manpagez: man pages & more
man rsync(1)
Home | html | info | man
rsync(1)                         User Commands                        rsync(1)




NAME

       rsync - a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool



SYNOPSIS

       Local:
           rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

       Access via remote shell:
           Pull:
               rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
           Push:
               rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST

       Access via rsync daemon:
           Pull:
               rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
               rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
           Push:
               rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
               rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST)

       Usages with just one SRC arg and no DEST arg will list the source files
       instead of copying.

       The online version of this manpage (that includes cross-linking of top-
       ics) is available at https://download.samba.org/pub/rsync/rsync.1.



DESCRIPTION

       Rsync  is  a  fast and extraordinarily versatile file copying tool.  It
       can copy locally, to/from  another  host  over  any  remote  shell,  or
       to/from  a  remote  rsync  daemon.  It offers a large number of options
       that control every aspect of its  behavior  and  permit  very  flexible
       specification  of  the set of files to be copied.  It is famous for its
       delta-transfer algorithm, which reduces the amount of  data  sent  over
       the  network  by  sending only the differences between the source files
       and the existing files in the destination.  Rsync is  widely  used  for
       backups and mirroring and as an improved copy command for everyday use.

       Rsync finds files that need to be transferred  using  a  "quick  check"
       algorithm  (by  default) that looks for files that have changed in size
       or  in  last-modified  time.   Any  changes  in  the  other   preserved
       attributes  (as  requested by options) are made on the destination file
       directly when the quick check indicates that the file's data  does  not
       need to be updated.

       Some of the additional features of rsync are:


       o      support  for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permis-
              sions

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files  that  CVS  would
              ignore

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support  for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for
              mirroring)



GENERAL

       Rsync copies files either to or from a remote host, or locally  on  the
       current  host  (it  does  not  support copying files between two remote
       hosts).

       There are two different ways for rsync  to  contact  a  remote  system:
       using  a  remote-shell program as the transport (such as ssh or rsh) or
       contacting an rsync daemon directly via TCP.  The  remote-shell  trans-
       port  is used whenever the source or destination path contains a single
       colon (:) separator after a host specification.   Contacting  an  rsync
       daemon  directly happens when the source or destination path contains a
       double colon (::) separator after a  host  specification,  OR  when  an
       rsync:// URL is specified (see also the USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA
       A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION section  for  an  exception  to  this  latter
       rule).

       As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a desti-
       nation, the files are listed in an output format similar to "ls -l".

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a remote
       host, the copy occurs locally (see also the --list-only option).

       Rsync refers to the local side as the client and the remote side as the
       server.  Don't confuse server with an rsync daemon.  A daemon is always
       a server, but a server can be either a daemon or a remote-shell spawned
       process.



SETUP

       See the file README.md for installation instructions.

       Once installed, you can use rsync to any machine that  you  can  access
       via a remote shell (as well as some that you can access using the rsync
       daemon-mode protocol).  For remote transfers, a modern rsync  uses  ssh
       for  its  communications, but it may have been configured to use a dif-
       ferent remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You can also specify any remote shell you like, either by using the  -e
       command  line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment variable.

       Note that rsync must be installed on both the  source  and  destination
       machines.



USAGE

       You  use  rsync in the same way you use rcp.  You must specify a source
       and a destination, one of which may be remote.

       Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

           rsync -t *.c foo:src/

       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current
       directory to the directory src on the machine foo.  If any of the files
       already exist on the remote system then the rsync remote-update  proto-
       col  is  used to update the file by sending only the differences in the
       data.  Note that the expansion of wildcards on the  command-line  (*.c)
       into  a  list of files is handled by the shell before it runs rsync and
       not by rsync itself (exactly the same as  all  other  Posix-style  pro-
       grams).

           rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on
       the machine foo into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the local  machine.
       The  files are transferred in archive mode, which ensures that symbolic
       links, devices, attributes, permissions, ownerships, etc. are preserved
       in  the transfer.  Additionally, compression will be used to reduce the
       size of data portions of the transfer.

           rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

       A trailing slash on the source changes this behavior to avoid  creating
       an  additional  directory level at the destination.  You can think of a
       trailing / on a source as meaning "copy the contents of this directory"
       as  opposed  to  "copy  the  directory  by name", but in both cases the
       attributes of the containing directory are transferred to the  contain-
       ing  directory on the destination.  In other words, each of the follow-
       ing commands copies the files in the same way, including their  setting
       of the attributes of /dest/foo:

           rsync -av /src/foo /dest
           rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

       Note  also  that  host  and  module references don't require a trailing
       slash to copy the contents of the default directory.  For example, both
       of these copy the remote directory's contents into "/dest":

           rsync -av host: /dest
           rsync -av host::module /dest

       You  can  also  use rsync in local-only mode, where both the source and
       destination don't have a ':' in the name.  In this case it behaves like
       an improved copy command.

       Finally,  you can list all the (listable) modules available from a par-
       ticular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:

           rsync somehost.mydomain.com::

       See the following section for more details.



ADVANCED USAGE

       The syntax for requesting multiple files from a remote host is done  by
       specifying  additional remote-host args in the same style as the first,
       or with the hostname omitted.  For instance, all these work:

           rsync -aiv host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
           rsync -aiv host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/extra /dest/
           rsync -aiv host::modname/first ::modname/extra{1,2} /dest/

       In a modern rsync, you only need to quote  or  backslash-escape  things
       like spaces from the local shell but not also from the remote shell:

           rsync -aiv host:'a simple file.pdf' /dest/

       Really  old versions of rsync only allowed specifying one remote-source
       arg, so it required the remote side to split the args at a space.   You
       can  still  get  this  old-style  arg splitting by using the --old-args
       option:

           rsync -ai --old-args host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest
           rsync -ai --old-args host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

       See that option's section for  an  environment  variable  that  can  be
       exported to help old scripts.



CONNECTING TO AN RSYNC DAEMON

       It  is  also possible to use rsync without a remote shell as the trans-
       port.  In this case you will directly connect to a remote rsync daemon,
       typically using TCP port 873. (This obviously requires the daemon to be
       running on the remote system, so refer to the STARTING AN RSYNC  DAEMON
       TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)

       Using  rsync  in  this  way is the same as using it with a remote shell
       except that:


       o      you either use a double colon :: instead of a  single  colon  to
              separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

       o      the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.

       o      the remote daemon may print a message of the day when  you  con-
              nect.

       o      if  you  specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list
              of accessible paths on the daemon will be shown.

       o      if you specify no local destination then a listing of the speci-
              fied files on the remote daemon is provided.

       o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option (since that overrides
              the daemon connection to use ssh -- see USING RSYNC-DAEMON  FEA-
              TURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION below).

       An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":

           rsync -av host::src /dest

       Some  modules  on the remote daemon may require authentication.  If so,
       you will receive a password prompt when you connect.  You can avoid the
       password  prompt  by setting the environment variable RSYNC_PASSWORD to
       the password you want to use or using the --password-file option.  This
       may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING:  On  some  systems  environment  variables  are visible to all
       users.  On those systems using --password-file is recommended.

       You may establish the connection via a web proxy by setting  the  envi-
       ronment  variable  RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to your
       web proxy.  Note that your web proxy's configuration must support proxy
       connections to port 873.

       You  may  also establish a daemon connection using a program as a proxy
       by setting the environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the  commands
       you  wish  to  run  in place of making a direct socket connection.  The
       string may contain the escape "%H" to represent the hostname  specified
       in  the  rsync  command  (so  use "%%" if you need a single "%" in your
       string).  For example:

           export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
           rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
           rsync -av rsync://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

       The command specified above uses ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost,
       which  forwards all data to port 873 (the rsync daemon) on the targeth-
       ost (%H).

       Note also that if the RSYNC_SHELL environment  variable  is  set,  that
       program  will  be used to run the RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG command instead of
       using the default shell of the system() call.



USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION

       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such
       as  named modules) without actually allowing any new socket connections
       into a system (other than what is already  required  to  allow  remote-
       shell  access).   Rsync  supports  connecting  to a host using a remote
       shell and then spawning a single-use "daemon" server  that  expects  to
       read  its  config file in the home dir of the remote user.  This can be
       useful if you want to encrypt a daemon-style transfer's data, but since
       the  daemon is started up fresh by the remote user, you may not be able
       to use features such as chroot or change the uid used  by  the  daemon.
       (For  another  way  to encrypt a daemon transfer, consider using ssh to
       tunnel a local port to a remote machine and configure  a  normal  rsync
       daemon on that remote host to only allow connections from "localhost".)

       From the user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell  con-
       nection uses nearly the same command-line syntax as a normal rsync-dae-
       mon transfer, with the only exception being that  you  must  explicitly
       set the remote shell program on the command-line with the --rsh=COMMAND
       option. (Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environment will not turn on this
       functionality.) For example:

           rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

       If you need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that
       the user@ prefix in front of the  host  is  specifying  the  rsync-user
       value  (for  a  module  that requires user-based authentication).  This
       means that you must give the '-l user' option to  ssh  when  specifying
       the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short version of the
       --rsh option:

           rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

       The "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will  be
       used to log-in to the "module".



STARTING AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS

       In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have
       a daemon already running (or it needs to have configured something like
       inetd to spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular
       port).  For full information on how to start a daemon  that  will  han-
       dling  incoming  socket  connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5) manpage --
       that is the config file for  the  daemon,  and  it  contains  the  full
       details for how to run the daemon (including stand-alone and inetd con-
       figurations).

       If you're using one of the remote-shell transports  for  the  transfer,
       there is no need to manually start an rsync daemon.



SORTED TRANSFER ORDER

       Rsync  always  sorts the specified filenames into its internal transfer
       list.  This handles the merging together of the contents of identically
       named directories, makes it easy to remove duplicate filenames, and may
       confuse someone when the files are transferred  in  a  different  order
       than what was given on the command-line.

       If  you  need  a  particular  file  to be transferred prior to another,
       either separate the files into different rsync calls, or consider using
       --delay-updates  (which  doesn't  affect the sorted transfer order, but
       does make the final file-updating phase happen much more rapidly).



EXAMPLES

       Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

       To backup my wife's home directory, which consists  of  large  MS  Word
       files and mail folders, I use a cron job that runs

           rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

       each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my machine
       "arvidsjaur".

       To synchronize my samba source trees I use the following Makefile  tar-
       gets:

           get:
               rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
           put:
               rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
           sync: get put

       This  allows  me  to  sync with a CVS directory at the other end of the
       connection.  I then do CVS operations  on  the  remote  machine,  which
       saves a lot of time as the remote CVS protocol isn't very efficient.

       I mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the com-
       mand:

           rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

       This is launched from cron every few hours.



OPTION SUMMARY

       Here is a short summary of the options available in rsync.  Each option
       also has its own detailed description later in this manpage.

