.  Prior to rsync 2.6.4 --inplace was also incom-
              patible with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

              This  causes  rsync  to update a file by appending data onto the
              end of the file, which  presumes  that  the  data  that  already
              exists  on the receiving side is identical with the start of the
              file on the sending side.  If a file needs to be transferred and
              its  size on the receiver is the same or longer than the size on
              the sender, the file is skipped.  This does not  interfere  with
              the  updating  of  a file's non-content attributes (e.g. permis-
              sions, ownership, etc.) when the file does not need to be trans-
              ferred,  nor  does  it  affect  the  updating of any non-regular
              files.  Implies --inplace, but does not conflict  with  --sparse
              (since it is always extending a file's length).

              This  works just like the --append option, but the existing data
              on the receiving side is included in the full-file checksum ver-
              ification  step,  which  will  cause  a file to be resent if the
              final verification step fails (rsync uses a normal,  non-append-
              ing --inplace transfer for the resend).

              Note:  prior  to  rsync  3.0.0,  the --append option worked like
              --append-verify, so if you are interacting with an  older  rsync
              (or  the  transfer  is using a protocol prior to 30), specifying
              either append option will initiate an --append-verify  transfer.

       -d, --dirs
              Tell  the  sending  side  to  include  any  directories that are
              encountered.  Unlike --recursive, a directory's contents are not
              copied unless the directory name specified is "." or ends with a
              trailing slash (e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).  Without  this
              option  or  the --recursive option, rsync will skip all directo-
              ries it encounters (and output a message to that effect for each
              one).   If  you specify both --dirs and --recursive, --recursive
              takes precedence.

              The --dirs option is implied by the --files-from option  or  the
              --list-only  option  (including an implied --list-only usage) if
              --recursive wasn't specified (so that directories  are  seen  in
              the listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to turn
              this off.

              There is also a backward-compatibility helper option, --old-dirs
              (or   --old-d)   that   tells   rsync  to  use  a  hack  of  "-r
              --exclude='/*/*'" to get an older rsync to list a single  direc-
              tory without recursing.

       -l, --links
              When  symlinks are encountered, recreate the symlink on the des-

       -L, --copy-links
              When symlinks are encountered, the item that they point to  (the
              referent) is copied, rather than the symlink.  In older versions
              of rsync, this option also had the side-effect  of  telling  the
              receiving  side to follow symlinks, such as symlinks to directo-
              ries.  In a modern rsync such as this one, you'll need to  spec-
              ify  --keep-dirlinks  (-K) to get this extra behavior.  The only
              exception is when sending files to an rsync that is too  old  to
              understand -K -- in that case, the -L option will still have the
              side-effect of -K on that older receiving rsync.

              This tells rsync to copy the referent  of  symbolic  links  that
              point  outside  the  copied  tree.   Absolute  symlinks are also
              treated like ordinary files, and so  are  any  symlinks  in  the
              source  path itself when --relative is used.  This option has no
              additional effect if --copy-links was also specified.

              This tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links which  point  out-
              side  the  copied  tree. All absolute symlinks are also ignored.
              Using this option in conjunction with --relative may give  unex-
              pected results.

              This  option  tells  rsync  to  (1)  modify  all symlinks on the
              receiving side in a way that makes them unusable but recoverable
              (see below), or (2) to unmunge symlinks on the sending side that
              had been stored in a munged state.  This is useful if you  don't
              quite  trust the source of the data to not try to slip in a sym-
              link to a unexpected place.

              The way rsync disables the use of symlinks is to prefix each one
              with the string "/rsyncd-munged/".  This prevents the links from
              being used as long as that directory does not exist.  When  this
              option  is  enabled,  rsync will refuse to run if that path is a
              directory or a symlink to a directory.

              The option only affects the client side of the transfer,  so  if
              you   need   it   to   affect   the   server,   specify  it  via
              --remote-option.  (Note that in a  local  transfer,  the  client
              side is the sender.)

              This  option has no affect on a daemon, since the daemon config-
              ures whether it wants munged symlinks via its  "munge  symlinks"
              parameter.   See  also  the  "munge-symlinks" perl script in the
              support directory of the source code.

       -k, --copy-dirlinks
              This option causes the sending side to  treat  a  symlink  to  a
              directory as though it were a real directory.  This is useful if
              you don't want symlinks to non-directories to  be  affected,  as
              they would be using --copy-links.

              Without  this  option, if the sending side has replaced a direc-
              tory with a symlink to a  directory,  the  receiving  side  will
              delete anything that is in the way of the new symlink, including
              a directory hierarchy (as long as  --force  or  --delete  is  in

              See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous option for the receiv-
              ing side.

              --copy-dirlinks applies to all symlinks to  directories  in  the
              source.   If you want to follow only a few specified symlinks, a
              trick you can use is to pass them as additional source args with
              a  trailing  slash,  using --relative to make the paths match up
              right.  For example:

              rsync -r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/

              This works because rsync calls lstat(2) on  the  source  arg  as
              given, and the trailing slash makes lstat(2) follow the symlink,
              giving rise to a directory in the file-list which overrides  the
              symlink found during the scan of "src/./".

       -K, --keep-dirlinks
              This  option  causes  the receiving side to treat a symlink to a
              directory as though it were a real directory,  but  only  if  it
              matches  a real directory from the sender.  Without this option,
              the receiver's symlink would be deleted and replaced with a real

              For  example,  suppose  you transfer a directory "foo" that con-
              tains a file "file", but "foo" is a symlink to  directory  "bar"
              on  the receiver.  Without --keep-dirlinks, the receiver deletes
              symlink "foo", recreates it as a  directory,  and  receives  the
              file into the new directory.  With --keep-dirlinks, the receiver
              keeps the symlink and "file" ends up in "bar".

              One note of caution:  if you use --keep-dirlinks, you must trust
              all  the  symlinks  in  the  copy!   If  it  is  possible for an
              untrusted user to create their own symlink to any directory, the
              user  could then (on a subsequent copy) replace the symlink with
              a real directory and affect the content  of  whatever  directory
              the  symlink  references.  For backup copies, you are better off
              using something like a bind mount instead of a symlink to modify
              your receiving hierarchy.

              See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous option for the sending

       -H, --hard-links
              This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in the source and
              link together the corresponding files on the destination.  With-
              out this option, hard-linked files in the source are treated  as
              though they were separate files.

              This option does NOT necessarily ensure that the pattern of hard
              links on the destination exactly matches  that  on  the  source.
              Cases  in which the destination may end up with extra hard links
              include the following:

              o      If the destination contains extraneous  hard-links  (more
                     linking  than  what  is present in the source file list),
                     the copying algorithm will  not  break  them  explicitly.
                     However, if one or more of the paths have content differ-
                     ences, the normal file-update process  will  break  those
                     extra  links (unless you are using the --inplace option).

              o      If you specify a --link-dest directory that contains hard
                     links,  the  linking of the destination files against the
                     --link-dest files can cause some paths in the destination
                     to become linked together due to the --link-dest associa-

              Note that rsync can only detect hard links  between  files  that
              are  inside  the transfer set.  If rsync updates a file that has
              extra hard-link connections to files outside the transfer,  that
              linkage will be broken.  If you are tempted to use the --inplace
              option to avoid this breakage, be very careful that you know how
              your  files  are  being  updated so that you are certain that no
              unintended changes happen due to lingering hard links  (and  see
              the --inplace option for more caveats).

              If  incremental recursion is active (see --recursive), rsync may
              transfer a missing hard-linked file before it finds that another
              link  for that contents exists elsewhere in the hierarchy.  This
              does not affect the accuracy of the transfer (i.e.  which  files
              are hard-linked together), just its efficiency (i.e. copying the
              data for a new, early copy of a hard-linked file that could have
              been  found  later  in  the  transfer  in  another member of the
              hard-linked set of files).  One way to avoid  this  inefficiency
              is to disable incremental recursion using the --no-inc-recursive

       -p, --perms
              This option causes the receiving rsync to  set  the  destination
              permissions to be the same as the source permissions.  (See also
              the --chmod option for a way to modify what rsync  considers  to
              be the source permissions.)

              When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:

              o      Existing  files  (including  updated  files) retain their
                     existing permissions, though the  --executability  option
                     might change just the execute permission for the file.

              o      New  files  get their "normal" permission bits set to the
                     source  file's  permissions  masked  with  the  receiving
                     directory's  default  permissions  (either  the receiving
                     process's umask, or the  permissions  specified  via  the
                     destination  directory's  default ACL), and their special
                     permission bits disabled except in the case where  a  new
                     directory  inherits  a  setgid bit from its parent direc-

              Thus,  when  --perms  and  --executability  are  both  disabled,
              rsync's  behavior  is the same as that of other file-copy utili-
              ties, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

              In summary: to give destination files (both  old  and  new)  the
              source permissions, use --perms.  To give new files the destina-
              tion-default   permissions   (while   leaving   existing   files
              unchanged),  make  sure  that  the --perms option is off and use
              --chmod=ugo=rwX (which ensures  that  all  non-masked  bits  get
              enabled).   If you'd care to make this latter behavior easier to
              type, you could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this
              line  in  the file ~/.popt (the following defines the -Z option,
              and includes --no-g to use the default group of the  destination

                 rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

              You  could  then  use  this new option in a command such as this

                 rsync -avZ src/ dest/

              (Caveat: make sure that -a  does  not  follow  -Z,  or  it  will
              re-enable the two "--no-*" options mentioned above.)

              The  preservation  of the destination's setgid bit on newly-cre-
              ated directories when --perms is off was added in  rsync  2.6.7.
              Older  rsync  versions  erroneously  preserved the three special
              permission bits for newly-created files when  --perms  was  off,
              while  overriding  the  destination's  setgid  bit  setting on a
              newly-created directory.  Default ACL observance  was  added  to
              the  ACL  patch  for  rsync 2.6.7, so older (or non-ACL-enabled)
              rsyncs use the umask even if default ACLs are present.  (Keep in
              mind  that it is the version of the receiving rsync that affects
              these behaviors.)

       -E, --executability
              This option causes  rsync  to  preserve  the  executability  (or
              non-executability) of regular files when --perms is not enabled.
              A regular file is considered to be executable if  at  least  one
              'x'  is turned on in its permissions.  When an existing destina-
              tion file's executability differs from that of the corresponding
              source  file,  rsync modifies the destination file's permissions
              as follows:

              o      To make a file non-executable, rsync turns  off  all  its
                     'x' permissions.

              o      To  make  a file executable, rsync turns on each 'x' per-
                     mission that has a corresponding 'r' permission  enabled.

              If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

       -A, --acls
              This  option  causes  rsync to update the destination ACLs to be
              the same as the source ACLs.  The option also implies --perms.

              The source and destination  systems  must  have  compatible  ACL
              entries  for this option to work properly.  See the --fake-super
              option for a way to backup and restore ACLs that are not compat-

       -X, --xattrs
              This  option  causes  rsync  to  update the destination extended
              attributes to be the same as the source ones.

              For systems that support extended-attribute namespaces,  a  copy
              being  done  by  a  super-user copies all namespaces except sys-
              tem.*.  A normal user only copies the user.* namespace.   To  be
              able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as a normal user,
              see the --fake-super option.

              Note that this option does not copy rsyncs special xattr  values
              (e.g.  those  used by --fake-super) unless you repeat the option
              (e.g. -XX).  This "copy all xattrs" mode  cannot  be  used  with

              This  option  tells  rsync  to apply one or more comma-separated
              "chmod" modes to the permission of the files  in  the  transfer.
              The resulting value is treated as though it were the permissions
              that the sending side supplied for the file,  which  means  that
              this  option  can  seem  to  have no effect on existing files if
              --perms is not enabled.

              In addition  to  the  normal  parsing  rules  specified  in  the
              chmod(1) manpage, you can specify an item that should only apply
              to a directory by prefixing it with a 'D', or  specify  an  item
              that  should  only  apply  to a file by prefixing it with a 'F'.
              For example, the following will ensure that all directories  get
              marked  set-gid, that no files are other-writable, that both are
              user-writable and group-writable, and that both have  consistent
              executability across all bits:


              Using octal mode numbers is also allowed:


              It  is  also  legal to specify multiple --chmod options, as each
              additional option is just appended to the  list  of  changes  to

              See  the --perms and --executability options for how the result-
              ing permission value can be applied to the files in  the  trans-

       -o, --owner
              This  option  causes  rsync  to set the owner of the destination
              file to be the same as the source file, but only if the  receiv-
              ing  rsync  is being run as the super-user (see also the --super
              and --fake-super options).  Without this option,  the  owner  of
              new and/or transferred files are set to the invoking user on the
              receiving side.