       --verbose, -v            increase verbosity
       --info=FLAGS             fine-grained informational verbosity
       --debug=FLAGS            fine-grained debug verbosity
       --stderr=e|a|c           change stderr output mode (default: errors)
       --quiet, -q              suppress non-error messages
       --no-motd                suppress daemon-mode MOTD
       --checksum, -c           skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
       --archive, -a            archive mode is -rlptgoD (no -A,-X,-U,-N,-H)
       --no-OPTION              turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
       --recursive, -r          recurse into directories
       --relative, -R           use relative path names
       --no-implied-dirs        don't send implied dirs with --relative
       --backup, -b             make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
       --backup-dir=DIR         make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
       --suffix=SUFFIX          backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
       --update, -u             skip files that are newer on the receiver
       --inplace                update destination files in-place
       --append                 append data onto shorter files
       --append-verify          --append w/old data in file checksum
       --dirs, -d               transfer directories without recursing
       --old-dirs, --old-d      works like --dirs when talking to old rsync
       --mkpath                 create the destination's path component
       --links, -l              copy symlinks as symlinks
       --copy-links, -L         transform symlink into referent file/dir
       --copy-unsafe-links      only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
       --safe-links             ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
       --munge-links            munge symlinks to make them safe & unusable
       --copy-dirlinks, -k      transform symlink to dir into referent dir
       --keep-dirlinks, -K      treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir
       --hard-links, -H         preserve hard links
       --perms, -p              preserve permissions
       --fileflags              preserve file-flags (aka chflags)
       --executability, -E      preserve executability
       --chmod=CHMOD            affect file and/or directory permissions
       --acls, -A               preserve ACLs (implies --perms)
       --xattrs, -X             preserve extended attributes
       --owner, -o              preserve owner (super-user only)
       --group, -g              preserve group
       --devices                preserve device files (super-user only)
       --copy-devices           copy device contents as a regular file
       --write-devices          write to devices as files (implies --inplace)
       --specials               preserve special files
       -D                       same as --devices --specials
       --times, -t              preserve modification times
       --atimes, -U             preserve access (use) times
       --open-noatime           avoid changing the atime on opened files
       --crtimes, -N            preserve create times (newness)
       --omit-dir-times, -O     omit directories from --times
       --omit-link-times, -J    omit symlinks from --times
       --super                  receiver attempts super-user activities
       --fake-super             store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
       --sparse, -S             turn sequences of nulls into sparse blocks
       --preallocate            allocate dest files before writing them
       --dry-run, -n            perform a trial run with no changes made
       --whole-file, -W         copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
       --checksum-choice=STR    choose the checksum algorithm (aka --cc)
       --one-file-system, -x    don't cross filesystem boundaries
       --block-size=SIZE, -B    force a fixed checksum block-size
       --rsh=COMMAND, -e        specify the remote shell to use
       --rsync-path=PROGRAM     specify the rsync to run on remote machine
       --existing               skip creating new files on receiver
       --ignore-existing        skip updating files that exist on receiver
       --remove-source-files    sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
       --del                    an alias for --delete-during
       --delete                 delete extraneous files from dest dirs
       --delete-before          receiver deletes before xfer, not during
       --delete-during          receiver deletes during the transfer
       --delete-delay           find deletions during, delete after
       --delete-after           receiver deletes after transfer, not during
       --delete-excluded        also delete excluded files from dest dirs
       --ignore-missing-args    ignore missing source args without error
       --delete-missing-args    delete missing source args from destination
       --ignore-errors          delete even if there are I/O errors
       --force-delete           force deletion of directories even if not empty
       --force-change           affect user-/system-immutable files/dirs
       --force-uchange          affect user-immutable files/dirs
       --force-schange          affect system-immutable files/dirs
       --max-delete=NUM         don't delete more than NUM files
       --max-size=SIZE          don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
       --min-size=SIZE          don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
       --max-alloc=SIZE         change a limit relating to memory alloc
       --partial                keep partially transferred files
       --partial-dir=DIR        put a partially transferred file into DIR
       --delay-updates          put all updated files into place at end
       --prune-empty-dirs, -m   prune empty directory chains from file-list
       --numeric-ids            don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
       --usermap=STRING         custom username mapping
       --groupmap=STRING        custom groupname mapping
       --chown=USER:GROUP       simple username/groupname mapping
       --timeout=SECONDS        set I/O timeout in seconds
       --contimeout=SECONDS     set daemon connection timeout in seconds
       --ignore-times, -I       don't skip files that match size and time
       --size-only              skip files that match in size
       --modify-window=NUM, -@  set the accuracy for mod-time comparisons
       --temp-dir=DIR, -T       create temporary files in directory DIR
       --fuzzy, -y              find similar file for basis if no dest file
       --compare-dest=DIR       also compare destination files relative to DIR
       --copy-dest=DIR          ... and include copies of unchanged files
       --link-dest=DIR          hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
       --compress, -z           compress file data during the transfer
       --compress-choice=STR    choose the compression algorithm (aka --zc)
       --compress-level=NUM     explicitly set compression level (aka --zl)
       --skip-compress=LIST     skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
       --cvs-exclude, -C        auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
       --filter=RULE, -f        add a file-filtering RULE
       -F                       same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
                                repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
       --exclude=PATTERN        exclude files matching PATTERN
       --exclude-from=FILE      read exclude patterns from FILE
       --include=PATTERN        don't exclude files matching PATTERN
       --include-from=FILE      read include patterns from FILE
       --files-from=FILE        read list of source-file names from FILE
       --from0, -0              all *-from/filter files are delimited by 0s
       --old-args               disable the modern arg-protection idiom
       --protect-args, -s       no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
       --copy-as=USER[:GROUP]   specify user & optional group for the copy
       --address=ADDRESS        bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
       --port=PORT              specify double-colon alternate port number
       --sockopts=OPTIONS       specify custom TCP options
       --blocking-io            use blocking I/O for the remote shell
       --outbuf=N|L|B           set out buffering to None, Line, or Block
       --stats                  give some file-transfer stats
       --8-bit-output, -8       leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
       --human-readable, -h     output numbers in a human-readable format
       --progress               show progress during transfer
       -P                       same as --partial --progress
       --itemize-changes, -i    output a change-summary for all updates
       --remote-option=OPT, -M  send OPTION to the remote side only
       --out-format=FORMAT      output updates using the specified FORMAT
       --log-file=FILE          log what we're doing to the specified FILE
       --log-file-format=FMT    log updates using the specified FMT
       --password-file=FILE     read daemon-access password from FILE
       --early-input=FILE       use FILE for daemon's early exec input
       --list-only              list the files instead of copying them
       --bwlimit=RATE           limit socket I/O bandwidth
       --stop-after=MINS        Stop rsync after MINS minutes have elapsed
       --stop-at=y-m-dTh:m      Stop rsync at the specified point in time
       --fsync                  fsync every written file
       --write-batch=FILE       write a batched update to FILE
       --only-write-batch=FILE  like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
       --read-batch=FILE        read a batched update from FILE
       --protocol=NUM           force an older protocol version to be used
       --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC     request charset conversion of filenames
       --checksum-seed=NUM      set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
       --ipv4, -4               prefer IPv4
       --ipv6, -6               prefer IPv6
       --version, -V            print the version + other info and exit
       --help, -h (*)           show this help (* -h is help only on its own)

       Rsync  can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following options
       are accepted:

       --daemon                 run as an rsync daemon
       --address=ADDRESS        bind to the specified address
       --bwlimit=RATE           limit socket I/O bandwidth
       --config=FILE            specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
       --dparam=OVERRIDE, -M    override global daemon config parameter
       --no-detach              do not detach from the parent
       --port=PORT              listen on alternate port number
       --log-file=FILE          override the "log file" setting
       --log-file-format=FMT    override the "log format" setting
       --sockopts=OPTIONS       specify custom TCP options
       --verbose, -v            increase verbosity
       --ipv4, -4               prefer IPv4
       --ipv6, -6               prefer IPv6
       --help, -h               show this help (when used with --daemon)



OPTIONS

       Rsync accepts both long (double-dash + word) and short  (single-dash  +
       letter)  options.  The full list of the available options are described
       below.  If an option can be specified in more than one way, the choices
       are  comma-separated.   Some  options  only  have a long variant, not a
       short.  If the option takes a parameter, the parameter is  only  listed
       after  the  long variant, even though it must also be specified for the
       short.  When specifying a  parameter,  you  can  either  use  the  form
       --option=param  or  replace the '=' with whitespace.  The parameter may
       need to be quoted in some manner for it to survive the shell's command-
       line  parsing.   Keep in mind that a leading tilde (~) in a filename is
       substituted by your shell, so --option=~/foo will not change the  tilde
       into your home directory (remove the '=' for that).


       --help Print  a  short  help  page  describing the options available in
              rsync and exit.  You can also use -h for --help when it is  used
              without any other options (since it normally means --human-read-
              able).

       --version, -V
              Print the rsync version plus other info and exit.

              The output includes the default list of checksum algorithms, the
              default  list  of  compression algorithms, a list of compiled-in
              capabilities,  a  link  to  the  rsync  web   site,   and   some
              license/copyright info.

       --verbose, -v
              This  option  increases  the amount of information you are given
              during the transfer.  By default, rsync works silently.  A  sin-
              gle  -v  will  give  you  information about what files are being
              transferred and a brief summary at the end.  Two -v options will
              give  you  information  on  what  files  are  being  skipped and
              slightly more information at the end.  More than two -v  options
              should only be used if you are debugging rsync.

              The end-of-run summary tells you the number of bytes sent to the
              remote rsync (which is the receiving side on a local copy),  the
              number  of  bytes received from the remote host, and the average
              bytes per second of  the  transferred  data  computed  over  the
              entire  length of the rsync run. The second line shows the total
              size (in bytes), which is the sum of all  the  file  sizes  that
              rsync considered transferring.  It also shows a "speedup" value,
              which is a ratio of the total file size divided by  the  sum  of
              the  sent  and  received bytes (which is really just a feel-good
              bigger-is-better number).  Note that these byte  values  can  be
              made more (or less) human-readable by using the --human-readable
              (or --no-human-readable) options.

              In a modern rsync, the -v option is equivalent to the setting of
              groups  of  --info  and  --debug options.  You can choose to use
              these newer options in addition to, or in place of using  --ver-
              bose, as any fine-grained settings override the implied settings
              of -v.  Both --info and --debug have a way to ask for help  that
              tells  you  exactly what flags are set for each increase in ver-
              bosity.

              However, do keep in mind that a daemon's "max verbosity" setting
              will  limit how high of a level the various individual flags can
              be set on the daemon side.  For instance, if the max is 2,  then
              any  info  and/or  debug flag that is set to a higher value than
              what would be set by -vv will be downgraded to the -vv level  in
              the daemon's logging.

       --info=FLAGS
              This option lets you have fine-grained control over the informa-
              tion output you want to see.  An individual  flag  name  may  be
              followed  by a level number, with 0 meaning to silence that out-
              put, 1 being  the  default  output  level,  and  higher  numbers
              increasing  the  output  of  that  flag  (for those that support
              higher levels).  Use --info=help to see all the  available  flag
              names,  what they output, and what flag names are added for each
              increase in the verbose level.  Some examples:

                  rsync -a --info=progress2 src/ dest/
                  rsync -avv --info=stats2,misc1,flist0 src/ dest/

              Note that --info=name's output is affected by  the  --out-format
              and  --itemize-changes (-i) options.  See those options for more
              information on what is output and when.

              This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the  server
              side  might reject your attempts at fine-grained control (if one
              or more flags needed to be send to the server and the server was
              too  old  to  understand  them).   See  also the "max verbosity"
              caveat above when dealing with a daemon.

       --debug=FLAGS
              This option lets you have fine-grained control  over  the  debug
              output you want to see.  An individual flag name may be followed
              by a level number, with 0 meaning  to  silence  that  output,  1
              being  the  default  output level, and higher numbers increasing
              the output of that flag (for those that support higher  levels).
              Use  --debug=help to see all the available flag names, what they
              output, and what flag names are added for each increase  in  the
              verbose level.  Some examples:

                  rsync -avvv --debug=none src/ dest/
                  rsync -avA --del --debug=del2,acl src/ dest/

              Note  that  some  debug  messages  will  only be output when the
              --stderr=all option is specified, especially those pertaining to
              I/O and buffer debugging.

              Beginning  in  3.2.0, this option is no longer auto-forwarded to
              the server side in order to allow you to specify different debug
              values  for  each  side of the transfer, as well as to specify a
              new debug option that is only present in one of the  rsync  ver-
              sions.   If you want to duplicate the same option on both sides,
              using brace expansion is an easy way to save  you  some  typing.
              This works in zsh and bash:

                  rsync -aiv {-M,}--debug=del2 src/ dest/

       --stderr=errors|all|client
              This  option  controls  which  processes output to stderr and if
              info messages are also changed to stderr.  The mode strings  can
              be  abbreviated, so feel free to use a single letter value.  The
              3 possible choices are:


              o      errors - (the default) causes all the rsync processes  to
                     send  an error directly to stderr, even if the process is
                     on the remote side of the transfer.   Info  messages  are
                     sent  to  the  client  side  via the protocol stream.  If
                     stderr is not available (i.e.  when  directly  connecting
                     with  a  daemon  via  a socket) errors fall back to being
                     sent via the protocol stream.

              o      all - causes all rsync messages (info and error)  to  get
                     written directly to stderr from all (possible) processes.
                     This causes stderr to become  line-buffered  (instead  of
                     raw) and eliminates the ability to divide up the info and
                     error messages by file handle.  For those doing debugging
                     or  using  several  levels  of verbosity, this option can
                     help to avoid clogging  up  the  transfer  stream  (which
                     should  prevent  any  chance  of  a  deadlock bug hanging
                     things up).  It also allows --debug to enable some  extra
                     I/O related messages.

              o      client  -  causes  all  rsync  messages to be sent to the
                     client side via the protocol stream.  One client  process
                     outputs all messages, with errors on stderr and info mes-
                     sages on stdout.  This was the  default  in  older  rsync
                     versions, but can cause error delays when a lot of trans-
                     fer data is ahead of the  messages.   If  you're  pushing
                     files to an older rsync, you may want to use --stderr=all
                     since that idiom has been around for several releases.

              This option was added in rsync 3.2.3.  This version  also  began
              the  forwarding  of  a  non-default  setting to the remote side,
              though rsync uses the backward-compatible options  --msgs2stderr
              and  --no-msgs2stderr  to represent the all and client settings,
              respectively.  A newer rsync will continue to accept these older
              option names to maintain compatibility.

       --quiet, -q
              This  option  decreases  the amount of information you are given
              during the transfer, notably  suppressing  information  messages
              from  the  remote  server.   This option is useful when invoking
              rsync from cron.

       --no-motd
              This option affects the information that is output by the client
              at the start of a daemon transfer.  This suppresses the message-
              of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also affects the list of  modules
              that  the daemon sends in response to the "rsync host::" request
              (due to a limitation in the rsync protocol), so omit this option
              if you want to request the list of modules from the daemon.

       --ignore-times, -I
              Normally  rsync  will  skip  any files that are already the same
              size and have the  same  modification  timestamp.   This  option
              turns  off  this "quick check" behavior, causing all files to be
              updated.

              This option can be confusing compared to  --ignore-existing  and
              --ignore-non-existing  in that that they cause rsync to transfer
              fewer files, while this option causes  rsync  to  transfer  more
              files.

       --size-only
              This  modifies rsync's "quick check" algorithm for finding files
              that need to be transferred, changing it  from  the  default  of
              transferring files with either a changed size or a changed last-
              modified time to just looking for files  that  have  changed  in
              size.   This  is  useful  when starting to use rsync after using
              another mirroring  system  which  may  not  preserve  timestamps
              exactly.

       --modify-window=NUM, -@
              When  comparing  two  timestamps, rsync treats the timestamps as
              being equal if they differ by no  more  than  the  modify-window
              value.   The  default  is 0, which matches just integer seconds.
              If you specify a negative value (and the receiver  is  at  least
              version 3.1.3) then nanoseconds will also be taken into account.
              Specifying 1  is  useful  for  copies  to/from  MS  Windows  FAT
              filesystems,  because FAT represents times with a 2-second reso-
              lution (allowing times to differ from the original by  up  to  1
              second).

              If  you want all your transfers to default to comparing nanosec-
              onds, you can create a ~/.popt file and put these lines in it:

                  rsync alias -a -a@-1
                  rsync alias -t -t@-1

              With that as the default, you'd need  to  specify  --modify-win-
              dow=0  (aka  -@0) to override it and ignore nanoseconds, e.g. if
              you're copying between ext3 and ext4, or if the receiving  rsync
              is older than 3.1.3.

       --checksum, -c
              This changes the way rsync checks if the files have been changed
              and are in need of a transfer.  Without this option, rsync  uses
              a "quick check" that (by default) checks if each file's size and
              time of last modification match between the sender and receiver.
              This  option changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for each
              file that has a matching size.  Generating the  checksums  means
              that  both  sides  will expend a lot of disk I/O reading all the
              data in the files in the transfer, so this can slow things  down
              significantly  (and  this  is  prior to any reading that will be
              done to transfer changed files)

              The sending side generates its checksums while it is  doing  the
              file-system  scan  that  builds the list of the available files.
              The receiver generates its checksums when  it  is  scanning  for
              changed files, and will checksum any file that has the same size
              as the corresponding sender's file: files with either a  changed
              size or a changed checksum are selected for transfer.

              Note  that  rsync always verifies that each transferred file was
              correctly reconstructed on the  receiving  side  by  checking  a
              whole-file  checksum  that  is  generated  as the file is trans-
              ferred, but that automatic after-the-transfer  verification  has
              nothing  to do with this option's before-the-transfer "Does this
              file need to be updated?" check.

              The checksum used is auto-negotiated between the client and  the
              server, but can be overridden using either the --checksum-choice
              (--cc) option or an environment variable that  is  discussed  in
              that option's section.

       --archive, -a
              This is equivalent to -rlptgoD.  It is a quick way of saying you
              want recursion and want to preserve almost everything.  Be aware
              that  it  does  not  include  preserving ACLs (-A), xattrs (-X),
              atimes (-U), crtimes (-N), nor the  finding  and  preserving  of
              hardlinks (-H).  It also does not imply --fileflags.

              The only exception to the above equivalence is when --files-from
              is specified, in which case -r is not implied.

       --no-OPTION
              You may turn off one or more implied options  by  prefixing  the
              option name with "no-".  Not all positive options have a negated
              opposite, but a lot do, including those that can be used to dis-
              able  an  implied option (e.g.  --no-D, --no-perms) or have dif-
              ferent defaults in various circumstances (e.g.  --no-whole-file,
              --no-blocking-io,   --no-dirs).    Every  valid  negated  option
              accepts both the short and the long option name after the  "no-"
              prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same as --no-relative).

              As  an example, if you want to use --archive (-a) but don't want
              --owner (-o), instead of converting -a  into  -rlptgD,  you  can
              specify -a --no-o (aka --archive --no-owner).

              The order of the options is important: if you specify --no-r -a,
              the -r option would end up being  turned  on,  the  opposite  of
              -a --no-r.   Note also that the side-effects of the --files-from
              option are NOT positional, as it affects the  default  state  of
              several  options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see the
              --files-from option for more details).

       --recursive, -r
              This tells rsync to  copy  directories  recursively.   See  also
              --dirs  (-d)  for an option that allows the scanning of a single
              directory.

              See the --inc-recursive option for a discussion of the incremen-
              tal recursion for creating the list of files to transfer.

       --inc-recursive, --i-r
              This  option  explicitly  enables  on incremental recursion when
              scanning for files, which is enabled by default when  using  the
              --recursive  option  and  both sides of the transfer are running
              rsync 3.0.0 or newer.

              Incremental recursion uses much less memory  than  non-incremen-
              tal,  while  also  beginning the transfer more quickly (since it
              doesn't need to scan the entire  transfer  hierarchy  before  it
              starts  transferring  files).  If no recursion is enabled in the
              source files, this option has no effect.

              Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so  these
              options disable the incremental recursion mode.  These include:


              o      --delete-before (the old default of --delete)

              o      --delete-after

              o      --prune-empty-dirs

              o      --delay-updates

              In order to make --delete compatible with incremental recursion,
              rsync 3.0.0 made --delete-during the default delete mode  (which
              was first first added in 2.6.4).

              One  side-effect  of  incremental  recursion is that any missing
              sub-directories inside a recursively-scanned directory  are  (by
              default)  created  prior  to  recursing into the sub-dirs.  This
              earlier creation point (compared to a non-incremental recursion)
              allows  rsync to then set the modify time of the finished direc-
              tory right away (without having to delay that until a  bunch  of
              recursive  copying has finished).  However, these early directo-
              ries don't yet have their completed mode,  mtime,  or  ownership
              set --  they  have  more  restrictive rights until the subdirec-
              tory's copying actually begins.  This early-creation  idiom  can
              be avoiding by using the --omit-dir-times option.

              Incremental  recursion can be disabled using the --no-inc-recur-
              sive (--no-i-r) option.

       --no-inc-recursive, --no-i-r
              Disables the new incremental recursion algorithm of the --recur-
              sive option.  This makes rsync scan the full file list before it
              begins to transfer files.  See --inc-recursive for more info.

       --relative, -R
              Use relative paths.  This means that the full path names  speci-
              fied on the command line are sent to the server rather than just
              the last parts of the filenames.  This  is  particularly  useful
              when  you want to send several different directories at the same
              time.  For example, if you used this command:

                  rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote  machine.
              If instead you used

                  rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              then  a  file  named  /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be created on the
              remote machine, preserving its full path.  These extra path ele-
              ments  are  called "implied directories" (i.e. the "foo" and the
              "foo/bar" directories in the above example).

              Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, rsync  always  sends  these  implied
              directories as real directories in the file list, even if a path
              element is really a symlink on the sending side.  This  prevents
              some really unexpected behaviors when copying the full path of a
              file that you didn't realize had a symlink in its path.  If  you
              want  to  duplicate a server-side symlink, include both the sym-
              link via its path, and referent directory via its real path.  If
              you're  dealing with an older rsync on the sending side, you may
              need to use the --no-implied-dirs option.

              It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that
              is  sent as implied directories for each path you specify.  With
              a modern rsync on the sending side (beginning with  2.6.7),  you
              can insert a dot and a slash into the source path, like this:

                  rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              That  would  create  /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote machine. (Note
              that the dot must be followed by a slash, so "/foo/." would  not
              be abbreviated.) For older rsync versions, you would need to use
              a chdir to limit the source path.   For  example,  when  pushing
              files:

                  (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

              (Note  that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell, so
              that the "cd" command doesn't remain in effect for  future  com-
              mands.)  If  you're  pulling files from an older rsync, use this
              idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):

                  rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
                       remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

       --no-implied-dirs
              This option affects  the  default  behavior  of  the  --relative
              option.   When  it  is  specified, the attributes of the implied
              directories from the source names are not included in the trans-
              fer.   This  means  that  the corresponding path elements on the
              destination system are left unchanged if  they  exist,  and  any
              missing implied directories are created with default attributes.
              This even allows these implied path elements to have big differ-
              ences,  such  as being a symlink to a directory on the receiving
              side.

              For instance, if a command-line arg or a files-from  entry  told
              rsync  to  transfer  the  file  "path/foo/file", the directories
              "path" and "path/foo" are implied when --relative is  used.   If
              "path/foo"  is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system, the
              receiving rsync would ordinarily delete "path/foo", recreate  it
              as  a  directory,  and  receive the file into the new directory.
              With   --no-implied-dirs,   the    receiving    rsync    updates
              "path/foo/file"  using  the  existing path elements, which means
              that the file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another  way
              to  accomplish  this  link  preservation  is  to use the --keep-
              dirlinks option (which will also affect symlinks to  directories
              in the rest of the transfer).

              When  pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may need
              to use this option if the sending side has a symlink in the path
              you  request  and  you wish the implied directories to be trans-
              ferred as normal directories.

       --backup, -b
              With this option, preexisting destination files are  renamed  as
              each  file is transferred or deleted.  You can control where the
              backup file goes and what (if any) suffix  gets  appended  using
              the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

              If you don't specify --backup-dir:


              1.     the --omit-dir-times option will be forced on

              2.     the  use  of --delete (without --delete-excluded), causes
                     rsync to add a "protect" filter-rule for the backup  suf-
                     fix  to  the  end of all your existing filters that looks
                     like this:  -f "P *~".   This  rule  prevents  previously
                     backed-up files from being deleted.

              Note  that  if  you are supplying your own filter rules, you may
              need to manually insert your own exclude/protect rule  somewhere
              higher  up  in the list so that it has a high enough priority to
              be effective (e.g. if  your  rules  specify  a  trailing  inclu-
              sion/exclusion   of  *,  the  auto-added  rule  would  never  be
              reached).

       --backup-dir=DIR
              This implies the --backup option, and tells rsync to  store  all
              backups  in the specified directory on the receiving side.  This
              can be used for incremental backups.  You can additionally spec-
              ify  a  backup  suffix  using the --suffix option (otherwise the
              files backed up in the specified directory will keep their orig-
              inal filenames).

              Note  that  if you specify a relative path, the backup directory
              will be relative to the destination directory, so  you  probably
              want  to  specify  either an absolute path or a path that starts
              with "../".  If an rsync daemon is the receiver, the backup  dir
              cannot  go  outside  the  module's path hierarchy, so take extra
              care not to delete it or copy into it.

       --suffix=SUFFIX
              This option allows you to override  the  default  backup  suffix
              used  with  the --backup (-b) option.  The default suffix is a ~
              if no --backup-dir was  specified,  otherwise  it  is  an  empty
              string.

       --update, -u
              This  forces rsync to skip any files which exist on the destina-
              tion and have a modified time that  is  newer  than  the  source
              file.  (If  an existing destination file has a modification time
              equal to the source file's, it will be updated if the sizes  are
              different.)

              Note that this does not affect the copying of dirs, symlinks, or
              other special files.  Also, a difference of file format  between
              the  sender  and  receiver  is always considered to be important
              enough for an update, no matter what date is on the objects.  In
              other words, if the source has a directory where the destination
              has a file, the transfer would occur  regardless  of  the  time-
              stamps.

              This  option  is  a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't
              affect the data that goes  into  the  file-lists,  and  thus  it
              doesn't  affect  deletions.   It  just limits the files that the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

              A caution for  those  that  choose  to  combine  --inplace  with
              --update:  an  interrupted  transfer will leave behind a partial
              file on the receiving side that has a very recent modified time,
              so re-running the transfer will probably not continue the inter-
              rupted file.  As such, it is usually  best  to  avoid  combining
              this  with --inplace unless you have implemented manual steps to
              handle any interrupted in-progress files.

       --inplace
              This option changes how rsync transfers a  file  when  its  data
              needs to be updated: instead of the default method of creating a
              new copy of the file and moving it into place when  it  is  com-
              plete,  rsync  instead  writes  the updated data directly to the
              destination file.