              The preservation of ownership will associate matching  names  by
              default,  but  may fall back to using the ID number in some cir-
              cumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full discus-

       -g, --group
              This  option  causes  rsync  to set the group of the destination
              file to be the same as the source file.  If the  receiving  pro-
              gram  is  not  running  as  the super-user (or if --no-super was
              specified), only groups that the invoking user on the  receiving
              side is a member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the
              group is set to the default group of the invoking  user  on  the
              receiving side.

              The  preservation  of  group information will associate matching
              names by default, but may fall back to using the  ID  number  in
              some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full

              This option causes rsync to transfer character and block  device
              files  to  the  remote  system  to recreate these devices.  This
              option has no effect if the receiving rsync is not  run  as  the
              super-user (see also the --super and --fake-super options).

              This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named
              sockets and fifos.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

       -t, --times
              This tells rsync to transfer modification times along  with  the
              files  and  update them on the remote system.  Note that if this
              option is not used, the optimization that  excludes  files  that
              have  not  been  modified cannot be effective; in other words, a
              missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it
              used  -I,  causing  all  files  to  be  updated  (though rsync's
              delta-transfer algorithm will make the update  fairly  efficient
              if  the  files  haven't actually changed, you're much better off
              using -t).

       -O, --omit-dir-times
              This tells rsync to omit directories when it is preserving modi-
              fication times (see --times).  If NFS is sharing the directories
              on the receiving side, it is a good idea to use -O.  This option
              is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-dir.

       -J, --omit-link-times
              This  tells rsync to omit symlinks when it is preserving modifi-
              cation times (see --times).

              This tells the receiving side to attempt  super-user  activities
              even if the receiving rsync wasn't run by the super-user.  These
              activities include: preserving users  via  the  --owner  option,
              preserving  all  groups (not just the current user's groups) via
              the --groups option,  and  copying  devices  via  the  --devices
              option.   This  is useful for systems that allow such activities
              without being the super-user, and also  for  ensuring  that  you
              will  get  errors  if  the receiving side isn't being run as the
              super-user.  To turn off super-user activities,  the  super-user
              can use --no-super.

              When  this option is enabled, rsync simulates super-user activi-
              ties by saving/restoring the privileged attributes  via  special
              extended  attributes that are attached to each file (as needed).
              This includes the file's owner and  group  (if  it  is  not  the
              default),  the  file's  device  info (device & special files are
              created as empty text files), and any permission  bits  that  we
              won't allow to be set on the real file (e.g.  the real file gets
              u-s,g-s,o-t for safety) or that would limit the  owner's  access
              (since  the real super-user can always access/change a file, the
              files we create can always be accessed/changed by  the  creating
              user).   This option also handles ACLs (if --acls was specified)
              and non-user extended attributes (if --xattrs was specified).

              This is a good way to backup data without  using  a  super-user,
              and to store ACLs from incompatible systems.

              The  --fake-super  option only affects the side where the option
              is used.  To affect the remote side of  a  remote-shell  connec-
              tion, use the --remote-option (-M) option:

                rsync -av -M--fake-super /src/ host:/dest/

              For  a  local  copy, this option affects both the source and the
              destination.  If you wish a local copy  to  enable  this  option
              just  for the destination files, specify -M--fake-super.  If you
              wish a local copy to enable this  option  just  for  the  source
              files, combine --fake-super with -M--super.

              This option is overridden by both --super and --no-super.

              See  also  the  "fake super" setting in the daemon's rsyncd.conf

       -S, --sparse
              Try to handle sparse files efficiently  so  they  take  up  less
              space on the destination.  Conflicts with --inplace because it's
              not possible to overwrite data in a sparse fashion.

              This tells the receiver to allocate each destination file to its
              eventual  size before writing data to the file.  Rsync will only
              use the real filesystem-level preallocation support provided  by
              Linux's fallocate(2) system call or Cygwin's posix_fallocate(3),
              not the slow glibc implementation that writes a zero  byte  into
              each block.

              Without this option, larger files may not be entirely contiguous
              on the filesystem, but with this option rsync will probably copy
              more  slowly.   If  the  destination is not an extent-supporting
              filesystem (such as ext4, xfs, NTFS, etc.), this option may have
              no positive effect at all.

       -n, --dry-run
              This  makes  rsync  perform  a  trial  run that doesn't make any
              changes (and produces mostly the same output as a real run).  It
              is  most  commonly  used  in  combination with the -v, --verbose
              and/or -i, --itemize-changes options to see what an  rsync  com-
              mand is going to do before one actually runs it.

              The  output  of  --itemize-changes is supposed to be exactly the
              same on a dry run and a subsequent real run (barring intentional
              trickery  and  system call failures); if it isn't, that's a bug.
              Other output should be mostly unchanged, but may differ in  some
              areas.   Notably,  a  dry  run does not send the actual data for
              file transfers, so --progress has no effect, the  "bytes  sent",
              "bytes  received", "literal data", and "matched data" statistics
              are too small, and the "speedup" value is equivalent  to  a  run
              where no file transfers were needed.

       -W, --whole-file
              With  this  option  rsync's delta-transfer algorithm is not used
              and the whole file is sent as-is instead.  The transfer  may  be
              faster  if  this  option  is used when the bandwidth between the
              source and destination machines is higher than the bandwidth  to
              disk  (especially  when  the  "disk"  is  actually  a  networked
              filesystem).  This is the default when both the source and  des-
              tination   are   specified  as  local  paths,  but  only  if  no
              batch-writing option is in effect.

       -x, --one-file-system
              This tells rsync to avoid crossing a  filesystem  boundary  when
              recursing.   This  does  not limit the user's ability to specify
              items to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync's  recursion
              through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified,
              and also the analogous recursion on the  receiving  side  during
              deletion.  Also keep in mind that rsync treats a "bind" mount to
              the same device as being on the same filesystem.

              If this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point directo-
              ries  from  the copy.  Otherwise, it includes an empty directory
              at each mount-point it encounters (using the attributes  of  the
              mounted  directory  because  those of the underlying mount-point
              directory are inaccessible).

              If rsync has been told to collapse symlinks (via --copy-links or
              --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on another device
              is treated like a mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories  are
              unaffected by this option.

       --existing, --ignore-non-existing
              This  tells rsync to skip creating files (including directories)
              that do not exist yet on the destination.   If  this  option  is
              combined  with  the  --ignore-existing  option, no files will be
              updated (which can be useful if all you want  to  do  is  delete
              extraneous files).

              This  option  is  a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't
              affect the data that goes  into  the  file-lists,  and  thus  it
              doesn't  affect  deletions.   It  just limits the files that the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

              This tells rsync to skip updating files that  already  exist  on
              the  destination  (this does not ignore existing directories, or
              nothing would get done).  See also --existing.

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
              affect  the  data  that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
              doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits  the  files  that  the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

              This  option  can  be  useful  for those doing backups using the
              --link-dest option when they need to continue a backup run  that
              got  interrupted.   Since a --link-dest run is copied into a new
              directory hierarchy (when it is used properly),  using  --ignore
              existing  will  ensure  that the already-handled files don't get
              tweaked (which avoids a change in permissions on the hard-linked
              files).   This does mean that this option is only looking at the
              existing files in the destination hierarchy itself.

              This tells rsync to remove  from  the  sending  side  the  files
              (meaning  non-directories)  that  are a part of the transfer and
              have been successfully duplicated on the receiving side.

              Note that you should only use this option on source  files  that
              are quiescent.  If you are using this to move files that show up
              in a particular directory over to another host, make  sure  that
              the  finished  files  get renamed into the source directory, not
              directly written into it, so that rsync can't possibly  transfer
              a  file that is not yet fully written.  If you can't first write
              the files into a different directory, you should  use  a  naming
              idiom  that lets rsync avoid transferring files that are not yet
              finished (e.g. name the  file  ""  when  it  is  written,
              rename  it  to  "foo"  when  it is done, and then use the option
              --exclude='*.new' for the rsync transfer).

              Starting with 3.1.0, rsync will  skip  the  sender-side  removal
              (and  output an error) if the file's size or modify time has not
              stayed unchanged.

              This tells rsync to delete extraneous files from  the  receiving
              side  (ones  that  aren't on the sending side), but only for the
              directories that are being synchronized.  You  must  have  asked
              rsync to send the whole directory (e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without
              using a wildcard for the  directory's  contents  (e.g.  "dir/*")
              since  the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus gets
              a request to transfer individual files, not  the  files'  parent
              directory.   Files  that are excluded from the transfer are also
              excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded
              option  or  mark  the rules as only matching on the sending side
              (see the include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

              Prior  to  rsync  2.6.7, this option would have no effect unless
              --recursive was enabled.  Beginning with 2.6.7,  deletions  will
              also occur when --dirs (-d) is enabled, but only for directories
              whose contents are being copied.

              This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!  It is a  very
              good  idea to first try a run using the --dry-run option (-n) to
              see what files are going to be deleted.

              If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of
              any  files  at  the  destination will be automatically disabled.
              This is to prevent temporary filesystem failures  (such  as  NFS
              errors)  on  the sending side from causing a massive deletion of
              files on the  destination.   You  can  override  this  with  the
              --ignore-errors option.

              The   --delete   option   may   be  combined  with  one  of  the
              --delete-WHEN   options   without   conflict,   as    well    as
              --delete-excluded.    However,  if  none  of  the  --delete-WHEN
              options are specified, rsync  will  choose  the  --delete-during
              algorithm  when  talking  to  rsync  3.0.0  or  newer,  and  the
              --delete-before algorithm when talking to an older  rsync.   See
              also --delete-delay and --delete-after.

              Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be done
              before the transfer starts.  See --delete (which is implied) for
              more details on file-deletion.

              Deleting  before  the  transfer  is helpful if the filesystem is
              tight for space and removing extraneous files would help to make
              the  transfer  possible.   However,  it  does  introduce a delay
              before the start of the transfer, and this delay might cause the
              transfer  to  timeout  (if  --timeout  was  specified).  It also
              forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental recursion algorithm
              that  requires  rsync to scan all the files in the transfer into
              memory at once (see --recursive).

       --delete-during, --del
              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving  side  be  done
              incrementally as the transfer happens.  The per-directory delete
              scan is done right before each directory is checked for updates,
              so  it  behaves like a more efficient --delete-before, including
              doing the deletions prior  to  any  per-directory  filter  files
              being  updated.   This  option  was first added in rsync version
              2.6.4.  See --delete (which is  implied)  for  more  details  on

              Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be com-
              puted during  the  transfer  (like  --delete-during),  and  then
              removed  after the transfer completes.  This is useful when com-
              bined with --delay-updates and/or --fuzzy, and is more efficient
              than  using  --delete-after  (but  can behave differently, since
              --delete-after computes the deletions in a separate  pass  after
              all updates are done).  If the number of removed files overflows
              an internal buffer, a temporary file  will  be  created  on  the
              receiving  side  to hold the names (it is removed while open, so
              you shouldn't see it during the transfer).  If the  creation  of
              the  temporary  file fails, rsync will try to fall back to using
              --delete-after (which it cannot do if --recursive  is  doing  an
              incremental  scan).   See  --delete  (which is implied) for more
              details on file-deletion.

              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving  side  be  done
              after  the  transfer  has  completed.  This is useful if you are
              sending new per-directory merge files as a part of the  transfer
              and  you  want  their  exclusions  to take effect for the delete
              phase of the current transfer.  It also forces rsync to use  the
              old,  non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires rsync to
              scan all the files in the transfer  into  memory  at  once  (see
              --recursive).   See --delete (which is implied) for more details
              on file-deletion.

              In addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are
              not  on  the  sending  side, this tells rsync to also delete any
              files on the receiving side that are excluded  (see  --exclude).
              See the FILTER RULES section for a way to make individual exclu-
              sions behave this way on the receiver, and for a way to  protect
              files  from  --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which is implied)
              for more details on file-deletion.

              When rsync is first processing the explicitly  requested  source
              files  (e.g. command-line arguments or --files-from entries), it
              is normally an error if the file cannot be found.   This  option
              suppresses  that  error,  and does not try to transfer the file.
              This does not affect subsequent vanished-file errors if  a  file
              was  initially found to be present and later is no longer there.

              This option takes the behavior of (the  implied)  --ignore-miss-
              ing-args  option a step farther:  each missing arg will become a
              deletion request of the corresponding destination  file  on  the
              receiving  side (should it exist).  If the destination file is a
              non-empty directory, it will only  be  successfully  deleted  if
              --force or --delete are in effect.  Other than that, this option
              is independent of any other type of delete processing.

              The missing source files are represented  by  special  file-list
              entries  which  display as a "*missing" entry in the --list-only

              Tells --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there  are
              I/O errors.

              This  option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when it
              is to be replaced by a non-directory.  This is only relevant  if
              deletions are not active (see --delete for details).

              Note for older rsync versions: --force used to still be required
              when using --delete-after, and  it  used  to  be  non-functional
              unless the --recursive option was also enabled.

              This  tells  rsync not to delete more than NUM files or directo-
              ries.  If that limit is  exceeded,  all  further  deletions  are
              skipped through the end of the transfer.  At the end, rsync out-
              puts a warning (including a count of the skipped deletions)  and
              exits with an error code of 25 (unless some more important error
              condition also occurred).

              Beginning with version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0  to
              be  warned about any extraneous files in the destination without
              removing any of them.  Older clients interpreted this as "unlim-
              ited",  so if you don't know what version the client is, you can
              use the less obvious --max-delete=-1  as  a  backward-compatible
              way  to  specify that no deletions be allowed (though really old
              versions didn't warn when the limit was exceeded).

              This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that  is  larger
              than  the  specified SIZE. The SIZE value can be suffixed with a
              string to indicate a size multiplier, and may  be  a  fractional
              value (e.g. "--max-size=1.5m").

              This  option  is  a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't
              affect the data that goes  into  the  file-lists,  and  thus  it
              doesn't  affect  deletions.   It  just limits the files that the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

              The suffixes are as  follows:  "K"  (or  "KiB")  is  a  kibibyte
              (1024),  "M"  (or  "MiB") is a mebibyte (1024*1024), and "G" (or
              "GiB") is a gibibyte (1024*1024*1024).  If you want  the  multi-
              plier  to  be  1000  instead  of  1024, use "KB", "MB", or "GB".
              (Note: lower-case is also accepted for all values.)  Finally, if
              the suffix ends in either "+1" or "-1", the value will be offset
              by one byte in the indicated direction.

              Examples:   --max-size=1.5mb-1    is    1499999    bytes,    and
              --max-size=2g+1 is 2147483649 bytes.

              Note   that   rsync  versions  prior  to  3.1.0  did  not  allow

              This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is  smaller
              than  the  specified  SIZE,  which  can help in not transferring
              small, junk files.  See the --max-size option for a  description
              of SIZE and other information.

              Note   that   rsync  versions  prior  to  3.1.0  did  not  allow

       -B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
              This forces the block size used in rsync's delta-transfer  algo-
              rithm  to  a  fixed value.  It is normally selected based on the
              size of each file being updated.  See the technical  report  for

       -e, --rsh=COMMAND
              This  option  allows  you  to choose an alternative remote shell
              program to use for communication between the  local  and  remote
              copies  of  rsync.  Typically, rsync is configured to use ssh by
              default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.

              If this option is used with [user@]host::module/path,  then  the
              remote  shell COMMAND will be used to run an rsync daemon on the
              remote host, and all  data  will  be  transmitted  through  that
              remote  shell  connection,  rather  than through a direct socket
              connection to a running rsync daemon on the  remote  host.   See
              NECTION" above.

              Command-line arguments are permitted in  COMMAND  provided  that
              COMMAND  is  presented  to rsync as a single argument.  You must
              use spaces (not tabs or other whitespace) to separate  the  com-
              mand  and  args  from each other, and you can use single- and/or
              double-quotes to preserve spaces in an argument (but  not  back-
              slashes).   Note  that  doubling  a  single-quote  inside a sin-
              gle-quoted string gives you a single-quote;  likewise  for  dou-
              ble-quotes  (though  you  need  to pay attention to which quotes
              your shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing).   Some

                  -e 'ssh -p 2234'
                  -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"'

              (Note  that  ssh  users  can alternately customize site-specific
              connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

              You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
              environment  variable, which accepts the same range of values as

              See also the --blocking-io option  which  is  affected  by  this

              Use  this  to  specify  what  program is to be run on the remote
              machine to start-up rsync.  Often used when rsync is not in  the
              default            remote-shell's           path           (e.g.
              --rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).  Note that  PROGRAM  is  run
              with  the  help of a shell, so it can be any program, script, or
              command sequence you'd care to run, so long as it does not  cor-
              rupt  the standard-in & standard-out that rsync is using to com-

              One tricky example is to set a different  default  directory  on
              the  remote  machine  for  use  with the --relative option.  For

                  rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

       -M, --remote-option=OPTION
              This option is used for more advanced situations where you  want
              certain  effects to be limited to one side of the transfer only.
              For  instance,  if  you  want  to   pass   --log-file=FILE   and
              --fake-super to the remote system, specify it like this:

                  rsync -av -M --log-file=foo -M--fake-super src/ dest/

              If  you  want  to have an option affect only the local side of a
              transfer when it normally affects both sides, send its  negation
              to the remote side.  Like this:

                  rsync -av -x -M--no-x src/ dest/

              Be  cautious  using  this, as it is possible to toggle an option
              that will cause rsync to have a different idea about  what  data
              to  expect next over the socket, and that will make it fail in a
              cryptic fashion.

              Note that it is best to use a separate --remote-option for  each
              option you want to pass.  This makes your useage compatible with
              the --protect-args option.  If that option is off, any spaces in
              your remote options will be split by the remote shell unless you
              take steps to protect them.

              When performing a local transfer, the "local" side is the sender
              and the "remote" side is the receiver.

              Note some versions of the popt option-parsing library have a bug
              in them that prevents you from using an  adjacent  arg  with  an
              equal   in   it   next   to   a   short   option   letter  (e.g.
              -M--log-file=/tmp/foo.  If this  bug  affects  your  version  of
              popt,  you  can  use  the  version of popt that is included with

       -C, --cvs-exclude
              This is a useful shorthand for excluding a broad range of  files
              that you often don't want to transfer between systems. It uses a
              similar algorithm to CVS  to  determine  if  a  file  should  be

              The  exclude  list is initialized to exclude the following items
              (these initial items are marked as perishable -- see the  FILTER
              RULES section):

                     RCS   SCCS   CVS   CVS.adm   RCSLOG  cvslog.*  tags  TAGS
                     .make.state .nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old  *.bak
                     *.BAK  *.orig *.rej .del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so *.exe
                     *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/ .git/ .hg/ .bzr/

              then, files listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to  the  list
              and  any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment variable (all
              cvsignore names are delimited by whitespace).

              Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same directory as a
              .cvsignore  file and matches one of the patterns listed therein.
              Unlike rsync's filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on
              whitespace.  See the cvs(1) manual for more information.

              If  you're combining -C with your own --filter rules, you should
              note that these CVS excludes are appended at the end of your own
              rules,  regardless  of  where  the  -C  was  placed  on the com-
              mand-line.  This makes them a lower priority than any rules  you
              specified  explicitly.   If  you want to control where these CVS
              excludes get inserted into your filter rules,  you  should  omit
              the  -C as a command-line option and use a combination of --fil-
              ter=:C and  --filter=-C  (either  on  your  command-line  or  by
              putting  the  ":C"  and  "-C" rules into a filter file with your
              other rules).  The first option turns on the per-directory scan-
              ning for the .cvsignore file.  The second option does a one-time
              import of the CVS excludes mentioned above.

       -f, --filter=RULE
              This option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude  cer-
              tain  files  from  the  list of files to be transferred. This is
              most useful in combination with a recursive transfer.

              You may use as many --filter options on the command line as  you
              like  to  build  up the list of files to exclude.  If the filter
              contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so that the shell gives
              the  rule  to  rsync  as a single argument.  The text below also
              mentions that you can use an underscore  to  replace  the  space
              that separates a rule from its arg.

              See  the  FILTER  RULES section for detailed information on this

       -F     The -F option is a shorthand for adding two  --filter  rules  to
              your command.  The first time it is used is a shorthand for this

                 --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'

              This tells rsync to look for per-directory  .rsync-filter  files
              that  have  been  sprinkled  through the hierarchy and use their
              rules to filter the files in the transfer.  If -F  is  repeated,
              it is a shorthand for this rule:

                 --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'

              This  filters  out  the  .rsync-filter files themselves from the

              See the FILTER RULES section for  detailed  information  on  how
              these options work.

              This  option  is  a  simplified form of the --filter option that
              defaults to  an  exclude  rule  and  does  not  allow  the  full
              rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See  the  FILTER  RULES section for detailed information on this

              This option is related to the --exclude option, but it specifies
              a  FILE  that  contains  exclude patterns (one per line).  Blank
              lines in the file  and  lines  starting  with  ';'  or  '#'  are
              ignored.   If  FILE  is  -,  the list will be read from standard

              This option is a simplified form of  the  --filter  option  that
              defaults  to  an  include  rule  and  does  not  allow  the full
              rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed  information  on  this

              This option is related to the --include option, but it specifies
              a FILE that contains include patterns  (one  per  line).   Blank
              lines  in  the  file  and  lines  starting  with  ';' or '#' are
              ignored.  If FILE is -, the list  will  be  read  from  standard

              Using  this option allows you to specify the exact list of files
              to transfer (as read from the specified FILE or -  for  standard
              input).   It  also  tweaks the default behavior of rsync to make
              transferring just the specified files and directories easier:

              o      The --relative (-R) option is  implied,  which  preserves
                     the  path  information that is specified for each item in
                     the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn
                     that off).

              o      The  --dirs  (-d)  option  is  implied, which will create
                     directories specified in  the  list  on  the  destination
                     rather  than  noisily  skipping  them  (use  --no-dirs or
                     --no-d if you want to turn that off).

              o      The --archive  (-a)  option's  behavior  does  not  imply
                     --recursive  (-r),  so specify it explicitly, if you want

              o      These side-effects change the default state of rsync,  so
                     the  position  of  the  --files-from  option  on the com-
                     mand-line has no bearing on how other options are  parsed
                     (e.g.  -a works the same before or after --files-from, as
                     does --no-R and all other options).

              The filenames that are read from the FILE are  all  relative  to
              the  source  dir  -- any leading slashes are removed and no ".."
              references are allowed to go higher than the  source  dir.   For
              example, take this command:

                 rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup

              If  /tmp/foo  contains  the  string  "bin" (or even "/bin"), the
              /usr/bin directory will be created as /backup/bin on the  remote
              host.   If  it  contains  "bin/"  (note the trailing slash), the
              immediate contents of the directory would also be sent  (without
              needing  to be explicitly mentioned in the file -- this began in
              version 2.6.4).  In both cases, if the -r  option  was  enabled,
              that  dir's  entire hierarchy would also be transferred (keep in
              mind that -r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from,
              since  it  is  not implied by -a).  Also note that the effect of
              the (enabled by default) --relative option is to duplicate  only
              the  path  info  that is read from the file -- it does not force
              the duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case).

              In addition, the --files-from file can be read from  the  remote
              host instead of the local host if you specify a "host:" in front
              of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer).  As a
              short-cut, you can specify just a prefix of ":" to mean "use the
              remote end of the transfer".  For example:

                 rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy

              This would copy all the files specified in  the  /path/file-list
              file that was located on the remote "src" host.

              If  the --iconv and --protect-args options are specified and the
              --files-from filenames are being sent from one host to  another,
              the filenames will be translated from the sending host's charset
              to the receiving host's charset.

              NOTE: sorting the list of files in the --files-from input  helps
              rsync  to  be  more  efficient, as it will avoid re-visiting the
              path elements that are shared between adjacent entries.  If  the
              input  is  not  sorted, some path elements (implied directories)
              may end up being scanned multiple times, and rsync will  eventu-
              ally  unduplicate them after they get turned into file-list ele-

       -0, --from0
              This tells rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from  a  file
              are  terminated  by  a  null  ('\0') character, not a NL, CR, or
              CR+LF.     This    affects    --exclude-from,    --include-from,
              --files-from, and any merged files specified in a --filter rule.
              It does not affect --cvs-exclude (since all names  read  from  a
              .cvsignore file are split on whitespace).

       -s, --protect-args
              This  option  sends all filenames and most options to the remote
              rsync without allowing the remote shell to interpret them.  This
              means  that  spaces are not split in names, and any non-wildcard
              special characters are not translated  (such  as  ~,  $,  ;,  &,
              etc.).   Wildcards  are  expanded  on  the  remote host by rsync
              (instead of the shell doing it).

              If you use this option with --iconv, the  args  related  to  the
              remote side will also be translated from the local to the remote
              character-set.  The translation happens  before  wild-cards  are
              expanded.  See also the --files-from option.

              You  may  also  control  this  option via the RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS
              environment variable.  If this variable has  a  non-zero  value,
              this  option  will  be  enabled by default, otherwise it will be
              disabled by default.  Either state is overridden by  a  manually
              specified positive or negative version of this option (note that
              --no-s and --no-protect-args are the negative versions).   Since
              this  option  was first introduced in 3.0.0, you'll need to make
              sure it's disabled if you ever need to interact  with  a  remote
              rsync that is older than that.

              Rsync can also be configured (at build time) to have this option
              enabled by default (with is overridden by both  the  environment
              and the command-line).  This option will eventually become a new
              default setting at some as-yet-undetermined point in the future.