              This has several effects:


              o      Hard links are not broken.  This means the new data  will
                     be  visible  through  other hard links to the destination
                     file.  Moreover, attempts to copy differing source  files
                     onto  a multiply-linked destination file will result in a
                     "tug of war" with the destination data changing back  and
                     forth.

              o      In-use  binaries  cannot  be  updated (either the OS will
                     prevent this from happening, or binaries that attempt  to
                     swap-in their data will misbehave or crash).

              o      The  file's  data will be in an inconsistent state during
                     the transfer and will be left that way if the transfer is
                     interrupted or if an update fails.

              o      A  file  that  rsync  cannot  write to cannot be updated.
                     While a super user can update any  file,  a  normal  user
                     needs  to be granted write permission for the open of the
                     file for writing to be successful.

              o      The efficiency of rsync's delta-transfer algorithm may be
                     reduced if some data in the destination file is overwrit-
                     ten before it can be copied to a position  later  in  the
                     file.   This  does  not  apply if you use --backup, since
                     rsync is smart enough to use the backup file as the basis
                     file for the transfer.

              WARNING: you should not use this option to update files that are
              being accessed by others, so be careful  when  choosing  to  use
              this for a copy.

              This  option  is useful for transferring large files with block-
              based changes or appended data, and also  on  systems  that  are
              disk bound, not network bound.  It can also help keep a copy-on-
              write filesystem snapshot from diverging the entire contents  of
              a file that only has minor changes.

              The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does
              not delete the  file),  but  conflicts  with  --partial-dir  and
              --delay-updates.  Prior to rsync 2.6.4 --inplace was also incom-
              patible with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

       --append
              This special copy mode only works to  efficiently  update  files
              that  are  known to be growing larger where any existing content
              on the receiving side is also known to be the same as  the  con-
              tent on the sender.  The use of --append can be dangerous if you
              aren't 100% sure that all the files in the transfer are  shared,
              growing  files.  You should thus use filter rules to ensure that
              you weed out any files that do not fit this criteria.

              Rsync updates these growing file in-place without verifying  any
              of  the  existing content in the file (it only verifies the con-
              tent that it is appending).  Rsync skips any files that exist on
              the receiving side that are not shorter than the associated file
              on the sending side (which  means  that  new  files  are  trans-
              ferred).  It also skips any files whose size on the sending side
              gets shorter during the send negotiations (rsync warns  about  a
              "diminished" file when this happens).

              This  does  not interfere with the updating of a file's non-con-
              tent attributes (e.g.  permissions, ownership,  etc.)  when  the
              file  does  not  need  to be transferred, nor does it affect the
              updating of any directories or non-regular files.

       --append-verify
              This special copy mode works like --append except that  all  the
              data  in the file is included in the checksum verification (mak-
              ing it less efficient but also potentially safer).  This  option
              can  be  dangerous if you aren't 100% sure that all the files in
              the transfer are shared, growing files.  See the --append option
              for more details.

              Note:  prior  to  rsync  3.0.0,  the --append option worked like
              --append-verify, so if you are interacting with an  older  rsync
              (or  the  transfer  is using a protocol prior to 30), specifying
              either append option will initiate an --append-verify  transfer.

       --dirs, -d
              Tell  the  sending  side  to  include  any  directories that are
              encountered.  Unlike --recursive, a directory's contents are not
              copied unless the directory name specified is "." or ends with a
              trailing slash (e.g.  ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).  Without this
              option  or  the --recursive option, rsync will skip all directo-
              ries it encounters (and output a message to that effect for each
              one).   If  you specify both --dirs and --recursive, --recursive
              takes precedence.

              The --dirs option is implied by the --files-from option  or  the
              --list-only  option  (including an implied --list-only usage) if
              --recursive wasn't specified (so that directories  are  seen  in
              the listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to turn
              this off.

              There is also a backward-compatibility helper option, --old-dirs
              (--old-d)  that tells rsync to use a hack of -r --exclude='/*/*'
              to get an older rsync to list a single directory without recurs-
              ing.

       --mkpath
              Create  a  missing  path component of the destination arg.  This
              allows rsync to create multiple levels  of  missing  destination
              dirs and to create a path in which to put a single renamed file.
              Keep in mind that you'll need to supply a trailing slash if  you
              want  the  entire  destination path to be treated as a directory
              when copying a single arg (making rsync behave the same way that
              it  would  if  the path component of the destination had already
              existed).

              For example, the following creates a copy of file foo as bar  in
              the  sub/dir  directory,  creating  dirs  "sub" and "sub/dir" if
              either do not yet exist:

                  rsync -ai --mkpath foo sub/dir/bar

              If you instead ran the following, it would have created file foo
              in the sub/dir/bar directory:

                  rsync -ai --mkpath foo sub/dir/bar/

       --links, -l
              Add  symlinks to the transferred files instead of noisily ignor-
              ing them with a "non-regular  file"  warning  for  each  symlink
              encountered.   You can alternately silence the warning by speci-
              fying --info=nonreg0.

              The default handling of symlinks is to recreate  each  symlink's
              unchanged value on the receiving side.

              See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info.

       --copy-links, -L
              The  sender  transforms each symlink encountered in the transfer
              into the referent item, following the symlink chain to the  file
              or  directory that it references.  If a symlink chain is broken,
              an error is output and the file is dropped from the transfer.

              This option supersedes any other options that affect symlinks in
              the  transfer, since there are no symlinks left in the transfer.

              This option does not change the handling of existing symlinks on
              the  receiving  side,  unlike  versions  of rsync prior to 2.6.3
              which had the side-effect of telling the receiving side to  also
              follow  symlinks.  A modern rsync won't forward this option to a
              remote receiver (since only the sender needs to know about  it),
              so  this caveat should only affect someone using an rsync client
              older than 2.6.7 (which is when -L stopped  being  forwarded  to
              the receiver).

              See  the  --keep-dirlinks (-K) if you need a symlink to a direc-
              tory to be treated as a real directory on the receiving side.

              See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info.

       --copy-unsafe-links
              This tells rsync to copy the referent  of  symbolic  links  that
              point  outside  the  copied  tree.   Absolute  symlinks are also
              treated like ordinary files, and so  are  any  symlinks  in  the
              source path itself when --relative is used.

              Note that the cut-off point is the top of the transfer, which is
              the part of the path that rsync isn't mentioning in the  verbose
              output.  If you copy "/src/subdir" to "/dest/" then the "subdir"
              directory is a name inside the transfer tree, not the top of the
              transfer  (which  is  /src)  so it is legal for created relative
              symlinks to refer to other  names  inside  the  /src  and  /dest
              directories.   If you instead copy "/src/subdir/" (with a trail-
              ing slash) to "/dest/subdir" that would not  allow  symlinks  to
              any files outside of "subdir".

              Note  that  safe  symlinks  are  only copied if --links was also
              specified or implied.  The  --copy-unsafe-links  option  has  no
              extra effect when combined with --copy-links.

              See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info.

       --safe-links
              This  tells  the receiving rsync to ignore any symbolic links in
              the transfer which point outside the copied tree.  All  absolute
              symlinks are also ignored.

              Since  this ignoring is happening on the receiving side, it will
              still be effective even when the sending side  has  munged  sym-
              links  (when  it  is using --munge-links). It also affects dele-
              tions, since the file being present in the transfer prevents any
              matching  file  on the receiver from being deleted when the sym-
              link is deemed to be unsafe and is skipped.

              This option must be combined with --links (or --archive) to have
              any symlinks in the transfer to conditionally ignore. Its effect
              is superseded by --copy-unsafe-links.

              Using this option in conjunction with --relative may give  unex-
              pected results.

              See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info.

       --munge-links
              This  option  affects  just  one  side of the transfer and tells
              rsync to munge symlink values when  it  is  receiving  files  or
              unmunge  symlink  values  when  it is sending files.  The munged
              values make the symlinks unusable on disk but allows the  origi-
              nal contents of the symlinks to be recovered.

              The  server-side  rsync  often  enables  this option without the
              client's knowledge, such as in an rsync  daemon's  configuration
              file  or  by  an  option  given to the rrsync (restricted rsync)
              script.  When specified on the client side, specify  the  option
              normally if it is the client side that has/needs the munged sym-
              links, or use -M--munge-links to give the option to  the  server
              when  it  has/needs  the  munged symlinks.  Note that on a local
              transfer, the client is the sender,  so  specifying  the  option
              directly  unmunges  symlinks  while  specifying  it  as a remote
              option munges symlinks.

              This option has no affect when sent to a  daemon  via  --remote-
              option  because  the  daemon  configures whether it wants munged
              symlinks via its "munge symlinks" parameter.

              The symlink value is munged/unmunged once it is in the transfer,
              so  any option that transforms symlinks into non-symlinks occurs
              prior to the munging/unmunging except for --safe-links, which is
              a  choice  that  the receiver makes, so it bases its decision on
              the munged/unmunged value.  This does mean that  if  a  receiver
              has munging enabled, that using --safe-links will cause all sym-
              links to be ignored (since they are all absolute).

              The method that rsync uses to munge the symlinks  is  to  prefix
              each  one's  value with the string "/rsyncd-munged/".  This pre-
              vents the links from being used as long as  the  directory  does
              not  exist.   When  this option is enabled, rsync will refuse to
              run if that path is a directory or  a  symlink  to  a  directory
              (though  it  only  checks at startup).  See also the "munge-sym-
              links" python script in the support directory of the source code
              for a way to munge/unmunge one or more symlinks in-place.

       --copy-dirlinks, -k
              This  option  causes  the  sending  side to treat a symlink to a
              directory as though it were a real directory.  This is useful if
              you  don't  want  symlinks to non-directories to be affected, as
              they would be using --copy-links.

              Without this option, if the sending side has replaced  a  direc-
              tory  with  a  symlink  to  a directory, the receiving side will
              delete anything that is in the way of the new symlink, including
              a  directory hierarchy (as long as --force-delete or --delete is
              in effect).

              See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous option for the receiv-
              ing side.

              --copy-dirlinks  applies  to  all symlinks to directories in the
              source.  If you want to follow only a few specified symlinks,  a
              trick you can use is to pass them as additional source args with
              a trailing slash, using --relative to make the  paths  match  up
              right.  For example:

                  rsync -r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/

              This  works  because  rsync  calls lstat(2) on the source arg as
              given, and the trailing slash makes lstat(2) follow the symlink,
              giving  rise to a directory in the file-list which overrides the
              symlink found during the scan of "src/./".

              See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info.

       --keep-dirlinks, -K
              This option causes the receiving side to treat a  symlink  to  a
              directory  as  though  it  were a real directory, but only if it
              matches a real directory from the sender.  Without this  option,
              the receiver's symlink would be deleted and replaced with a real
              directory.

              For example, suppose you transfer a directory  "foo"  that  con-
              tains  a  file "file", but "foo" is a symlink to directory "bar"
              on the receiver.  Without --keep-dirlinks, the receiver  deletes
              symlink  "foo",  recreates  it  as a directory, and receives the
              file into the new directory.  With --keep-dirlinks, the receiver
              keeps the symlink and "file" ends up in "bar".

              One  note of caution: if you use --keep-dirlinks, you must trust
              all the symlinks in the copy or enable the --munge-links  option
              on  the receiving side!  If it is possible for an untrusted user
              to create their own symlink to  any  real  directory,  the  user
              could  then  (on  a  subsequent copy) replace the symlink with a
              real directory and affect the content of whatever directory  the
              symlink references.  For backup copies, you are better off using
              something like a bind mount instead of a symlink to modify  your
              receiving hierarchy.

              See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous option for the sending
              side.

              See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info.

       --hard-links, -H
              This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in the source and
              link together the corresponding files on the destination.  With-
              out this option, hard-linked files in the source are treated  as
              though they were separate files.

              This option does NOT necessarily ensure that the pattern of hard
              links on the destination exactly matches  that  on  the  source.
              Cases  in which the destination may end up with extra hard links
              include the following:


              o      If the destination contains extraneous  hard-links  (more
                     linking  than  what  is present in the source file list),
                     the copying algorithm will  not  break  them  explicitly.
                     However, if one or more of the paths have content differ-
                     ences, the normal file-update process  will  break  those
                     extra  links (unless you are using the --inplace option).

              o      If you specify a --link-dest directory that contains hard
                     links,  the  linking of the destination files against the
                     --link-dest files can cause some paths in the destination
                     to become linked together due to the --link-dest associa-
                     tions.

              Note that rsync can only detect hard links  between  files  that
              are  inside  the transfer set.  If rsync updates a file that has
              extra hard-link connections to files outside the transfer,  that
              linkage will be broken.  If you are tempted to use the --inplace
              option to avoid this breakage, be very careful that you know how
              your  files  are  being  updated so that you are certain that no
              unintended changes happen due to lingering hard links  (and  see
              the --inplace option for more caveats).