       -T, --temp-dir=DIR
              This  option  instructs  rsync to use DIR as a scratch directory
              when creating temporary copies of the files transferred  on  the
              receiving  side.   The default behavior is to create each tempo-
              rary file in the same directory as  the  associated  destination

              This option is most often used when the receiving disk partition
              does not have enough free space to hold a copy  of  the  largest
              file  in  the  transfer.   In  this  case (i.e. when the scratch
              directory is on a different disk partition), rsync will  not  be
              able  to rename each received temporary file over the top of the
              associated destination file,  but  instead  must  copy  it  into
              place.   Rsync does this by copying the file over the top of the
              destination file, which means that  the  destination  file  will
              contain  truncated data during this copy.  If this were not done
              this way (even if the destination file were first  removed,  the
              data  locally  copied  to  a  temporary  file in the destination
              directory, and then renamed into place) it would be possible for
              the old file to continue taking up disk space (if someone had it
              open), and thus there might not be enough room to  fit  the  new
              version on the disk at the same time.

              If  you  are using this option for reasons other than a shortage
              of  disk  space,  you  may  wish  to   combine   it   with   the
              --delay-updates  option, which will ensure that all copied files
              get put into subdirectories in the destination hierarchy, await-
              ing  the  end of the transfer.  If you don't have enough room to
              duplicate all the arriving files on the  destination  partition,
              another way to tell rsync that you aren't overly concerned about
              disk space is to use the --partial-dir option  with  a  relative
              path; because this tells rsync that it is OK to stash off a copy
              of a single file in a subdir in the destination hierarchy, rsync
              will  use  the  partial-dir  as a staging area to bring over the
              copied file, and then rename it into place from there. (Specify-
              ing  a  --partial-dir  with  an absolute path does not have this

       -y, --fuzzy
              This option tells rsync that it should look for a basis file for
              any  destination  file  that  is missing.  The current algorithm
              looks in the same directory as the destination file for either a
              file  that  has  an identical size and modified-time, or a simi-
              larly-named file.  If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file  to
              try to speed up the transfer.

              If  the  option is repeated, the fuzzy scan will also be done in
              any matching alternate destination directories that  are  speci-
              fied via --compare-dest, --copy-dest, or --link-dest.

              Note  that  the  use of the --delete option might get rid of any
              potential fuzzy-match files, so  either  use  --delete-after  or
              specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.

              This  option  instructs  rsync  to  use  DIR  on the destination
              machine as an additional hierarchy to compare destination  files
              against  doing transfers (if the files are missing in the desti-
              nation directory).  If a file is found in DIR that is  identical
              to  the  sender's  file, the file will NOT be transferred to the
              destination directory.  This is useful  for  creating  a  sparse
              backup  of  just files that have changed from an earlier backup.
              This option is typically used to copy into an  empty  (or  newly
              created) directory.

              Beginning  in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories
              may be provided, which will cause rsync to search  the  list  in
              the  order  specified  for  an exact match.  If a match is found
              that differs only in attributes, a local copy is  made  and  the
              attributes  updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
              one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up  the  trans-

              If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it is relative to the destination
              directory.  See also --copy-dest and --link-dest.

              NOTE: beginning with version 3.1.0, rsync  will  remove  a  file
              from  a  non-empty  destination  hierarchy  if an exact match is
              found in one of the compare-dest  hierarchies  (making  the  end
              result more closely match a fresh copy).

              This  option  behaves  like  --compare-dest, but rsync will also
              copy unchanged files found in DIR to the  destination  directory
              using a local copy.  This is useful for doing transfers to a new
              destination while leaving existing files intact, and then  doing
              a  flash-cutover  when  all  files have been successfully trans-

              Multiple --copy-dest directories may  be  provided,  which  will
              cause  rsync  to  search  the list in the order specified for an
              unchanged file.  If a match is not found, a basis file from  one
              of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

              If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it is relative to the destination
              directory.  See also --compare-dest and --link-dest.

              This option behaves like --copy-dest, but  unchanged  files  are
              hard  linked  from  DIR to the destination directory.  The files
              must be identical in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions,
              possibly  ownership)  in  order  for  the  files  to  be  linked
              together.  An example:

                rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

              If file's aren't linking, double-check their  attributes.   Also
              check  if  some attributes are getting forced outside of rsync's
              control, such a mount option that  squishes  root  to  a  single
              user,  or  mounts a removable drive with generic ownership (such
              as OS X's "Ignore ownership on this volume" option).

              Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may
              be  provided,  which  will cause rsync to search the list in the
              order specified for an exact match.  If a match  is  found  that
              differs  only  in  attributes,  a  local  copy  is  made and the
              attributes updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file  from
              one  of  the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the trans-

              This option works best when copying into  an  empty  destination
              hierarchy,  as  existing files may get their attributes tweaked,
              and that can affect alternate destination files via  hard-links.
              Also,  itemizing  of  changes  can get a bit muddled.  Note that
              prior to version 3.1.0, an alternate-directory exact match would
              never be found (nor linked into the destination) when a destina-
              tion file already exists.

              Note that if you combine this option with --ignore-times,  rsync
              will not link any files together because it only links identical
              files together as a substitute for transferring the file,  never
              as an additional check after the file is updated.

              If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it is relative to the destination
              directory.  See also --compare-dest and --copy-dest.

              Note that rsync versions prior to 2.6.1 had  a  bug  that  could
              prevent  --link-dest  from working properly for a non-super-user
              when -o was specified (or implied by -a).  You  can  work-around
              this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old rsync.

       -z, --compress
              With this option, rsync compresses the file data as it  is  sent
              to  the  destination  machine,  which reduces the amount of data
              being transmitted -- something that is useful over a  slow  con-

              Note  that  this  option  typically  achieves better compression
              ratios than can be achieved by using a compressing remote  shell
              or  a  compressing  transport  because it takes advantage of the
              implicit information in the matching data blocks  that  are  not
              explicitly sent over the connection.

              See the --skip-compress option for the default list of file suf-
              fixes that will not be compressed.

              Explicitly set the compression level  to  use  (see  --compress)
              instead  of  letting it default.  If NUM is non-zero, the --com-
              press option is implied.

              Override the list of file suffixes that will not be  compressed.
              The  LIST  should be one or more file suffixes (without the dot)
              separated by slashes (/).

              You may specify an empty string to indicate that no file  should
              be skipped.

              Simple  character-class matching is supported: each must consist
              of a list of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special
              classes, such as "[:alpha:]", are supported, and '-' has no spe-
              cial meaning).

              The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?) have  no  spe-
              cial meaning.

              Here's  an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1 of
              the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes):


              The default list of suffixes that will not be compressed is this
              (in this version of rsync):

              7z  ace  avi bz2 deb gpg gz iso jpeg jpg lz lzma lzo mov mp3 mp4
              ogg png rar rpm rzip tbz tgz tlz txz xz z zip

              This list will be replaced by your --skip-compress list  in  all
              but  one  situation:  a  copy  from a daemon rsync will add your
              skipped suffixes to its list of non-compressing files  (and  its
              list may be configured to a different default).

              With  this option rsync will transfer numeric group and user IDs
              rather than using user and group names and mapping them at  both

              By  default  rsync will use the username and groupname to deter-
              mine what ownership to give files. The special  uid  0  and  the
              special  group  0  are never mapped via user/group names even if
              the --numeric-ids option is not specified.

              If a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no
              match  on  the  destination system, then the numeric ID from the
              source system is used instead.  See also  the  comments  on  the
              "use  chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for information
              on how the chroot setting affects rsync's ability to look up the
              names of the users and groups and what you can do about it.

       --usermap=STRING, --groupmap=STRING
              These  options allow you to specify users and groups that should
              be mapped to other values by the receiving side.  The STRING  is
              one  or  more  FROM:TO pairs of values separated by commas.  Any
              matching FROM value from the sender is replaced with a TO  value
              from  the  receiver.   You may specify usernames or user IDs for
              the FROM and TO values,  and  the  FROM  value  may  also  be  a
              wild-card  string,  which  will  be matched against the sender's
              names (wild-cards do NOT match against ID  numbers,  though  see
              below  for why a '*' matches everything).  You may instead spec-
              ify a range of ID numbers via an inclusive range: LOW-HIGH.  For

                --usermap=0-99:nobody,wayne:admin,*:normal --groupmap=usr:1,1:usr

              The first match in the list is the one that is used.  You should
              specify all your user mappings using a single --usermap  option,
              and/or all your group mappings using a single --groupmap option.

              Note that the sender's name for the 0 user  and  group  are  not
              transmitted  to  the  receiver, so you should either match these
              values using a 0, or use the names in effect  on  the  receiving
              side  (typically  "root").   All other FROM names match those in
              use on the sending side.  All TO names match those in use on the
              receiving side.

              Any  IDs that do not have a name on the sending side are treated
              as having an empty name  for  the  purpose  of  matching.   This
              allows them to be matched via a "*" or using an empty name.  For

                --usermap=:nobody --groupmap=*:nobody

              When the --numeric-ids option is used, the sender does not  send
              any  names,  so all the IDs are treated as having an empty name.
              This means that you will need to specify numeric FROM values  if
              you want to map these nameless IDs to different values.

              For  the  --usermap  option to have any effect, the -o (--owner)
              option must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need  to
              be  running  as a super-user (see also the --fake-super option).
              For the --groupmap option to have any effect, the -g  (--groups)
              option  must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need to
              have permissions to set that group.

              This option forces all files to be  owned  by  USER  with  group
              GROUP.   This  is  a  simpler interface than using --usermap and
              --groupmap directly, but it is implemented using  those  options
              internally, so you cannot mix them.  If either the USER or GROUP
              is empty, no mapping for the omitted user/group will occur.   If
              GROUP  is  empty, the trailing colon may be omitted, but if USER
              is empty, a leading colon must be supplied.

              If you specify "--chown=foo:bar, this is  exactly  the  same  as
              specifying "--usermap=*:foo --groupmap=*:bar", only easier.

              This  option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in seconds.
              If no data is transferred for the specified time then rsync will
              exit. The default is 0, which means no timeout.

              This option allows you to set the amount of time that rsync will
              wait for its connection to an rsync daemon to succeed.   If  the
              timeout is reached, rsync exits with an error.

              By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when connect-
              ing to an rsync daemon.  The  --address  option  allows  you  to
              specify  a  specific  IP  address (or hostname) to bind to.  See
              also this option in the --daemon mode section.

              This specifies an alternate TCP port number to use  rather  than
              the  default  of  873.  This is only needed if you are using the
              double-colon (::) syntax to connect with an rsync daemon  (since
              the  URL  syntax  has a way to specify the port as a part of the
              URL).  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

              This option can provide endless fun for people who like to  tune
              their  systems  to  the  utmost degree. You can set all sorts of
              socket options which may make  transfers  faster  (or  slower!).
              Read  the  man page for the setsockopt() system call for details
              on some of the options you may be able to  set.  By  default  no
              special  socket options are set. This only affects direct socket
              connections to a remote rsync daemon.  This option  also  exists
              in the --daemon mode section.

              This  tells  rsync  to  use blocking I/O when launching a remote
              shell transport.  If the remote shell is either  rsh  or  remsh,
              rsync  defaults  to using blocking I/O, otherwise it defaults to
              using non-blocking I/O.  (Note  that  ssh  prefers  non-blocking

              This  sets the output buffering mode.  The mode can be None (aka
              Unbuffered), Line, or Block (aka Full).  You may specify as lit-
              tle  as  a  single  letter  for the mode, and use upper or lower

              The main use of this option is to change Full buffering to  Line
              buffering when rsync's output is going to a file or pipe.

       -i, --itemize-changes
              Requests  a  simple  itemized list of the changes that are being
              made to each file, including attribute changes.  This is exactly
              the  same  as  specifying --out-format='%i %n%L'.  If you repeat
              the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only if the
              receiving  rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv with
              older versions of rsync, but that also turns on  the  output  of
              other verbose messages).

              The  "%i"  escape  has a cryptic output that is 11 letters long.
              The general format is like the string YXcstpoguax,  where  Y  is
              replaced  by the type of update being done, X is replaced by the
              file-type, and the other letters represent attributes  that  may
              be output if they are being modified.

              The update types that replace the Y are as follows:

              o      A  < means that a file is being transferred to the remote
                     host (sent).

              o      A > means that a file is being transferred to  the  local
                     host (received).

              o      A  c  means that a local change/creation is occurring for
                     the item (such as the creation  of  a  directory  or  the
                     changing of a symlink, etc.).

              o      A  h  means  that the item is a hard link to another item
                     (requires --hard-links).

              o      A . means that the item is not being updated  (though  it
                     might have attributes that are being modified).

              o      A  * means that the rest of the itemized-output area con-
                     tains a message (e.g. "deleting").

              The file-types that replace the X are: f for a file, a d  for  a
              directory,  an  L for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S for a
              special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

              The other letters in the string above  are  the  actual  letters
              that  will be output if the associated attribute for the item is
              being updated or a "." for no change.  Three exceptions to  this
              are:  (1)  a newly created item replaces each letter with a "+",
              (2) an identical item replaces the dots with spaces, and (3)  an
              unknown attribute replaces each letter with a "?" (this can hap-
              pen when talking to an older rsync).