              If  incremental recursion is active (see --inc-recursive), rsync
              may transfer a missing hard-linked file  before  it  finds  that
              another  link  for that contents exists elsewhere in the hierar-
              chy.  This does not affect the accuracy of  the  transfer  (i.e.
              which files are hard-linked together), just its efficiency (i.e.
              copying the data for a new, early copy  of  a  hard-linked  file
              that could have been found later in the transfer in another mem-
              ber of the hard-linked set of files).  One  way  to  avoid  this
              inefficiency is to disable incremental recursion using the --no-
              inc-recursive option.

       --perms, -p
              This option causes the receiving rsync to  set  the  destination
              permissions  to be the same as the source permissions. (See also
              the --chmod option for a way to modify what rsync  considers  to
              be the source permissions.)

              When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:


              o      Existing  files  (including  updated  files) retain their
                     existing permissions, though the  --executability  option
                     might change just the execute permission for the file.

              o      New  files  get their "normal" permission bits set to the
                     source  file's  permissions  masked  with  the  receiving
                     directory's  default  permissions  (either  the receiving
                     process's umask, or the  permissions  specified  via  the
                     destination  directory's  default ACL), and their special
                     permission bits disabled except in the case where  a  new
                     directory  inherits  a  setgid bit from its parent direc-
                     tory.

              Thus,  when  --perms  and  --executability  are  both  disabled,
              rsync's  behavior  is the same as that of other file-copy utili-
              ties, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

              In summary: to give destination files (both  old  and  new)  the
              source permissions, use --perms.  To give new files the destina-
              tion-default   permissions   (while   leaving   existing   files
              unchanged),  make  sure  that  the --perms option is off and use
              --chmod=ugo=rwX (which ensures  that  all  non-masked  bits  get
              enabled).   If you'd care to make this latter behavior easier to
              type, you could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this
              line  in  the file ~/.popt (the following defines the -Z option,
              and includes --no-g to use the default group of the  destination
              dir):

                  rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

              You  could  then  use  this new option in a command such as this
              one:

                  rsync -avZ src/ dest/

              (Caveat: make sure that -a does not follow -Z, or  it  will  re-
              enable the two --no-* options mentioned above.)

              The  preservation  of the destination's setgid bit on newly-cre-
              ated directories when --perms is off was added in  rsync  2.6.7.
              Older  rsync  versions  erroneously  preserved the three special
              permission bits for newly-created files when  --perms  was  off,
              while  overriding  the  destination's  setgid  bit  setting on a
              newly-created directory.  Default ACL observance  was  added  to
              the  ACL  patch  for  rsync 2.6.7, so older (or non-ACL-enabled)
              rsyncs use the umask even if default ACLs are present.  (Keep in
              mind  that it is the version of the receiving rsync that affects
              these behaviors.)

       --executability, -E
              This option causes rsync to preserve the executability (or  non-
              executability)  of regular files when --perms is not enabled.  A
              regular file is considered to be executable if at least one  'x'
              is  turned  on in its permissions.  When an existing destination
              file's executability differs  from  that  of  the  corresponding
              source  file,  rsync modifies the destination file's permissions
              as follows:


              o      To make a file non-executable, rsync turns  off  all  its
                     'x' permissions.

              o      To  make  a file executable, rsync turns on each 'x' per-
                     mission that has a corresponding 'r' permission  enabled.

              If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

       --acls, -A
              This  option  causes  rsync to update the destination ACLs to be
              the same as the source ACLs.  The option also implies --perms.

              The source and destination  systems  must  have  compatible  ACL
              entries  for this option to work properly.  See the --fake-super
              option for a way to backup and restore ACLs that are not compat-
              ible.

       --xattrs, -X
              This  option  causes  rsync  to  update the destination extended
              attributes to be the same as the source ones.

              For systems that support extended-attribute namespaces,  a  copy
              being  done  by  a  super-user copies all namespaces except sys-
              tem.*.  A normal user only copies the user.* namespace.   To  be
              able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as a normal user,
              see the --fake-super option.

              The above name filtering can be overridden by using one or  more
              filter  options with the x modifier.  When you specify an xattr-
              affecting filter rule, rsync requires that you do your own  sys-
              tem/user filtering, as well as any additional filtering for what
              xattr names are copied and what names are allowed to be deleted.
              For example, to skip the system namespace, you could specify:

                  --filter='-x system.*'

              To  skip  all  namespaces  except  the user namespace, you could
              specify a negated-user match:

                  --filter='-x! user.*'

              To prevent any attributes from being deleted, you could  specify
              a receiver-only rule that excludes all names:

                  --filter='-xr *'

              Note that the -X option does not copy rsync's special xattr val-
              ues (e.g.  those used by --fake-super)  unless  you  repeat  the
              option  (e.g.  -XX).  This "copy all xattrs" mode cannot be used
              with --fake-super.

       --fileflags
              This option causes rsync to update the file-flags to be the same
              as  the  source  files  and directories (if your OS supports the
              chflags(2) system call).   Some flags can only be altered by the
              super-user  and some might only be unset below a certain secure-
              level (usually single-user mode). It will not make files  alter-
              able that are set to immutable on the receiver.  To do that, see
              --force-change, --force-uchange, and --force-schange.

       --force-change
              This option causes rsync to disable both user-immutable and sys-
              tem-immutable  flags  on  files  and  directories that are being
              updated or deleted on the receiving side.  This option overrides
              --force-uchange and --force-schange.

       --force-uchange
              This  option  causes  rsync  to  disable user-immutable flags on
              files and directories that are being updated or deleted  on  the
              receiving  side.   It does not try to affect system flags.  This
              option overrides --force-change and --force-schange.

       --force-schange
              This option causes rsync to disable  system-immutable  flags  on
              files  and  directories that are being updated or deleted on the
              receiving side.  It does not try to  affect  user  flags.   This
              option overrides --force-change and --force-uchange.

       --chmod=CHMOD
              This  option  tells  rsync  to apply one or more comma-separated
              "chmod" modes to the permission of the files  in  the  transfer.
              The resulting value is treated as though it were the permissions
              that the sending side supplied for the file,  which  means  that
              this  option  can  seem  to  have no effect on existing files if
              --perms is not enabled.

              In addition  to  the  normal  parsing  rules  specified  in  the
              chmod(1) manpage, you can specify an item that should only apply
              to a directory by prefixing it with a 'D', or  specify  an  item
              that  should  only  apply  to a file by prefixing it with a 'F'.
              For example, the following will ensure that all directories  get
              marked  set-gid, that no files are other-writable, that both are
              user-writable and group-writable, and that both have  consistent
              executability across all bits:

                  --chmod=Dg+s,ug+w,Fo-w,+X

              Using octal mode numbers is also allowed:

                  --chmod=D2775,F664

              It  is  also  legal to specify multiple --chmod options, as each
              additional option is just appended to the  list  of  changes  to
              make.

              See  the --perms and --executability options for how the result-
              ing permission value can be applied to the files in  the  trans-
              fer.

       --owner, -o
              This  option  causes  rsync  to set the owner of the destination
              file to be the same as the source file, but only if the  receiv-
              ing  rsync  is being run as the super-user (see also the --super
              and --fake-super options).  Without this option,  the  owner  of
              new and/or transferred files are set to the invoking user on the
              receiving side.

              The preservation of ownership will associate matching  names  by
              default,  but  may fall back to using the ID number in some cir-
              cumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full discus-
              sion).

       --group, -g
              This  option  causes  rsync  to set the group of the destination
              file to be the same as the source file.  If the  receiving  pro-
              gram  is  not  running  as  the super-user (or if --no-super was
              specified), only groups that the invoking user on the  receiving
              side is a member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the
              group is set to the default group of the invoking  user  on  the
              receiving side.

              The  preservation  of  group information will associate matching
              names by default, but may fall back to using the  ID  number  in
              some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full
              discussion).

       --devices
              This option causes rsync to transfer character and block  device
              files  to  the  remote system to recreate these devices.  If the
              receiving rsync is  not  being  run  as  the  super-user,  rsync
              silently  skips  creating the device files (see also the --super
              and --fake-super options).

              By default, rsync generates a  "non-regular  file"  warning  for
              each  device  file encountered when this option is not set.  You
              can silence the warning by specifying --info=nonreg0.

       --specials
              This option causes rsync to  transfer  special  files,  such  as
              named  sockets  and  fifos.  If the receiving rsync is not being
              run as the super-user, rsync silently skips creating the special
              files (see also the --super and --fake-super options).

              By  default,  rsync  generates  a "non-regular file" warning for
              each special file encountered when this option is not set.   You
              can silence the warning by specifying --info=nonreg0.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to "--devices --specials".

       --copy-devices
              This tells rsync to treat a device on the sending side as a reg-
              ular file, allowing it to be copied to a normal destination file
              (or another device if --write-devices was also specifed).

              This option is refused by default by an rsync daemon.

       --write-devices
              This  tells  rsync  to treat a device on the receiving side as a
              regular file, allowing the writing of file data into a device.

              This option implies the --inplace option.

              Be careful using this, as  you  should  know  what  devices  are
              present  on  the receiving side of the transfer, especially when
              running rsync as root.

              This option is refused by default by an rsync daemon.

       --times, -t
              This tells rsync to transfer modification times along  with  the
              files  and  update them on the remote system.  Note that if this
              option is not used, the optimization that  excludes  files  that
              have  not  been  modified cannot be effective; in other words, a
              missing -t (or -a) will cause the next transfer to behave as  if
              it  used  --ignore-times  (-I),  causing all files to be updated
              (though rsync's delta-transfer algorithm will  make  the  update
              fairly  efficient  if the files haven't actually changed, you're
              much better off using -t).

       --atimes, -U
              This tells rsync to set the access (use) times of  the  destina-
              tion files to the same value as the source files.

              If  repeated,  it also sets the --open-noatime option, which can
              help you to make the sending and receiving systems have the same
              access  times  on  the  transferred files without needing to run
              rsync an extra time after a file is transferred.

              Note that some older rsync versions (prior to  3.2.0)  may  have
              been built with a pre-release --atimes patch that does not imply
              --open-noatime when this option is repeated.

       --open-noatime
              This tells rsync to open files with the O_NOATIME flag (on  sys-
              tems  that  support it) to avoid changing the access time of the
              files that are being transferred.  If your OS does  not  support
              the  O_NOATIME flag then rsync will silently ignore this option.
              Note also that some filesystems are mounted  to  avoid  updating
              the  atime  on read access even without the O_NOATIME flag being
              set.

       --crtimes, -N,
              This tells rsync to set the create times (newness) of the desti-
              nation files to the same value as the source files.

       --omit-dir-times, -O
              This tells rsync to omit directories when it is preserving modi-
              fication, access, and create  times.   If  NFS  is  sharing  the
              directories  on the receiving side, it is a good idea to use -O.
              This option is inferred if you use  --backup  without  --backup-
              dir.

              This  option also has the side-effect of avoiding early creation
              of  missing  sub-directories  when  incremental   recursion   is
              enabled, as discussed in the --inc-recursive section.

       --omit-link-times, -J
              This  tells rsync to omit symlinks when it is preserving modifi-
              cation, access, and create times.

       --super
              This tells the receiving side to attempt  super-user  activities
              even if the receiving rsync wasn't run by the super-user.  These
              activities include: preserving users  via  the  --owner  option,
              preserving  all  groups (not just the current user's groups) via
              the --group  option,  and  copying  devices  via  the  --devices
              option.   This  is useful for systems that allow such activities
              without being the super-user, and also  for  ensuring  that  you
              will  get  errors  if  the receiving side isn't being run as the
              super-user.  To turn off super-user activities,  the  super-user
              can use --no-super.

       --fake-super
              When  this option is enabled, rsync simulates super-user activi-
              ties by saving/restoring the privileged attributes  via  special
              extended  attributes that are attached to each file (as needed).
              This includes the file's owner and  group  (if  it  is  not  the
              default),  the  file's  device  info (device & special files are
              created as empty text files), and any permission  bits  that  we
              won't  allow to be set on the real file (e.g. the real file gets
              u-s,g-s,o-t for safety) or that would limit the  owner's  access
              (since  the real super-user can always access/change a file, the
              files we create can always be accessed/changed by  the  creating
              user).   This option also handles ACLs (if --acls was specified)
              and non-user extended attributes (if --xattrs was specified).

              This is a good way to backup data without  using  a  super-user,
              and to store ACLs from incompatible systems.

              The  --fake-super  option only affects the side where the option
              is used.  To affect the remote side of  a  remote-shell  connec-
              tion, use the --remote-option (-M) option:

                  rsync -av -M--fake-super /src/ host:/dest/

              For  a  local  copy, this option affects both the source and the
              destination.  If you wish a local copy  to  enable  this  option
              just  for the destination files, specify -M--fake-super.  If you
              wish a local copy to enable this  option  just  for  the  source
              files, combine --fake-super with -M--super.

              This option is overridden by both --super and --no-super.

              See  also  the  fake super  setting  in the daemon's rsyncd.conf
              file.

       --sparse, -S
              Try to handle sparse files efficiently  so  they  take  up  less
              space  on  the destination.  If combined with --inplace the file
              created might not end up with sparse blocks with  some  combina-
              tions of kernel version and/or filesystem type.  If --whole-file
              is in effect (e.g. for a local copy) then it  will  always  work
              because  rsync  truncates  the  file  prior  to  writing out the
              updated version.

              Note that versions of rsync older than  3.1.3  will  reject  the
              combination of --sparse and --inplace.

       --preallocate
              This tells the receiver to allocate each destination file to its
              eventual size before writing data to the file.  Rsync will  only
              use  the real filesystem-level preallocation support provided by
              Linux's fallocate(2) system call or Cygwin's posix_fallocate(3),
              not  the  slow glibc implementation that writes a null byte into
              each block.

              Without this option, larger files may not be entirely contiguous
              on the filesystem, but with this option rsync will probably copy
              more slowly.  If the destination  is  not  an  extent-supporting
              filesystem (such as ext4, xfs, NTFS, etc.), this option may have
              no positive effect at all.

              If combined with --sparse, the file will only have sparse blocks
              (as  opposed to allocated sequences of null bytes) if the kernel
              version and filesystem type support creating holes in the  allo-
              cated data.

       --dry-run, -n
              This  makes  rsync  perform  a  trial  run that doesn't make any
              changes (and produces mostly the same output as a real run).  It
              is  most  commonly  used  in combination with the --verbose (-v)
              and/or --itemize-changes (-i) options to see what an rsync  com-
              mand is going to do before one actually runs it.

              The  output  of  --itemize-changes is supposed to be exactly the
              same on a dry run and a subsequent real run (barring intentional
              trickery  and  system call failures); if it isn't, that's a bug.
              Other output should be mostly unchanged, but may differ in  some
              areas.   Notably,  a  dry  run does not send the actual data for
              file transfers, so --progress has no effect, the  "bytes  sent",
              "bytes  received", "literal data", and "matched data" statistics
              are too small, and the "speedup" value is equivalent  to  a  run
              where no file transfers were needed.

       --whole-file, -W
              This  option  disables  rsync's  delta-transfer algorithm, which
              causes all transferred files to be sent whole.  The transfer may
              be  faster if this option is used when the bandwidth between the
              source and destination machines is higher than the bandwidth  to
              disk  (especially  when  the  "disk"  is  actually  a  networked
              filesystem).  This is the default when both the source and  des-
              tination  are  specified  as  local paths, but only if no batch-
              writing option is in effect.

       --no-whole-file, --no-W
              Disable whole-file updating when it is enabled by default for  a
              local  transfer.   This  usually slows rsync down, but it can be
              useful if you are trying to minimize the writes to the  destina-
              tion file (if combined with --inplace) or for testing the check-
              sum-based update algorithm.

              See also the --whole-file option.

       --checksum-choice=STR, --cc=STR
              This option overrides the checksum algorithms.  If one algorithm
              name  is  specified,  it is used for both the transfer checksums
              and (assuming --checksum is specified) the  pre-transfer  check-
              sums.  If two comma-separated names are supplied, the first name
              affects the transfer checksums, and the second name affects  the
              pre-transfer checksums (-c).

              The checksum options that you may be able to use are:


              o      auto (the default automatic choice)

              o      xxh128

              o      xxh3

              o      xxh64 (aka xxhash)

              o      md5

              o      md4

              o      none

              Run  rsync --version  to  see the default checksum list compiled
              into your version (which may differ from the list above).

              If "none" is  specified  for  the  first  (or  only)  name,  the
              --whole-file option is forced on and no checksum verification is
              performed on the transferred data.  If "none" is  specified  for
              the second (or only) name, the --checksum option cannot be used.

              The "auto" option is the default, where rsync  bases  its  algo-
              rithm  choice on a negotiation between the client and the server
              as follows:

              When both sides of  the  transfer  are  at  least  3.2.0,  rsync
              chooses the first algorithm in the client's list of choices that
              is also in the server's list of choices.  If no common  checksum
              choice is found, rsync exits with an error.  If the remote rsync
              is too old to support checksum negotiation, a  value  is  chosen
              based  on  the  protocol  version (which chooses between MD5 and
              various flavors of MD4 based on protocol age).

              The default order can be customized by setting  the  environment
              variable   RSYNC_CHECKSUM_LIST  to  a  space-separated  list  of
              acceptable checksum names.  If the string contains a "&" charac-
              ter,  it  is separated into the "client string & server string",
              otherwise the same string applies to both.  If  the  string  (or
              string  portion)  contains  no  non-whitespace  characters,  the
              default checksum list is used.  This method does not  allow  you
              to  specify the transfer checksum separately from the pre-trans-
              fer checksum, and it discards "auto" and  all  unknown  checksum
              names.  A list with only invalid names results in a failed nego-
              tiation.

              The use of the --checksum-choice option overrides this  environ-
              ment list.

       --one-file-system, -x
              This  tells  rsync  to avoid crossing a filesystem boundary when
              recursing.  This does not limit the user's  ability  to  specify
              items  to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync's recursion
              through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified,
              and  also  the  analogous recursion on the receiving side during
              deletion.  Also keep in mind that rsync treats a "bind" mount to
              the same device as being on the same filesystem.

              If this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point directo-
              ries from the copy.  Otherwise, it includes an  empty  directory
              at  each  mount-point it encounters (using the attributes of the
              mounted directory because those of  the  underlying  mount-point
              directory are inaccessible).

              If rsync has been told to collapse symlinks (via --copy-links or
              --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on another device
              is  treated like a mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories are
              unaffected by this option.

       --ignore-non-existing, --existing
              This tells rsync to skip creating files (including  directories)
              that  do  not  exist  yet on the destination.  If this option is
              combined with the --ignore-existing option,  no  files  will  be
              updated  (which  can  be  useful if all you want to do is delete
              extraneous files).

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
              affect  the  data  that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
              doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits  the  files  that  the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

       --ignore-existing
              This  tells  rsync  to skip updating files that already exist on
              the destination (this does not ignore existing  directories,  or
              nothing would get done).  See also --ignore-non-existing.

              This  option  is  a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't
              affect the data that goes  into  the  file-lists,  and  thus  it
              doesn't  affect  deletions.   It  just limits the files that the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

              This option can be useful for  those  doing  backups  using  the
              --link-dest  option when they need to continue a backup run that
              got interrupted.  Since a --link-dest run is copied into  a  new
              directory hierarchy (when it is used properly), using [--ignore-
              existing will ensure that the already-handled  files  don't  get
              tweaked (which avoids a change in permissions on the hard-linked
              files).  This does mean that this option is only looking at  the
              existing files in the destination hierarchy itself.

              When  --info=skip2  is  used  rsync will output "FILENAME exists
              (INFO)" messages where the INFO indicates one of "type  change",
              "sum  change"  (requires  -c), "file change" (based on the quick
              check), "attr change", or "uptodate".  Using --info=skip1 (which
              is  also  implied  by  2  -v options) outputs the exists message
              without the INFO suffix.

       --remove-source-files
              This tells rsync to remove  from  the  sending  side  the  files
              (meaning  non-directories)  that  are a part of the transfer and
              have been successfully duplicated on the receiving side.

              Note that you should only use this option on source  files  that
              are quiescent.  If you are using this to move files that show up
              in a particular directory over to another host, make  sure  that
              the  finished  files  get renamed into the source directory, not
              directly written into it, so that rsync can't possibly  transfer
              a  file that is not yet fully written.  If you can't first write
              the files into a different directory, you should  use  a  naming
              idiom  that lets rsync avoid transferring files that are not yet
              finished (e.g. name the  file  "foo.new"  when  it  is  written,
              rename  it  to  "foo"  when  it is done, and then use the option
              --exclude='*.new' for the rsync transfer).

              Starting with 3.1.0, rsync will  skip  the  sender-side  removal
              (and  output an error) if the file's size or modify time has not
              stayed unchanged.

       --delete
              This tells rsync to delete extraneous files from  the  receiving
              side  (ones  that  aren't on the sending side), but only for the
              directories that are being synchronized.  You  must  have  asked
              rsync to send the whole directory (e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without
              using a wildcard for the  directory's  contents  (e.g.  "dir/*")
              since  the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus gets
              a request to transfer individual files, not  the  files'  parent
              directory.   Files  that are excluded from the transfer are also
              excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded
              option  or  mark  the rules as only matching on the sending side
              (see the include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

              Prior  to  rsync  2.6.7, this option would have no effect unless
              --recursive was enabled.  Beginning with 2.6.7,  deletions  will
              also occur when --dirs (-d) is enabled, but only for directories
              whose contents are being copied.

              This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly! It is  a  very
              good  idea to first try a run using the --dry-run (-n) option to
              see what files are going to be deleted.

              If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of
              any  files  at  the  destination will be automatically disabled.
              This is to prevent temporary filesystem failures  (such  as  NFS
              errors)  on  the sending side from causing a massive deletion of
              files on the  destination.   You  can  override  this  with  the
              --ignore-errors option.

              The  --delete  option  may be combined with one of the --delete-
              WHEN options without conflict,  as  well  as  --delete-excluded.
              However,  if  none  of  the --delete-WHEN options are specified,
              rsync will choose the --delete-during algorithm when talking  to
              rsync  3.0.0  or  newer,  or  the --delete-before algorithm when
              talking  to  an  older  rsync.   See  also  --delete-delay   and
              --delete-after.

       --delete-before
              Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be done
              before the transfer starts.  See --delete (which is implied) for
              more details on file-deletion.

              Deleting  before  the  transfer  is helpful if the filesystem is
              tight for space and removing extraneous files would help to make
              the  transfer  possible.   However,  it  does  introduce a delay
              before the start of the transfer, and this delay might cause the
              transfer  to  timeout  (if  --timeout  was  specified).  It also
              forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental recursion algorithm
              that  requires  rsync to scan all the files in the transfer into
              memory at once (see --recursive).

       --delete-during, --del
              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving  side  be  done
              incrementally as the transfer happens.  The per-directory delete
              scan is done right before each directory is checked for updates,
              so  it  behaves like a more efficient --delete-before, including
              doing the deletions prior  to  any  per-directory  filter  files
              being  updated.   This  option  was first added in rsync version
              2.6.4.  See --delete (which is  implied)  for  more  details  on
              file-deletion.

       --delete-delay
              Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be com-
              puted during  the  transfer  (like  --delete-during),  and  then
              removed  after the transfer completes.  This is useful when com-
              bined with --delay-updates and/or --fuzzy, and is more efficient
              than  using  --delete-after  (but  can behave differently, since
              --delete-after computes the deletions in a separate  pass  after
              all updates are done).  If the number of removed files overflows
              an internal buffer, a temporary file  will  be  created  on  the
              receiving  side  to hold the names (it is removed while open, so
              you shouldn't see it during the transfer).  If the  creation  of
              the  temporary  file fails, rsync will try to fall back to using
              --delete-after (which it cannot do if --recursive  is  doing  an
              incremental  scan).   See  --delete  (which is implied) for more
              details on file-deletion.

       --delete-after
              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving  side  be  done
              after  the  transfer  has  completed.  This is useful if you are
              sending new per-directory merge files as a part of the  transfer
              and  you  want  their  exclusions  to take effect for the delete
              phase of the current transfer.  It also forces rsync to use  the
              old,  non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires rsync to
              scan all the files in the transfer  into  memory  at  once  (see
              --recursive).  See  --delete (which is implied) for more details
              on file-deletion.

              See also the --delete-delay option that might be a faster choice
              for  those  that  just want the deletions to occur at the end of
              the transfer.

       --delete-excluded
              In addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are
              not  on  the  sending  side, this tells rsync to also delete any
              files on the receiving side that are excluded  (see  --exclude).
              See the FILTER RULES section for a way to make individual exclu-
              sions behave this way on the receiver, and for a way to  protect
              files  from  --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which is implied)
              for more details on file-deletion.

       --ignore-missing-args
              When rsync is first processing the explicitly  requested  source
              files (e.g.  command-line arguments or --files-from entries), it
              is normally an error if the file cannot be found.   This  option
              suppresses  that  error,  and does not try to transfer the file.
              This does not affect subsequent vanished-file errors if  a  file
              was  initially found to be present and later is no longer there.