              The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:

              o      A  c  means  either  that  a regular file has a different
                     checksum (requires --checksum) or that a symlink, device,
                     or  special  file  has a changed value.  Note that if you
                     are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this change
                     flag  will be present only for checksum-differing regular

              o      A s means the size of a regular  file  is  different  and
                     will be updated by the file transfer.

              o      A t means the modification time is different and is being
                     updated to the sender's  value  (requires  --times).   An
                     alternate  value  of  T  means that the modification time
                     will be set to the transfer time, which  happens  when  a
                     file/symlink/device is updated without --times and when a
                     symlink is changed and the receiver can't set  its  time.
                     (Note:  when  using  an rsync 3.0.0 client, you might see
                     the s flag combined with t instead of the proper  T  flag
                     for this time-setting failure.)

              o      A  p  means  the  permissions are different and are being
                     updated to the sender's value (requires --perms).

              o      An o means the owner is different and is being updated to
                     the sender's value (requires --owner and super-user priv-

              o      A g means the group is different and is being updated  to
                     the sender's value (requires --group and the authority to
                     set the group).

              o      The u slot is reserved for future use.

              o      The a means that the ACL information changed.

              o      The x  means  that  the  extended  attribute  information

              One  other  output  is  possible:  when deleting files, the "%i"
              will output the string "*deleting" for each item that  is  being
              removed  (assuming that you are talking to a recent enough rsync
              that it logs deletions instead of outputting them as  a  verbose

              This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync client outputs
              to the user on a per-update basis.  The format is a text  string
              containing  embedded  single-character escape sequences prefixed
              with a percent (%) character.   A default format  of  "%n%L"  is
              assumed if either --info=name or -v is specified (this tells you
              just the name of the file and, if the item is a link,  where  it
              points).  For a full list of the possible escape characters, see
              the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              Specifying  the  --out-format  option  implies  the  --info=name
              option,  which  will  mention  each  file,  dir,  etc. that gets
              updated in a significant way (a transferred  file,  a  recreated
              symlink/device,  or  a  touched directory).  In addition, if the
              itemize-changes escape (%i) is included in the string  (e.g.  if
              the  --itemize-changes  option  was  used), the logging of names
              increases to mention any item that is changed  in  any  way  (as
              long  as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4).  See the --item-
              ize-changes option for a description of the output of "%i".

              Rsync will output the out-format string prior to a file's trans-
              fer  unless  one of the transfer-statistic escapes is requested,
              in which case the logging is done  at  the  end  of  the  file's
              transfer.  When this late logging is in effect and --progress is
              also specified, rsync will also output  the  name  of  the  file
              being  transferred  prior to its progress information (followed,
              of course, by the out-format output).

              This option causes rsync to log what it  is  doing  to  a  file.
              This  is  similar  to the logging that a daemon does, but can be
              requested for the client  side  and/or  the  server  side  of  a
              non-daemon  transfer.  If specified as a client option, transfer
              logging will be enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L".  See
              the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

              Here's  a  example  command that requests the remote side to log
              what is happening:

                rsync -av --remote-option=--log-file=/tmp/rlog src/ dest/

              This is very useful if you need to debug  why  a  connection  is
              closing unexpectedly.

              This  allows  you  to specify exactly what per-update logging is
              put into the file specified by the --log-file option (which must
              also  be  specified for this option to have any effect).  If you
              specify an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned  in
              the log file.  For a list of the possible escape characters, see
              the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              The default FORMAT used if  --log-file  is  specified  and  this
              option is not is '%i %n%L'.

              This  tells  rsync  to  print a verbose set of statistics on the
              file transfer,  allowing  you  to  tell  how  effective  rsync's
              delta-transfer  algorithm  is  for  your  data.   This option is
              equivalent to --info=stats2 if combined with 0 or 1 -v  options,
              or --info=stats3 if combined with 2 or more -v options.

              The current statistics are as follows:

              o      Number  of  files  is  the  count  of all "files" (in the
                     generic sense),  which  includes  directories,  symlinks,
                     etc.   The  total  count  will  be  followed by a list of
                     counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero).  For exam-
                     ple:  "(reg:  5,  dir:  3,  link: 2, dev: 1, special: 1)"
                     lists the totals for  regular  files,  directories,  sym-
                     links, devices, and special files.  If any of value is 0,
                     it is completely omitted from the list.

              o      Number of created files is the count of how many  "files"
                     (generic  sense)  were  created  (as opposed to updated).
                     The total count will be followed by a list of  counts  by
                     filetype (if the total is non-zero).

              o      Number  of deleted files is the count of how many "files"
                     (generic sense) were created  (as  opposed  to  updated).
                     The  total  count will be followed by a list of counts by
                     filetype (if the total is non-zero).  Note that this line
                     is  only  output  if deletions are in effect, and only if
                     protocol 31 is being used (the default for rsync  3.1.x).

              o      Number  of regular files transferred is the count of nor-
                     mal files that were updated  via  rsync's  delta-transfer
                     algorithm,  which  does  not include dirs, symlinks, etc.
                     Note that rsync 3.1.0 added the word "regular" into  this

              o      Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in the
                     transfer.  This does not count any size  for  directories
                     or  special files, but does include the size of symlinks.

              o      Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files
                     sizes for just the transferred files.

              o      Literal  data  is  how much unmatched file-update data we
                     had to send to  the  receiver  for  it  to  recreate  the
                     updated files.

              o      Matched  data  is  how much data the receiver got locally
                     when recreating the updated files.

              o      File list size is how big the file-list data was when the
                     sender sent it to the receiver.  This is smaller than the
                     in-memory size for the file list due to some  compressing
                     of duplicated data when rsync sends the list.

              o      File  list  generation time is the number of seconds that
                     the sender spent creating the file list.  This requires a
                     modern  rsync on the sending side for this to be present.

              o      File list transfer time is the number of seconds that the
                     sender spent sending the file list to the receiver.

              o      Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync
                     sent from the client side to the server side.

              o      Total bytes received is  the  count  of  all  non-message
                     bytes  that  rsync  received  by the client side from the
                     server side.  "Non-message" bytes  means  that  we  don't
                     count  the  bytes  for  a verbose message that the server
                     sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent.

       -8, --8-bit-output
              This tells rsync to leave all high-bit characters  unescaped  in
              the  output  instead  of  trying  to test them to see if they're
              valid in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones.   All
              control  characters (but never tabs) are always escaped, regard-
              less of this option's setting.

              The escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is to  output  a  literal
              backslash  (\)  and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3 octal dig-
              its.  For example, a newline would output as "\#012".  A literal
              backslash that is in a filename is not escaped unless it is fol-
              lowed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

       -h, --human-readable
              Output numbers in a more human-readable  format.   There  are  3
              possible  levels:   (1)  output numbers with a separator between
              each set of 3 digits (either a comma or a period,  depending  on
              if the decimal point is represented by a period or a comma); (2)
              output numbers in units of 1000 (with  a  character  suffix  for
              larger units -- see below); (3) output numbers in units of 1024.

              The default is human-readable level 1.  Each -h option increases
              the  level  by one.  You can take the level down to 0 (to output
              numbers as pure digits)  by  specifing  the  --no-human-readable
              (--no-h) option.

              The  unit  letters  that  are  appended in levels 2 and 3 are: K
              (kilo), M (mega),  G  (giga),  or  T  (tera).   For  example,  a
              1234567-byte  file  would  output  as 1.23M in level-2 (assuming
              that a period is your local decimal point).

              Backward compatibility note:  versions of rsync prior  to  3.1.0
              do not support human-readable level 1, and they default to level
              0.  Thus, specifying one or two -h options will behave in a com-
              parable  manner  in  old  and new versions as long as you didn't
              specify a --no-h option prior to one or more  -h  options.   See
              the --list-only option for one difference.

              By  default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file if
              the transfer is interrupted. In some circumstances  it  is  more
              desirable  to keep partially transferred files. Using the --par-
              tial option tells rsync to keep the partial  file  which  should
              make  a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much faster.

              A better way to keep partial files than the --partial option  is
              to  specify  a  DIR  that  will be used to hold the partial data
              (instead of writing it out to the  destination  file).   On  the
              next  transfer,  rsync will use a file found in this dir as data
              to speed up the resumption of the transfer and  then  delete  it
              after it has served its purpose.

              Note  that  if  --whole-file is specified (or implied), any par-
              tial-dir file that is found for a file  that  is  being  updated
              will  simply  be  removed  (since rsync is sending files without
              using rsync's delta-transfer algorithm).

              Rsync will create the DIR if it is missing (just the last dir --
              not  the whole path).  This makes it easy to use a relative path
              (such as "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial") to  have  rsync  create
              the  partial-directory  in the destination file's directory when
              needed, and then remove  it  again  when  the  partial  file  is

              If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add
              an exclude rule at the end of all your existing excludes.   This
              will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files that may exist
              on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion
              of  partial-dir  items  on  the receiving side.  An example: the
              above --partial-dir option would add the equivalent of  "-f  '-p
              .rsync-partial/'" at the end of any other filter rules.

              If you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need to add
              your own exclude/hide/protect rule for the  partial-dir  because
              (1)  the  auto-added  rule may be ineffective at the end of your
              other rules, or (2) you may wish  to  override  rsync's  exclude
              choice.   For  instance,  if you want to make rsync clean-up any
              left-over partial-dirs that may  be  lying  around,  you  should
              specify --delete-after and add a "risk" filter rule, e.g.  -f 'R
              .rsync-partial/'.  (Avoid using --delete-before or --delete-dur-
              ing unless you don't need rsync to use any of the left-over par-
              tial-dir data during the current run.)

              IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not  be  writable  by  other
              users or it is a security risk.  E.g. AVOID "/tmp".

              You  can  also  set  the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR
              environment variable.  Setting this in the environment does  not
              force  --partial to be enabled, but rather it affects where par-
              tial files  go  when  --partial  is  specified.   For  instance,
              instead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along with --progress,
              you could set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in  your  environment
              and  then  just  use  the  -P  option  to turn on the use of the
              .rsync-tmp dir for partial transfers.  The only times  that  the
              --partial  option  does  not look for this environment value are
              (1) when --inplace was specified (since --inplace conflicts with
              --partial-dir),  and (2) when --delay-updates was specified (see

              For the purposes of the daemon-config's  "refuse  options"  set-
              ting, --partial-dir does not imply --partial.  This is so that a
              refusal of the --partial option can  be  used  to  disallow  the
              overwriting  of destination files with a partial transfer, while
              still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

              This option puts the temporary file from each updated file  into
              a holding directory until the end of the transfer, at which time
              all the files are renamed into place in rapid succession.   This
              attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic.
              By default the files are placed into a directory named  ".~tmp~"
              in  each  file's  destination directory, but if you've specified
              the --partial-dir option, that directory will be  used  instead.
              See  the  comments in the --partial-dir section for a discussion
              of how this ".~tmp~" dir will be excluded from the transfer, and
              what  you  can do if you want rsync to cleanup old ".~tmp~" dirs
              that might  be  lying  around.   Conflicts  with  --inplace  and

              This  option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit per
              file transferred) and also requires enough free  disk  space  on
              the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated
              files.  Note also that you should not use an  absolute  path  to
              --partial-dir  unless (1) there is no chance of any of the files
              in the transfer having the same  name  (since  all  the  updated
              files  will  be put into a single directory if the path is abso-
              lute) and (2) there are no mount points in the hierarchy  (since
              the  delayed  updates  will  fail  if they can't be renamed into

              See also the "atomic-rsync" perl script in the "support"  subdir
              for  an  update  algorithm  that  is  even  more atomic (it uses
              --link-dest and a parallel hierarchy of files).

       -m, --prune-empty-dirs
              This option tells the receiving rsync to get rid of empty direc-
              tories  from  the  file-list,  including nested directories that
              have no non-directory children.  This is useful for avoiding the
              creation  of  a  bunch  of  useless directories when the sending
              rsync  is  recursively  scanning  a  hierarchy  of  files  using
              include/exclude/filter rules.

              Note  that  the  use  of  transfer rules, such as the --min-size
              option, does not affect what goes into the file list,  and  thus
              does not leave directories empty, even if none of the files in a
              directory match the transfer rule.

              Because the file-list is actually being pruned, this option also
              affects  what  directories  get deleted when a delete is active.
              However, keep in mind that excluded files  and  directories  can
              prevent existing items from being deleted due to an exclude both
              hiding source files and protecting destination files.   See  the
              perishable filter-rule option for how to avoid this.

              You  can  prevent  the pruning of certain empty directories from
              the file-list by using a global "protect" filter.  For instance,
              this  option would ensure that the directory "emptydir" was kept
              in the file-list:

              --filter 'protect emptydir/'

              Here's an example that copies all .pdf  files  in  a  hierarchy,
              only  creating the necessary destination directories to hold the
              .pdf files, and ensures that any superfluous files and  directo-
              ries  in  the  destination  are removed (note the hide filter of
              non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

              rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */' src/ dest

              If you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files,  the
              more  time-honored  options  of  "--include='*/'  --exclude='*'"
              would work fine in place of the hide-filter  (if  that  is  more
              natural to you).

              This  option  tells  rsync  to  print  information  showing  the
              progress of the transfer. This gives a bored user  something  to
              watch.   With  a  modern  rsync  this  is the same as specifying
              --info=flist2,name,progress, but any user-supplied settings  for
              those   info   flags   takes   precedence  (e.g.  "--info=flist0

              While rsync  is  transferring  a  regular  file,  it  updates  a
              progress line that looks like this:

                    782448  63%  110.64kB/s    0:00:04

              In  this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes or
              63% of the sender's file, which is being reconstructed at a rate
              of  110.64 kilobytes per second, and the transfer will finish in
              4 seconds if the current rate is maintained until the end.

              These statistics can be  misleading  if  rsync's  delta-transfer
              algorithm is in use.  For example, if the sender's file consists
              of the basis file followed by additional data, the reported rate
              will  probably  drop  dramatically when the receiver gets to the
              literal data, and the transfer will probably take much longer to
              finish  than  the  receiver  estimated  as  it was finishing the
              matched part of the file.

              When the file transfer finishes,  rsync  replaces  the  progress
              line with a summary line that looks like this:

                    1,238,099 100%  146.38kB/s    0:00:08  (xfr#5, to-chk=169/396)

              In this example, the file was 1,238,099 bytes long in total, the
              average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes
              per  second  over the 8 seconds that it took to complete, it was
              the 5th transfer of a regular file during the current rsync ses-
              sion, and there are 169 more files for the receiver to check (to
              see if they are up-to-date or not)  remaining  out  of  the  396
              total files in the file-list.

              In  an  incremental  recursion  scan, rsync won't know the total
              number of files in the file-list until it reaches  the  ends  of
              the scan, but since it starts to transfer files during the scan,
              it will display a line with the text "ir-chk"  (for  incremental
              recursion  check)  instead  of  "to-chk" until the point that it
              knows the full size of the list, at which point it  will  switch
              to using "to-chk".  Thus, seeing "ir-chk" lets you know that the
              total count of files in the file list is still going to increase
              (and  each  time it does, the count of files left to check  will
              increase by the number of the files added to the list).

       -P     The -P option is equivalent to --partial --progress.   Its  pur-
              pose  is to make it much easier to specify these two options for
              a long transfer that may be interrupted.

              There is also a --info=progress2 option that outputs  statistics
              based  on the whole transfer, rather than individual files.  Use
              this flag without outputting a filename (e.g. avoid -v or  spec-
              ify  --info=name0  if  you want to see how the transfer is doing
              without scrolling the screen with a lot of  names.   (You  don't
              need   to   specify  the  --progress  option  in  order  to  use

              This option allows you to provide a password  for  accessing  an
              rsync daemon via a file or via standard input if FILE is -.  The
              file should contain just the password on  the  first  line  (all
              other lines are ignored).  Rsync will exit with an error if FILE
              is world readable  or  if  a  root-run  rsync  command  finds  a
              non-root-owned file.

              This  option does not supply a password to a remote shell trans-
              port such as ssh; to learn how to do that,  consult  the  remote
              shell's  documentation.   When accessing an rsync daemon using a
              remote shell as the  transport,  this  option  only  comes  into
              effect  after the remote shell finishes its authentication (i.e.
              if you have also specified a password  in  the  daemon's  config

              This  option will cause the source files to be listed instead of
              transferred.  This option is  inferred  if  there  is  a  single
              source  arg  and no destination specified, so its main uses are:
              (1) to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg  into
              a  file-listing  command, or (2) to be able to specify more than
              one source arg (note: be sure to include the destination).  Cau-
              tion:  keep  in  mind  that  a  source  arg  with a wild-card is
              expanded by the shell into multiple args, so it is never safe to
              try to list such an arg without using this option.  For example:

                  rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/

              Starting with rsync 3.1.0, the sizes output by  --list-only  are
              affected  by  the --human-readable option.  By default they will
              contain digit separators, but higher levels of readability  will
              output  the sizes with unit suffixes.  Note also that the column
              width for the size output has increased from 11 to 14 characters
              for all human-readable levels.  Use --no-h if you want just dig-
              its in the sizes, and the old column width of 11 characters.

              Compatibility note:  when requesting a remote listing  of  files
              from  an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or older, you may encounter
              an error if you  ask  for  a  non-recursive  listing.   This  is
              because  a  file  listing implies the --dirs option w/o --recur-
              sive, and older rsyncs don't have that option.   To  avoid  this
              problem,  either specify the --no-dirs option (if you don't need
              to expand a directory's  content),  or  turn  on  recursion  and
              exclude the content of subdirectories: -r --exclude='/*/*'.

              This  option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for
              the data sent over the socket, specified in  units  per  second.
              The  RATE value can be suffixed with a string to indicate a size
              multiplier,   and   may   be   a    fractional    value    (e.g.
              "--bwlimit=1.5m").  If no suffix is specified, the value will be
              assumed to be in units of 1024 bytes (as if  "K"  or  "KiB"  had
              been  appended).  See the --max-size option for a description of
              all the available suffixes. A value of zero specifies no  limit.

              For  backward-compatibility  reasons,  the  rate  limit  will be
              rounded to the nearest KiB unit, so no rate  smaller  than  1024
              bytes per second is possible.

              Rsync  writes  data  over  the socket in blocks, and this option
              both limits the size of the blocks that rsync writes, and  tries
              to  keep the average transfer rate at the requested limit.  Some
              "burstiness" may be seen where rsync writes out a block of  data
              and then sleeps to bring the average rate into compliance.

              Due to the internal buffering of data, the --progress option may
              not be an accurate reflection on how  fast  the  data  is  being
              sent.   This  is because some files can show up as being rapidly
              sent when the data is quickly buffered, while other can show  up
              as  very  slow  when  the  flushing of the output buffer occurs.
              This may be fixed in a future version.

              Record a file that can later be  applied  to  another  identical
              destination  with --read-batch. See the "BATCH MODE" section for
              details, and also the --only-write-batch option.

              Works like --write-batch, except that no updates are made on the
              destination  system  when  creating  the  batch.   This lets you
              transport the changes to the destination system via  some  other
              means and then apply the changes via --read-batch.

              Note  that you can feel free to write the batch directly to some
              portable media: if this media fills to capacity before  the  end
              of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer to the
              destination and repeat the whole process to get the rest of  the
              changes  (as long as you don't mind a partially updated destina-
              tion system while the multi-update cycle is happening).

              Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a
              remote  system  because  this  allows  the  batched  data  to be
              diverted from the sender into the batch file without  having  to
              flow  over the wire to the receiver (when pulling, the sender is
              remote, and thus can't write the batch).

              Apply all of the changes stored in FILE, a file previously  gen-
              erated  by  --write-batch.  If FILE is -, the batch data will be
              read from standard input.  See  the  "BATCH  MODE"  section  for

              Force  an older protocol version to be used.  This is useful for
              creating a batch file that is compatible with an  older  version
              of  rsync.   For instance, if rsync 2.6.4 is being used with the
              --write-batch option, but rsync 2.6.3 is what will  be  used  to
              run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when
              creating the batch file to force the older protocol  version  to
              be  used in the batch file (assuming you can't upgrade the rsync
              on the reading system).

              Rsync can convert filenames between character  sets  using  this
              option.   Using a CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync to look up the
              default character-set via the locale setting.  Alternately,  you
              can  fully specify what conversion to do by giving a local and a
              remote   charset   separated   by   a   comma   in   the   order
              --iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE,  e.g.   --iconv=utf8,iso88591.  This order
              ensures that the option will stay the same whether you're  push-
              ing   or   pulling  files.   Finally,  you  can  specify  either
              --no-iconv or a CONVERT_SPEC of "-" to turn off any  conversion.
              The  default  setting  of  this option is site-specific, and can
              also be affected via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable.

              For a list of what charset names your local iconv  library  sup-
              ports, you can run "iconv --list".

              If you specify the --protect-args option (-s), rsync will trans-
              late the filenames you specify  on  the  command-line  that  are
              being  sent  to  the  remote  host.   See  also the --files-from

              Note that rsync does not do any conversion of  names  in  filter
              files  (including  include/exclude  files).   It is up to you to
              ensure that you're specifying matching rules that can  match  on
              both sides of the transfer.  For instance, you can specify extra
              include/exclude rules if there are filename differences  on  the
              two sides that need to be accounted for.

              When  you  pass an --iconv option to an rsync daemon that allows
              it, the daemon uses the charset specified in its "charset"  con-
              figuration  parameter regardless of the remote charset you actu-
              ally pass.  Thus, you may feel free to specify  just  the  local
              charset for a daemon transfer (e.g. --iconv=utf8).

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
              Tells  rsync  to  prefer  IPv4/IPv6 when creating sockets.  This
              only affects sockets that rsync has direct control over, such as
              the  outgoing  socket  when directly contacting an rsync daemon.
              See also these options in the --daemon mode section.

              If rsync was complied  without  support  for  IPv6,  the  --ipv6
              option  will have no effect.  The --version output will tell you
              if this is the case.

              Set the checksum seed to the integer NUM.  This 4 byte  checksum
              seed is included in each block and MD4 file checksum calculation
              (the more modern MD5 file  checksums  don't  use  a  seed).   By
              default  the  checksum  seed  is  generated  by  the  server and
              defaults to the current time() .  This option is used to  set  a
              specific  checksum  seed,  which is useful for applications that
              want repeatable block checksums, or in the case where  the  user
              wants  a  more  random  checksum  seed.  Setting NUM to 0 causes
              rsync to use the default of time() for checksum seed.


       The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:

              This tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon  you
              start  running  may  be accessed using an rsync client using the
              host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

              If standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that it  is
              being  run  via inetd, otherwise it will detach from the current
              terminal and become a background daemon.  The daemon  will  read
              the  config  file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by a client
              and respond to requests accordingly.  See the rsyncd.conf(5) man
              page for more details.

              By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when run as a
              daemon with the --daemon option.  The  --address  option  allows
              you  to  specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to.
              This makes virtual hosting  possible  in  conjunction  with  the
              --config  option.   See  also the "address" global option in the
              rsyncd.conf manpage.

              This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate  for
              the data the daemon sends over the socket.  The client can still
              specify a smaller --bwlimit value, but no larger value  will  be
              allowed.  See the client version of this option (above) for some
              extra details.

              This specifies an alternate config file than the default.   This
              is  only  relevant  when  --daemon is specified.  The default is
              /etc/rsyncd.conf unless the daemon  is  running  over  a  remote
              shell program and the remote user is not the super-user; in that
              case the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory  (typi-
              cally $HOME).

       -M, --dparam=OVERRIDE
              This  option  can  be used to set a daemon-config parameter when
              starting up rsync in daemon mode.  It is  equivalent  to  adding
              the  parameter  at  the  end of the global settings prior to the
              first module's definition.  The parameter names can be specified
              without spaces, if you so desire.  For instance:

                  rsync --daemon -M pidfile=/path/

              When  running  as  a  daemon, this option instructs rsync to not
              detach itself and become a background process.  This  option  is
              required  when  running  as a service on Cygwin, and may also be
              useful when rsync is supervised by a program such as daemontools
              or AIX's System Resource Controller.  --no-detach is also recom-
              mended when rsync is run under a debugger.  This option  has  no
              effect if rsync is run from inetd or sshd.

              This  specifies  an  alternate TCP port number for the daemon to
              listen on rather than the default of 873.  See also  the  "port"
              global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              This  option  tells  the  rsync daemon to use the given log-file
              name instead of using the "log file" setting in the config file.

              This  option  tells  the  rsync  daemon  to use the given FORMAT
              string instead of using the "log format" setting in  the  config
              file.   It  also enables "transfer logging" unless the string is
              empty, in which case transfer logging is turned off.

              This overrides the socket options  setting  in  the  rsyncd.conf
              file and has the same syntax.

       -v, --verbose
              This  option increases the amount of information the daemon logs
              during its startup phase.  After the client connects,  the  dae-
              mon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the
              client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's con-
              fig section.

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
              Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming sock-
              ets that the rsync daemon will use to  listen  for  connections.
              One  of these options may be required in older versions of Linux
              to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if you see an "address
              already  in  use" error when nothing else is using the port, try
              specifying --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting the daemon).

              If rsync was complied  without  support  for  IPv6,  the  --ipv6
              option  will have no effect.  The --version output will tell you
              if this is the case.

       -h, --help
              When specified after --daemon, print a short help page  describ-
              ing the options available for starting an rsync daemon.