       --delete-missing-args
              This option takes the behavior of the  (implied)  --ignore-miss-
              ing-args  option  a step farther: each missing arg will become a
              deletion request of the corresponding destination  file  on  the
              receiving  side (should it exist).  If the destination file is a
              non-empty directory, it will only  be  successfully  deleted  if
              --force-delete or --delete are in effect.  Other than that, this
              option is independent of any other type of delete processing.

              The missing source files are represented  by  special  file-list
              entries  which  display as a "*missing" entry in the --list-only
              output.

       --ignore-errors
              Tells --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there  are
              I/O errors.

       --force-delete, --force
              This  option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when it
              is to be replaced by a non-directory.  This is only relevant  if
              deletions are not active (see --delete for details).

              Note that some older rsync versions used to require --force when
              using --delete-after, and it used to  be  non-functional  unless
              the --recursive option was also enabled.

       --max-delete=NUM
              This  tells  rsync not to delete more than NUM files or directo-
              ries.  If that limit is  exceeded,  all  further  deletions  are
              skipped through the end of the transfer.  At the end, rsync out-
              puts a warning (including a count of the skipped deletions)  and
              exits with an error code of 25 (unless some more important error
              condition also occurred).

              Beginning with version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0  to
              be  warned about any extraneous files in the destination without
              removing any of them.  Older clients interpreted this as "unlim-
              ited",  so if you don't know what version the client is, you can
              use the less obvious --max-delete=-1  as  a  backward-compatible
              way  to  specify that no deletions be allowed (though really old
              versions didn't warn when the limit was exceeded).

       --max-size=SIZE
              This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that  is  larger
              than the specified SIZE.  A numeric value can be suffixed with a
              string to indicate the numeric  units  or  left  unqualified  to
              specify  bytes.   Feel free to use a fractional value along with
              the units, such as --max-size=1.5m.

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
              affect  the  data  that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
              doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits  the  files  that  the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

              The first letter of a units string can be B (bytes), K (kilo), M
              (mega), G (giga), T (tera), or P (peta).  If  the  string  is  a
              single char or has "ib" added to it (e.g. "G" or "GiB") then the
              units are multiples of 1024.  If you  use  a  two-letter  suffix
              that  ends  with  a  "B" (e.g. "kb") then you get units that are
              multiples of 1000.  The string's letters can be any mix of upper
              and lower-case that you want to use.

              Finally, if the string ends with either "+1" or "-1", it is off-
              set by one byte in the indicated direction.  The largest  possi-
              ble value is usually 8192P-1.

              Examples:   --max-size=1.5mb-1  is  1499999  bytes,  and  --max-
              size=2g+1 is 2147483649 bytes.

              Note that rsync versions prior to 3.1.0  did  not  allow  --max-
              size=0.

       --min-size=SIZE
              This  tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is smaller
              than the specified SIZE, which  can  help  in  not  transferring
              small,  junk files.  See the --max-size option for a description
              of SIZE and other info.

              Note that rsync versions prior to 3.1.0  did  not  allow  --min-
              size=0.

       --max-alloc=SIZE
              By  default  rsync  limits an individual malloc/realloc to about
              1GB in size.  For most people this limit  works  just  fine  and
              prevents  a  protocol  error  causing  rsync  to request massive
              amounts of memory.  However, if you have many millions of  files
              in  a  transfer,  a large amount of server memory, and you don't
              want to split up your transfer  into  multiple  parts,  you  can
              increase  the per-allocation limit to something larger and rsync
              will consume more memory.

              Keep in mind that this is not a limit on the total size of allo-
              cated  memory.   It  is a sanity-check value for each individual
              allocation.

              See the --max-size option for a description of how SIZE  can  be
              specified.  The default suffix if none is given is bytes.

              Beginning in 3.2.3, a value of 0 specifies no limit.

              You  can  set  a  default  value  using the environment variable
              RSYNC_MAX_ALLOC using the same SIZE values as supported by  this
              option.   If the remote rsync doesn't understand the --max-alloc
              option, you can override an environmental  value  by  specifying
              --max-alloc=1g,  which  will make rsync avoid sending the option
              to the remote side (because "1G" is the default).

       --block-size=SIZE, -B
              This forces the block size used in rsync's delta-transfer  algo-
              rithm  to  a  fixed value.  It is normally selected based on the
              size of each file being updated.  See the technical  report  for
              details.

              Beginning  in  3.2.3  the SIZE can be specified with a suffix as
              detailed in the --max-size option.  Older versions only accepted
              a byte count.

       --rsh=COMMAND, -e
              This  option  allows  you  to choose an alternative remote shell
              program to use for communication between the  local  and  remote
              copies  of  rsync.  Typically, rsync is configured to use ssh by
              default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.

              If this option is used with [user@]host::module/path,  then  the
              remote  shell COMMAND will be used to run an rsync daemon on the
              remote host, and all  data  will  be  transmitted  through  that
              remote  shell  connection,  rather  than through a direct socket
              connection to a running rsync daemon on the  remote  host.   See
              the  USING  RSYNC-DAEMON  FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION
              section above.

              Beginning with rsync 3.2.0, the RSYNC_PORT environment  variable
              will be set when a daemon connection is being made via a remote-
              shell connection.  It is set to 0 if the default daemon port  is
              being  assumed, or it is set to the value of the rsync port that
              was specified via either the --port option or a  non-empty  port
              value  in an rsync:// URL.  This allows the script to discern if
              a non-default port is being requested, allowing for things  such
              as  an  SSL  or stunnel helper script to connect to a default or
              alternate port.

              Command-line arguments are permitted in  COMMAND  provided  that
              COMMAND  is  presented  to rsync as a single argument.  You must
              use spaces (not tabs or other whitespace) to separate  the  com-
              mand  and  args  from each other, and you can use single- and/or
              double-quotes to preserve spaces in an argument (but  not  back-
              slashes).   Note  that  doubling a single-quote inside a single-
              quoted string gives you a  single-quote;  likewise  for  double-
              quotes  (though  you  need to pay attention to which quotes your
              shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing).  Some exam-
              ples:

                  -e 'ssh -p 2234'
                  -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"'

              (Note  that  ssh  users  can alternately customize site-specific
              connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

              You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
              environment  variable, which accepts the same range of values as
              -e.

              See also the --blocking-io option  which  is  affected  by  this
              option.

       --rsync-path=PROGRAM
              Use  this  to  specify  what  program is to be run on the remote
              machine to start-up rsync.  Often used when rsync is not in  the
              default       remote-shell's       path      (e.g.      --rsync-
              path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).  Note that PROGRAM is run  with  the
              help  of  a  shell, so it can be any program, script, or command
              sequence you'd care to run, so long as it does not  corrupt  the
              standard-in & standard-out that rsync is using to communicate.

              One  tricky  example  is to set a different default directory on
              the remote machine for use  with  the  --relative  option.   For
              instance:

                  rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

       --remote-option=OPTION, -M
              This  option is used for more advanced situations where you want
              certain effects to be limited to one side of the transfer  only.
              For  instance,  if  you want to pass --log-file=FILE and --fake-
              super to the remote system, specify it like this:

                  rsync -av -M --log-file=foo -M--fake-super src/ dest/

              If you want to have an option affect only the local  side  of  a
              transfer  when it normally affects both sides, send its negation
              to the remote side.  Like this:

                  rsync -av -x -M--no-x src/ dest/

              Be cautious using this, as it is possible to  toggle  an  option
              that  will  cause rsync to have a different idea about what data
              to expect next over the socket, and that will make it fail in  a
              cryptic fashion.

              Note  that  you  should use a separate -M option for each remote
              option you want to pass.  On older rsync versions, the  presence
              of  any  spaces  in  the  remote-option arg could cause it to be
              split into separate remote args, but this requires  the  use  of
              --old-args in a modern rsync.

              When performing a local transfer, the "local" side is the sender
              and the "remote" side is the receiver.

              Note some versions of the popt option-parsing library have a bug
              in  them  that  prevents  you from using an adjacent arg with an
              equal in it  next  to  a  short  option  letter  (e.g.  -M--log-
              file=/tmp/foo).   If  this bug affects your version of popt, you
              can use the version of popt that is included with rsync.

       --cvs-exclude, -C
              This is a useful shorthand for excluding a broad range of  files
              that  you often don't want to transfer between systems.  It uses
              a similar algorithm to CVS to determine  if  a  file  should  be
              ignored.

              The  exclude  list is initialized to exclude the following items
              (these initial items are marked as perishable -- see the  FILTER
              RULES section):

                  RCS  SCCS CVS CVS.adm RCSLOG cvslog.*  tags TAGS .make.state
                  .nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old  *.bak  *.BAK  *.orig
                  *.rej  .del-*  *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so *.exe *.Z *.elc *.ln
                  core .svn/ .git/ .hg/ .bzr/

              then, files listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to  the  list
              and  any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment variable (all
              cvsignore names are delimited by whitespace).

              Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same directory as a
              .cvsignore  file and matches one of the patterns listed therein.
              Unlike rsync's filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on
              whitespace.  See the cvs(1) manual for more information.

              If  you're combining -C with your own --filter rules, you should
              note that these CVS excludes are appended at the end of your own
              rules,  regardless  of  where  the -C was placed on the command-
              line.  This makes them a lower priority than any rules you spec-
              ified  explicitly.   If  you  want  to  control  where these CVS
              excludes get inserted into your filter rules,  you  should  omit
              the  -C as a command-line option and use a combination of --fil-
              ter=:C and  --filter=-C  (either  on  your  command-line  or  by
              putting  the  ":C"  and  "-C" rules into a filter file with your
              other rules).  The first option turns on the per-directory scan-
              ning for the .cvsignore file.  The second option does a one-time
              import of the CVS excludes mentioned above.

       --filter=RULE, -f
              This option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude  cer-
              tain  files  from  the list of files to be transferred.  This is
              most useful in combination with a recursive transfer.

              You may use as many --filter options on the command line as  you
              like  to  build  up the list of files to exclude.  If the filter
              contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so that the shell gives
              the  rule  to  rsync  as a single argument.  The text below also
              mentions that you can use an underscore  to  replace  the  space
              that separates a rule from its arg.

              See  the  FILTER  RULES section for detailed information on this
              option.

       -F     The -F option is a shorthand for adding two  --filter  rules  to
              your command.  The first time it is used is a shorthand for this
              rule:

                  --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'

              This tells rsync to look for per-directory  .rsync-filter  files
              that  have  been  sprinkled  through the hierarchy and use their
              rules to filter the files in the transfer.  If -F  is  repeated,
              it is a shorthand for this rule:

                  --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'

              This  filters  out  the  .rsync-filter files themselves from the
              transfer.

              See the FILTER RULES section for  detailed  information  on  how
              these options work.

       --exclude=PATTERN
              This  option  is  a  simplified form of the --filter option that
              defaults to an exclude rule and does not allow  the  full  rule-
              parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See  the  FILTER  RULES section for detailed information on this
              option.

       --exclude-from=FILE
              This option is related to the --exclude option, but it specifies
              a  FILE  that  contains  exclude patterns (one per line).  Blank
              lines in the file are ignored, as are whole-line  comments  that
              start with ';' or '#' (filename rules that contain those charac-
              ters are unaffected).

              If FILE is '-', the list will be read from standard input.

       --include=PATTERN
              This option is a simplified form of  the  --filter  option  that
              defaults  to  an  include rule and does not allow the full rule-
              parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed  information  on  this
              option.

       --include-from=FILE
              This option is related to the --include option, but it specifies
              a FILE that contains include patterns  (one  per  line).   Blank
              lines  in  the file are ignored, as are whole-line comments that
              start with ';' or '#' (filename rules that contain those charac-
              ters are unaffected).

              If FILE is '-', the list will be read from standard input.

       --files-from=FILE
              Using  this option allows you to specify the exact list of files
              to transfer (as read from the specified FILE or '-' for standard
              input).   It  also  tweaks the default behavior of rsync to make
              transferring just the specified files and directories easier:


              o      The --relative (-R) option is  implied,  which  preserves
                     the  path  information that is specified for each item in
                     the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn
                     that off).

              o      The  --dirs  (-d)  option  is  implied, which will create
                     directories specified in  the  list  on  the  destination
                     rather than noisily skipping them (use --no-dirs or --no-
                     d if you want to turn that off).

              o      The --archive  (-a)  option's  behavior  does  not  imply
                     --recursive  (-r),  so specify it explicitly, if you want
                     it.

              o      These side-effects change the default state of rsync,  so
                     the  position  of the --files-from option on the command-
                     line has no bearing on how other options are parsed (e.g.
                     -a  works  the same before or after --files-from, as does
                     --no-R and all other options).