       The  filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files to trans-
       fer (include) and which files to  skip  (exclude).   The  rules  either
       directly  specify  include/exclude  patterns  or  they specify a way to
       acquire more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a  file).

       As  the  list  of  files/directories to transfer is built, rsync checks
       each name to be transferred against the list  of  include/exclude  pat-
       terns in turn, and the first matching pattern is acted on:  if it is an
       exclude pattern, then that file is skipped; if it is an include pattern
       then  that  filename  is  not skipped; if no matching pattern is found,
       then the filename is not skipped.

       Rsync builds an ordered list of filter rules as specified on  the  com-
       mand-line.  Filter rules have the following syntax:


       You  have  your  choice  of  using  either short or long RULE names, as
       described below.  If you use a short-named rule, the ',' separating the
       RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.  The PATTERN or FILENAME that fol-
       lows (when present) must come after either a single space or an  under-
       score (_).  Here are the available rule prefixes:

              exclude, - specifies an exclude pattern.
              include, + specifies an include pattern.
              merge, . specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.
              dir-merge, : specifies a per-directory merge-file.
              hide,  H specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer.
              show, S files that match the pattern are not hidden.
              protect, P specifies a pattern for protecting files  from  dele-
              risk, R files that match the pattern are not protected.
              clear, ! clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

       When  rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as are
       comment lines that start with a "#".

       Note that the --include/--exclude command-line options do not allow the
       full  range  of  rule parsing as described above -- they only allow the
       specification of include/exclude patterns plus a "!" token to clear the
       list  (and the normal comment parsing when rules are read from a file).
       If a pattern does not begin with "- " (dash,  space)  or  "+  "  (plus,
       space),  then  the  rule will be interpreted as if "+ " (for an include
       option) or "- " (for an exclude option) were prefixed to the string.  A
       --filter  option, on the other hand, must always contain either a short
       or long rule name at the start of the rule.

       Note also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take  one
       rule/pattern  each. To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options on
       the command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option,  or
       the --include-from/--exclude-from options.


       You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the "+",
       "-", etc. filter rules (as  introduced  in  the  FILTER  RULES  section
       above).   The  include/exclude  rules  each  specify  a pattern that is
       matched against the names of the files that  are  going  to  be  trans-
       ferred.  These patterns can take several forms:

       o      if the pattern starts with a / then it is anchored to a particu-
              lar spot in the hierarchy of  files,  otherwise  it  is  matched
              against the end of the pathname.  This is similar to a leading ^
              in regular expressions.  Thus "/foo" would match a name of "foo"
              at  either  the "root of the transfer" (for a global rule) or in
              the merge-file's  directory  (for  a  per-directory  rule).   An
              unqualified  "foo"  would  match a name of "foo" anywhere in the
              tree because the algorithm is applied recursively from  the  top
              down;  it behaves as if each path component gets a turn at being
              the end of the filename.  Even the  unanchored  "sub/foo"  would
              match  at  any  point  in  the hierarchy where a "foo" was found
              within a directory named "sub".  See the  section  on  ANCHORING
              INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for a full discussion of how to specify
              a pattern that matches at the root of the transfer.

       o      if the pattern ends with a / then it will only  match  a  direc-
              tory, not a regular file, symlink, or device.

       o      rsync  chooses  between doing a simple string match and wildcard
              matching by checking if the pattern contains one of these  three
              wildcard characters: '*', '?', and '[' .

       o      a '*' matches any path component, but it stops at slashes.

       o      use '**' to match anything, including slashes.

       o      a '?' matches any character except a slash (/).

       o      a   '['   introduces   a  character  class,  such  as  [a-z]  or

       o      in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be used to escape a wild-
              card  character,  but  it is matched literally when no wildcards
              are present.

       o      if the pattern contains a / (not counting a  trailing  /)  or  a
              "**",  then  it  is matched against the full pathname, including
              any leading directories. If the pattern doesn't contain a / or a
              "**", then it is matched only against the final component of the
              filename.  (Remember that the algorithm is  applied  recursively
              so  "full  filename"  can actually be any portion of a path from
              the starting directory on down.)

       o      a trailing "dir_name/***" will match both the directory  (as  if
              "dir_name/"  had been specified) and everything in the directory
              (as if "dir_name/**" had been  specified).   This  behavior  was
              added in version 2.6.7.

       Note  that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied by
       -a), every subcomponent of every path is visited from the top down,  so
       include/exclude patterns get applied recursively to each subcomponent's
       full name (e.g. to include "/foo/bar/baz" the subcomponents "/foo"  and
       "/foo/bar"  must  not  be  excluded).   The  exclude  patterns actually
       short-circuit the directory traversal stage when rsync finds the  files
       to  send.   If a pattern excludes a particular parent directory, it can
       render a deeper include  pattern  ineffectual  because  rsync  did  not
       descend  through  that excluded section of the hierarchy.  This is par-
       ticularly important when using a trailing '*' rule.  For instance, this
       won't work:

              + /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
              + /file-is-included
              - *

       This  fails  because the parent directory "some" is excluded by the '*'
       rule, so rsync  never  visits  any  of  the  files  in  the  "some"  or
       "some/path" directories.  One solution is to ask for all directories in
       the hierarchy to be included by using a single rule:  "+  */"  (put  it
       somewhere   before   the   "-   *"   rule),   and   perhaps   use   the
       --prune-empty-dirs option.  Another solution is to add specific include
       rules  for  all the parent dirs that need to be visited.  For instance,
       this set of rules works fine:

              + /some/
              + /some/path/
              + /some/path/this-file-is-found
              + /file-also-included
              - *

       Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:

       o      "- *.o" would exclude all names matching *.o

       o      "- /foo" would exclude a file (or directory) named  foo  in  the
              transfer-root directory

       o      "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo

       o      "-  /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is at two
              levels below a directory named foo in the  transfer-root  direc-

       o      "-  /foo/**/bar"  would  exclude  any file named bar two or more
              levels below a directory named foo in the  transfer-root  direc-

       o      The  combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include all
              directories and C source files but nothing else  (see  also  the
              --prune-empty-dirs option)

       o      The  combination  of  "+  foo/",  "+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would
              include only the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo  directory
              must be explicitly included or it would be excluded by the "*")

       The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-":

       o      A  /  specifies  that the include/exclude rule should be matched
              against the absolute pathname of the current item.  For example,
              "-/  /etc/passwd"  would  exclude  the  passwd file any time the
              transfer was sending files from the "/etc"  directory,  and  "-/
              subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is in a dir named
              "subdir", even if "foo" is at the root of the current  transfer.

       o      A ! specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if the
              pattern fails to match.  For instance, "-! */" would exclude all

       o      A  C  is  used to indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules
              should be inserted as excludes in place of  the  "-C".   No  arg
              should follow.

       o      An  s  is  used to indicate that the rule applies to the sending
              side.  When a rule affects the sending side, it  prevents  files
              from  being  transferred.   The  default is for a rule to affect
              both sides unless --delete-excluded was specified, in which case
              default  rules  become  sender-side only.  See also the hide (H)
              and show (S) rules, which are an alternate way to specify  send-
              ing-side includes/excludes.

       o      An  r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the receiving
              side.  When a rule affects the receiving side, it prevents files
              from being deleted.  See the s modifier for more info.  See also
              the protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which are an  alternate  way
              to specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

       o      A  p  indicates  that  a  rule is perishable, meaning that it is
              ignored in directories that are being  deleted.   For  instance,
              the -C option's default rules that exclude things like "CVS" and
              "*.o" are marked as perishable, and will not prevent a directory
              that  was removed on the source from being deleted on the desti-


       You can merge whole files into your filter rules by specifying either a
       merge  (.)  or a dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER
       RULES section above).

       There are two kinds  of  merged  files  --  single-instance  ('.')  and
       per-directory  (':').   A  single-instance merge file is read one time,
       and its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the
       "."  rule.  For per-directory merge files, rsync will scan every direc-
       tory that it traverses for the named file, merging  its  contents  when
       the  file  exists  into  the  current  list  of inherited rules.  These
       per-directory rule files must be created on the sending side because it
       is  the  sending  side that is being scanned for the available files to
       transfer.  These rule files may also need  to  be  transferred  to  the
       receiving  side if you want them to affect what files don't get deleted

       Some examples:

              merge /etc/rsync/default.rules
              . /etc/rsync/default.rules
              dir-merge .per-dir-filter
              dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
              :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

       o      A - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude  pat-
              terns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A  + specifies that the file should consist of only include pat-
              terns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A C is a way to specify that  the  file  should  be  read  in  a
              CVS-compatible  manner.   This  turns  on 'n', 'w', and '-', but
              also allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified.  If  no
              filename is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed.

       o      A  e  will  exclude  the merge-file name from the transfer; e.g.
              "dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "-  .rules".

       o      An  n  specifies that the rules are not inherited by subdirecto-

       o      A w specifies  that  the  rules  are  word-split  on  whitespace
              instead  of the normal line-splitting.  This also turns off com-
              ments.  Note: the space that separates the prefix from the  rule
              is  treated  specially,  so "- foo + bar" is parsed as two rules
              (assuming that prefix-parsing wasn't also disabled).

       o      You may also specify any of the modifiers for  the  "+"  or  "-"
              rules  (above)  in order to have the rules that are read in from
              the file default to having that modifier set (except for  the  !
              modifier,  which  would not be useful).  For instance, "merge,-/
              .excl" would  treat  the  contents  of  .excl  as  absolute-path
              excludes,  while  "dir-merge,s  .filt" and ":sC" would each make
              all their per-directory rules apply only on  the  sending  side.
              If the merge rule specifies sides to affect (via the s or r mod-
              ifier or both), then the rules in  the  file  must  not  specify
              sides (via a modifier or a rule prefix such as hide).

       Per-directory  rules  are inherited in all subdirectories of the direc-
       tory where the merge-file was found unless the 'n' modifier  was  used.
       Each  subdirectory's  rules are prefixed to the inherited per-directory
       rules from its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher  priority
       than  the  inherited  rules.   The  entire  set  of dir-merge rules are
       grouped together in the spot where the merge-file was specified, so  it
       is  possible  to override dir-merge rules via a rule that got specified
       earlier in the list of global rules.  When the list-clearing rule ("!")
       is  read  from a per-directory file, it only clears the inherited rules
       for the current merge file.

       Another way to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file  from  being
       inherited  is  to  anchor it with a leading slash.  Anchored rules in a
       per-directory merge-file are relative to the merge-file's directory, so
       a pattern "/foo" would only match the file "foo" in the directory where
       the dir-merge filter file was found.

       Here's an example filter  file  which  you'd  specify  via  --filter=".

              merge /home/user/.global-filter
              - *.gz
              dir-merge .rules
              + *.[ch]
              - *.o

       This  will  merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at
       the start of the list and also  turns  the  ".rules"  filename  into  a
       per-directory filter file.  All rules read in prior to the start of the
       directory scan follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a leading  slash
       matches at the root of the transfer).

       If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent
       directory of the first transfer directory, rsync will scan all the par-
       ent  dirs  from  that  starting point to the transfer directory for the
       indicated per-directory file.  For instance, here is  a  common  filter
       (see -F):

              --filter=': /.rsync-filter'

       That  rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all direc-
       tories from the root down through the parent directory of the  transfer
       prior  to  the  start  of  the normal directory scan of the file in the
       directories that are sent as a part of the  transfer.   (Note:  for  an
       rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module's "path".)

       Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

              rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
              rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
              rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir

       The  first  two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and
       "/src"  before  the  normal  scan  begins  looking  for  the  file   in
       "/src/path"  and  its subdirectories.  The last command avoids the par-
       ent-dir scan and only looks  for  the  ".rsync-filter"  files  in  each
       directory that is a part of the transfer.

       If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns,
       you should use the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the  .cvsig-
       nore  file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner.  You can use this to
       affect  where  the  --cvs-exclude  (-C)  option's  inclusion   of   the
       per-directory  .cvsignore  file  gets placed into your rules by putting
       the ":C" wherever you like in your filter rules.  Without  this,  rsync
       would  add the dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of all
       your other rules (giving it a lower  priority  than  your  command-line
       rules).  For example:

              cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b
              + foo.o
              - *.old
              rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b

       Both  of  the  above rsync commands are identical.  Each one will merge
       all the per-directory .cvsignore rules in the middle of the list rather
       than at the end.  This allows their dir-specific rules to supersede the
       rules that follow the :C instead  of  being  subservient  to  all  your
       rules.  To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of
       exclusions, the contents of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of  $CVSIG-
       NORE)  you  should omit the -C command-line option and instead insert a
       "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g. "--filter=-C".


       You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!"  filter
       rule  (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).  The "current"
       list is either the global list of rules (if  the  rule  is  encountered
       while  parsing  the  filter  options)  or  a set of per-directory rules
       (which are inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory  can  use
       this to clear out the parent's rules).


       As  mentioned  earlier, global include/exclude patterns are anchored at
       the "root of the transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which
       are  anchored  at  the  merge-file's  directory).   If you think of the
       transfer as a subtree of names that  are  being  sent  from  sender  to
       receiver,  the  transfer-root is where the tree starts to be duplicated
       in the destination directory.  This root governs  where  patterns  that
       start with a / match.

       Because  the  matching  is  relative to the transfer-root, changing the
       trailing slash on a source path or changing your use of the  --relative
       option  affects  the path you need to use in your matching (in addition
       to changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on the  destination
       host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

       Let's  say that we want to match two source files, one with an absolute
       path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".
       Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

              Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
              +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
              +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
              Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

              Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
              +/- pattern: /foo/bar               (note missing "me")
              +/- pattern: /bar/baz               (note missing "you")
              Target file: /dest/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/bar/baz

              Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
              +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar       (note full path)
              +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz      (ditto)
              Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz

              Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest
              +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar      (starts at specified path)
              +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz     (ditto)
              Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

       The easiest way to see what name you should filter is to just  look  at
       the  output  when using --verbose and put a / in front of the name (use
       the --dry-run option if you're not yet ready to copy any files).


       Without a delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant  on  the
       sending  side,  so  you  can feel free to exclude the merge files them-
       selves without affecting the transfer.  To make this easy, the 'e' mod-
       ifier  adds  this exclude for you, as seen in these two equivalent com-

              rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest
              rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest

       However, if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you  want
       some  files  to  be excluded from being deleted, you'll need to be sure
       that the receiving side knows what files to exclude.  The  easiest  way
       is  to  include  the  per-directory merge files in the transfer and use
       --delete-after, because this ensures that the receiving side  gets  all
       the  same  exclude  rules as the sending side before it tries to delete

              rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest

       However, if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need
       to either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the com-
       mand line), or you'll need to maintain  your  own  per-directory  merge
       files  on  the receiving side.  An example of the first is this (assume
       that the remote .rules files exclude themselves):

       rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
          --delete host:src/dir /dest

       In the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of  the
       transfer,  but  (on  the sending side) the rules are subservient to the
       rules merged from the .rules files because they  were  specified  after
       the per-directory merge rule.

       In  one  final  example, the remote side is excluding the .rsync-filter
       files from the transfer, but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files
       to control what gets deleted on the receiving side.  To do this we must
       specifically exclude the per-directory merge files (so that they  don't
       get  deleted)  and  then put rules into the local files to control what
       else should not get deleted.  Like one of these commands:

           rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
               host:src/dir /dest
           rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest


       Batch mode can be used to apply the same set of updates to many identi-
       cal  systems. Suppose one has a tree which is replicated on a number of
       hosts.  Now suppose some changes have been made to this source tree and
       those  changes need to be propagated to the other hosts. In order to do
       this using batch mode, rsync is run  with  the  write-batch  option  to
       apply  the  changes  made  to the source tree to one of the destination
       trees.  The write-batch option causes the rsync client to  store  in  a
       "batch  file"  all  the  information  needed  to  repeat this operation
       against other, identical destination trees.

       Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status,
       checksum, and data block generation more than once when updating multi-
       ple destination trees. Multicast transport protocols  can  be  used  to
       transfer  the  batch  update  files  in parallel to many hosts at once,
       instead of sending the same data to every host individually.

       To apply the recorded changes to another destination  tree,  run  rsync
       with the read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch file,
       and the destination tree.  Rsync updates the destination tree using the
       information stored in the batch file.

       For   your  convenience,  a  script  file  is  also  created  when  the
       write-batch option is used:  it will be named the  same  as  the  batch
       file  with  ".sh"  appended.   This script file contains a command-line
       suitable for updating a destination tree  using  the  associated  batch
       file. It can be executed using a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell, option-
       ally passing in an alternate destination tree pathname  which  is  then
       used instead of the original destination path.  This is useful when the
       destination tree path on the current host differs from the one used  to
       create the batch file.


              $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
              $ scp foo* remote:
              $ ssh remote ./ /bdest/dir/

              $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/
              $ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo

       In   these   examples,   rsync  is  used  to  update  /adest/dir/  from
       /source/dir/ and the information to repeat this operation is stored  in
       "foo" and "".  The host "remote" is then updated with the batched
       data going into the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences between  the
       two  examples  reveals some of the flexibility you have in how you deal
       with batches:

       o      The first example shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be
              local  --  you can push or pull data to/from a remote host using
              either the  remote-shell  syntax  or  rsync  daemon  syntax,  as

       o      The  first  example  uses  the  created "" file to get the
              right rsync options when running the read-batch command  on  the
              remote host.

       o      The  second  example  reads the batch data via standard input so
              that the batch file doesn't need to  be  copied  to  the  remote
              machine first.  This example avoids the script because it
              needed to use a modified --read-batch option, but you could edit
              the  script  file  if you wished to make use of it (just be sure
              that no other option is trying to use standard  input,  such  as
              the "--exclude-from=-" option).


       The  read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is updating
       to be identical to the destination tree that was  used  to  create  the
       batch  update fileset.  When a difference between the destination trees
       is encountered the update might be discarded with  a  warning  (if  the
       file  appears  to  be  up-to-date  already)  or  the file-update may be
       attempted and then, if the file fails to verify, the  update  discarded
       with  an  error.   This  means  that  it  should  be  safe  to re-run a
       read-batch operation if the command got interrupted.  If  you  wish  to
       force  the  batched-update  to  always  be  attempted regardless of the
       file's size and date, use the -I option (when reading the  batch).   If
       an  error  occurs, the destination tree will probably be in a partially
       updated state.  In  that  case,  rsync  can  be  used  in  its  regular
       (non-batch) mode of operation to fix up the destination tree.

       The  rsync  version used on all destinations must be at least as new as
       the one used to generate the batch file.  Rsync will die with an  error
       if  the  protocol  version  in  the  batch  file  is  too  new  for the
       batch-reading rsync to handle.  See also the --protocol  option  for  a
       way  to  have  the  creating  rsync generate a batch file that an older
       rsync can understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in version
       2.6.3,  so mixing versions older than that with newer versions will not

       When reading a batch file,  rsync  will  force  the  value  of  certain
       options  to  match the data in the batch file if you didn't set them to
       the same as the batch-writing command.  Other options can (and  should)
       be  changed.   For  instance  --write-batch  changes  to  --read-batch,
       --files-from is dropped, and the  --filter/--include/--exclude  options
       are not needed unless one of the --delete options is specified.

       The   code   that   creates  the  file  transforms  any  fil-
       ter/include/exclude options into a single list that is  appended  as  a
       "here"  document  to  the  shell script file.  An advanced user can use
       this to modify the exclude list if a change in  what  gets  deleted  by
       --delete is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just use
       the shell script as an easy way to  run  the  appropriate  --read-batch
       command for the batched data.

       The  original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the latest
       version uses a new implementation.


       Three basic behaviors are possible when  rsync  encounters  a  symbolic
       link in the source directory.

       By  default,  symbolic  links  are  not  transferred at all.  A message
       "skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

       If --links is specified, then symlinks are recreated with the same tar-
       get on the destination.  Note that --archive implies --links.

       If  --copy-links is specified, then symlinks are "collapsed" by copying
       their referent, rather than the symlink.

       Rsync can also distinguish "safe"  and  "unsafe"  symbolic  links.   An
       example  where  this  might be used is a web site mirror that wishes to
       ensure that the rsync module that is copied does not  include  symbolic
       links  to  /etc/passwd  in  the  public  section  of  the  site.  Using
       --copy-unsafe-links will cause any links to be copied as the file  they
       point  to  on  the  destination.   Using --safe-links will cause unsafe
       links to be omitted altogether.  (Note that you  must  specify  --links
       for --safe-links to have any effect.)

       Symbolic  links  are  considered  unsafe  if they are absolute symlinks
       (start with /), empty, or if they contain  enough  ".."  components  to
       ascend from the directory being copied.

       Here's  a summary of how the symlink options are interpreted.  The list
       is in order of precedence, so if your combination of options isn't men-
       tioned, use the first line that is a complete subset of your options:

              Turn all symlinks into normal files (leaving no symlinks for any
              other options to affect).

       --links --copy-unsafe-links
              Turn all unsafe symlinks into files and duplicate all safe  sym-

              Turn  all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily skip all safe sym-

       --links --safe-links
              Duplicate safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.

              Duplicate all symlinks.


       rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem a little cryp-
       tic.  The  one that seems to cause the most confusion is "protocol ver-
       sion mismatch -- is your shell clean?".

       This message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote  shell
       facility  producing  unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync is using
       for its transport. The way to diagnose this  problem  is  to  run  your
       remote shell like this:

              ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

       then  look  at out.dat. If everything is working correctly then out.dat
       should be a zero length file. If you are getting the above  error  from
       rsync  then  you  will probably find that out.dat contains some text or
       data. Look at the contents and try to work out what  is  producing  it.
       The  most  common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup scripts
       (such as  .cshrc  or  .profile)  that  contain  output  statements  for
       non-interactive logins.

       If  you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try specify-
       ing the -vv option.  At this level of verbosity  rsync  will  show  why
       each individual file is included or excluded.


       0      Success

       1      Syntax or usage error

       2      Protocol incompatibility

       3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

       4      Requested  action  not supported: an attempt was made to manipu-
              late 64-bit files on a platform that cannot support them; or  an
              option  was specified that is supported by the client and not by
              the server.

       5      Error starting client-server protocol

       6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

       10     Error in socket I/O

       11     Error in file I/O

       12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

       13     Errors with program diagnostics

       14     Error in IPC code

       20     Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       21     Some error returned by waitpid()

       22     Error allocating core memory buffers

       23     Partial transfer due to error

       24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

       25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       30     Timeout in data send/receive

       35     Timeout waiting for daemon connection


              The CVSIGNORE environment variable supplements any  ignore  pat-
              terns in .cvsignore files. See the --cvs-exclude option for more

              Specify a default --iconv setting using this  environment  vari-
              able. (First supported in 3.0.0.)

              Specify  a non-zero numeric value if you want the --protect-args
              option to be enabled by default, or a zero value  to  make  sure
              that it is disabled by default. (First supported in 3.1.0.)

              The  RSYNC_RSH  environment  variable allows you to override the
              default shell used as the transport  for  rsync.   Command  line
              options  are permitted after the command name, just as in the -e

              The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your
              rsync  client to use a web proxy when connecting to a rsync dae-
              mon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

              Setting RSYNC_PASSWORD to the required password  allows  you  to
              run  authenticated  rsync connections to an rsync daemon without
              user intervention. Note that this does not supply a password  to
              a  remote  shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to do that,
              consult the remote shell's documentation.

       USER or LOGNAME
              The USER or LOGNAME environment variables are used to  determine
              the  default  username  sent  to an rsync daemon.  If neither is
              set, the username defaults to "nobody".

       HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the user's default
              .cvsignore file.


       /etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf




       times are transferred as *nix time_t values

       When  transferring  to  FAT  filesystems  rsync  may re-sync unmodified
       files.  See the comments on the --modify-window option.

       file permissions, devices, etc. are  transferred  as  native  numerical

       see also the comments on the --delete option

       Please report bugs! See the web site at


       This man page is current for version 3.1.0 of rsync.


       The  options  --server  and  --sender are used internally by rsync, and
       should never be typed by  a  user  under  normal  circumstances.   Some
       awareness  of these options may be needed in certain scenarios, such as
       when setting up a login that  can  only  run  an  rsync  command.   For
       instance,  the support directory of the rsync distribution has an exam-
       ple script named rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used with  a
       restricted ssh login.


       rsync  is  distributed  under  the GNU General Public License.  See the
       file COPYING for details.

       A WEB site is available at  The site  includes
       an  FAQ-O-Matic  which  may  cover  questions unanswered by this manual

       The primary ftp site for rsync is

       We would be delighted to hear  from  you  if  you  like  this  program.
       Please contact the mailing-list at

       This  program  uses  the  excellent zlib compression library written by
       Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler.


       Special thanks go out to: John Van Essen,  Matt  McCutchen,  Wesley  W.
       Terpstra,  David  Dykstra,  Jos Backus, Sebastian Krahmer, Martin Pool,
       and our gone-but-not-forgotten compadre, J.W. Schultz.

       Thanks also to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen Roth-
       well and David Bell.  I've probably missed some people, my apologies if
       I have.


       rsync was originally written by Andrew  Tridgell  and  Paul  Mackerras.
       Many  people  have later contributed to it.  It is currently maintained
       by Wayne Davison.

       Mailing  lists  for  support   and   development   are   available   at

                                  28 Sep 2013                         rsync(1)

rsync 3.1.0 - Generated Thu Oct 10 15:11:44 CDT 2013