              The filenames that are read from the FILE are  all  relative  to
              the  source  dir --  any leading slashes are removed and no ".."
              references are allowed to go higher than the  source  dir.   For
              example, take this command:

                  rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup

              If  /tmp/foo  contains  the  string  "bin" (or even "/bin"), the
              /usr/bin directory will be created as /backup/bin on the  remote
              host.   If  it  contains  "bin/"  (note the trailing slash), the
              immediate contents of the directory would also be sent  (without
              needing  to be explicitly mentioned in the file -- this began in
              version 2.6.4).  In both cases, if the -r  option  was  enabled,
              that  dir's  entire hierarchy would also be transferred (keep in
              mind that -r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from,
              since it is not implied by -a.  Also note that the effect of the
              (enabled by default) -r option is to  duplicate  only  the  path
              info  that is read from the file -- it does not force the dupli-
              cation of the source-spec path (/usr in this case).

              In addition, the --files-from file can be read from  the  remote
              host instead of the local host if you specify a "host:" in front
              of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer).  As a
              short-cut, you can specify just a prefix of ":" to mean "use the
              remote end of the transfer".  For example:

                  rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy

              This would copy all the files specified in  the  /path/file-list
              file that was located on the remote "src" host.

              If  the --iconv and --protect-args options are specified and the
              --files-from filenames are being sent from one host to  another,
              the filenames will be translated from the sending host's charset
              to the receiving host's charset.

              NOTE: sorting the list of files in the --files-from input  helps
              rsync  to  be  more  efficient, as it will avoid re-visiting the
              path elements that are shared between adjacent entries.  If  the
              input  is  not  sorted, some path elements (implied directories)
              may end up being scanned multiple times, and rsync will  eventu-
              ally  unduplicate them after they get turned into file-list ele-
              ments.

       --from0, -0
              This tells rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from  a  file
              are  terminated  by  a  null  ('\0') character, not a NL, CR, or
              CR+LF.  This affects  --exclude-from,  --include-from,  --files-
              from,  and  any  merged  files specified in a --filter rule.  It
              does not affect --cvs-exclude  (since  all  names  read  from  a
              .cvsignore file are split on whitespace).

       --old-args
              This option tells rsync to stop trying to protect the arg values
              on the remote side from unintended word-splitting or other  mis-
              interpretation.

              The  default  in a modern rsync is for "shell-active" characters
              (including spaces) to be backslash-escaped in the args that  are
              sent  to the remote shell.  The wildcard characters *, ?, [, & ]
              are not escaped in filename args (allowing them to  expand  into
              multiple  filenames)  while being protected in option args, such
              as --usermap.

              If you have a script that wants to use old-style  arg  splitting
              in its filenames, specify this option once.  If the remote shell
              has a problem with any backslash escapes at  all,  specify  this
              option twice.

              You  may  also control this setting via the RSYNC_OLD_ARGS envi-
              ronment variable.  If it has the value "1", rsync  will  default
              to  a single-option setting.  If it has the value "2" (or more),
              rsync will default to a repeated-option setting.  If it is  "0",
              you'll  get  the  default escaping behavior.  The environment is
              always overridden by manually  specified  positive  or  negative
              options (the negative is --no-old-args).

              This option conflicts with the --protect-args option.

       --protect-args, -s
              This  option  sends all filenames and most options to the remote
              rsync without allowing  the  remote  shell  to  interpret  them.
              Wildcards  are  expanded  on the remote host by rsync instead of
              the shell doing it.

              This is similar to the new-style backslash-escaping of args that
              was added in 3.2.4, but supports some extra features and doesn't
              rely on backslash escaping in the remote shell.

              If you use this option with --iconv, the  args  related  to  the
              remote side will also be translated from the local to the remote
              character-set.  The translation happens  before  wild-cards  are
              expanded.  See also the --files-from option.

              You  may  also  control  this setting via the RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS
              environment variable.  If it has a non-zero value, this  setting
              will  be  enabled  by  default, otherwise it will be disabled by
              default.  Either state is overridden  by  a  manually  specified
              positive  or  negative  version of this option (note that --no-s
              and --no-protect-args are the negative versions).  This environ-
              ment  variable  is  also superseded by a non-zero RSYNC_OLD_ARGS
              export.

              You may need to disable this option  when  interacting  with  an
              older rsync (one prior to 3.0.0).

              This option conflicts with the --old-args option.

              Note  that  this  option  is  incompatible  with  the use of the
              restricted rsync script (rrsync) since it hides options from the
              script's inspection.

       --copy-as=USER[:GROUP]
              This  option  instructs  rsync to use the USER and (if specified
              after a colon) the GROUP for the  copy  operations.   This  only
              works  if  the  user  that  is  running rsync has the ability to
              change users.  If the group is not  specified  then  the  user's
              default groups are used.

              This option can help to reduce the risk of an rsync being run as
              root into or out of a directory that  might  have  live  changes
              happening  to  it and you want to make sure that root-level read
              or write actions of system files are not  possible.   While  you
              could  alternatively  run  all  of  rsync as the specified user,
              sometimes you need the root-level host-access credentials to  be
              used,  so this allows rsync to drop root for the copying part of
              the operation after the remote-shell  or  daemon  connection  is
              established.

              The  option  only  affects  one  side of the transfer unless the
              transfer is local, in which case it affects both sides.  Use the
              --remote-option  to  affect  the  remote side, such as -M--copy-
              as=joe.  For a local transfer, the lsh (or lsh.sh) support  file
              provides a local-shell helper script that can be used to allow a
              "localhost:" or "lh:" host-spec to be specified without  needing
              to  setup  any  remote  shells,  allowing  you to specify remote
              options that affect the side of the transfer that is  using  the
              host-spec  (and using hostname "lh" avoids the overriding of the
              remote directory to the user's home dir).

              For example, the following rsync writes the local files as  user
              "joe":

                  sudo rsync -aiv --copy-as=joe host1:backups/joe/ /home/joe/

              This  makes  all files owned by user "joe", limits the groups to
              those that are available to that user, and makes  it  impossible
              for  the  joe user to do a timed exploit of the path to induce a
              change to a file that the joe user has no permissions to change.

              The  following command does a local copy into the "dest/" dir as
              user "joe" (assuming you've installed support/lsh into a dir  on
              your $PATH):

                  sudo rsync -aive lsh -M--copy-as=joe src/ lh:dest/

       --temp-dir=DIR, -T
              This  option  instructs  rsync to use DIR as a scratch directory
              when creating temporary copies of the files transferred  on  the
              receiving  side.   The default behavior is to create each tempo-
              rary file in the same directory as  the  associated  destination
              file.   Beginning  with  rsync 3.1.1, the temp-file names inside
              the specified DIR will not be prefixed with an extra dot (though
              they will still have a random suffix added).

              This option is most often used when the receiving disk partition
              does not have enough free space to hold a copy  of  the  largest
              file  in  the  transfer.   In  this  case (i.e. when the scratch
              directory is on a different disk partition), rsync will  not  be
              able  to rename each received temporary file over the top of the
              associated destination file,  but  instead  must  copy  it  into
              place.   Rsync does this by copying the file over the top of the
              destination file, which means that  the  destination  file  will
              contain  truncated data during this copy.  If this were not done
              this way (even if the destination file were first  removed,  the
              data  locally  copied  to  a  temporary  file in the destination
              directory, and then renamed into place) it would be possible for
              the old file to continue taking up disk space (if someone had it
              open), and thus there might not be enough room to  fit  the  new
              version on the disk at the same time.

              If  you  are using this option for reasons other than a shortage
              of disk space, you may wish to  combine  it  with  the  --delay-
              updates  option, which will ensure that all copied files get put
              into subdirectories in the destination hierarchy,  awaiting  the
              end of the transfer.  If you don't have enough room to duplicate
              all the arriving files on the destination partition, another way
              to  tell rsync that you aren't overly concerned about disk space
              is to use the --partial-dir option with a relative path; because
              this  tells  rsync that it is OK to stash off a copy of a single
              file in a subdir in the destination hierarchy,  rsync  will  use
              the partial-dir as a staging area to bring over the copied file,
              and then rename it into place from there. (Specifying  a  --par-
              tial-dir  with an absolute path does not have this side-effect.)

       --fuzzy, -y
              This option tells rsync that it should look for a basis file for
              any  destination  file  that  is missing.  The current algorithm
              looks in the same directory as the destination file for either a
              file  that  has  an identical size and modified-time, or a simi-
              larly-named file.  If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file  to
              try to speed up the transfer.

              If  the  option is repeated, the fuzzy scan will also be done in
              any matching alternate destination directories that  are  speci-
              fied via --compare-dest, --copy-dest, or --link-dest.

              Note  that  the  use of the --delete option might get rid of any
              potential fuzzy-match files, so  either  use  --delete-after  or
              specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.

       --compare-dest=DIR
              This  option  instructs  rsync  to  use  DIR  on the destination
              machine as an additional hierarchy to compare destination  files
              against  doing transfers (if the files are missing in the desti-
              nation directory).  If a file is found in DIR that is  identical
              to  the  sender's  file, the file will NOT be transferred to the
              destination directory.  This is useful  for  creating  a  sparse
              backup  of  just files that have changed from an earlier backup.
              This option is typically used to copy into an  empty  (or  newly
              created) directory.

              Beginning  in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories
              may be provided, which will cause rsync to search  the  list  in
              the  order  specified  for  an exact match.  If a match is found
              that differs only in attributes, a local copy is  made  and  the
              attributes  updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
              one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up  the  trans-
              fer.

              If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it is relative to the destination
              directory.  See also --copy-dest and --link-dest.

              NOTE: beginning with version 3.1.0, rsync  will  remove  a  file
              from  a  non-empty  destination  hierarchy  if an exact match is
              found in one of the compare-dest  hierarchies  (making  the  end
              result more closely match a fresh copy).

       --copy-dest=DIR
              This  option  behaves  like  --compare-dest, but rsync will also
              copy unchanged files found in DIR to the  destination  directory
              using a local copy.  This is useful for doing transfers to a new
              destination while leaving existing files intact, and then  doing
              a  flash-cutover  when  all  files have been successfully trans-
              ferred.

              Multiple --copy-dest directories may  be  provided,  which  will
              cause  rsync  to  search  the list in the order specified for an
              unchanged file.  If a match is not found, a basis file from  one
              of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

              If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it is relative to the destination
              directory.  See also --compare-dest and --link-dest.

       --link-dest=DIR
              This option behaves like --copy-dest, but  unchanged  files  are
              hard  linked  from  DIR to the destination directory.  The files
              must be identical in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions,
              possibly  ownership)  in  order  for  the  files  to  be  linked
              together.  An example:

                  rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

              If files aren't linking, double-check  their  attributes.   Also
              check  if  some attributes are getting forced outside of rsync's
              control, such a mount option that  squishes  root  to  a  single
              user,  or  mounts a removable drive with generic ownership (such
              as OS X's "Ignore ownership on this volume" option).

              Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may
              be  provided,  which  will cause rsync to search the list in the
              order specified for an exact match (there is a limit of 20  such
              directories).   If  a  match  is  found  that  differs  only  in
              attributes, a local copy is made and the attributes updated.  If
              a  match is not found, a basis file from one of the DIRs will be
              selected to try to speed up the transfer.

              This option works best when copying into  an  empty  destination
              hierarchy,  as  existing files may get their attributes tweaked,
              and that can affect alternate destination files via  hard-links.
              Also,  itemizing  of  changes  can get a bit muddled.  Note that
              prior to version 3.1.0, an alternate-directory exact match would
              never be found (nor linked into the destination) when a destina-
              tion file already exists.

              Note that if you combine this option with --ignore-times,  rsync
              will not link any files together because it only links identical
              files together as a substitute for transferring the file,  never
              as an additional check after the file is updated.

              If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it is relative to the destination
              directory.  See also --compare-dest and --copy-dest.

              Note that rsync versions prior to 2.6.1 had  a  bug  that  could
              prevent  --link-dest  from working properly for a non-super-user
              when --owner (-o) was specified (or  implied).   You  can  work-
              around this bug by avoiding the -o option (or using --no-o) when
              sending to an old rsync.

       --compress, -z
              With this option, rsync compresses the file data as it  is  sent
              to  the  destination  machine,  which reduces the amount of data
              being transmitted -- something that is useful over a  slow  con-
              nection.

              Rsync  supports multiple compression methods and will choose one
              for you unless you force the choice using the  --compress-choice
              (--zc) option.

              Run  rsync --version  to  see the default compress list compiled
              into your version.

              When both sides of  the  transfer  are  at  least  3.2.0,  rsync
              chooses the first algorithm in the client's list of choices that
              is also in the server's list of choices.  If no common  compress
              choice is found, rsync exits with an error.  If the remote rsync
              is too old to support checksum negotiation, its list is  assumed
              to be "zlib".

              The  default  order can be customized by setting the environment
              variable  RSYNC_COMPRESS_LIST  to  a  space-separated  list   of
              acceptable  compression  names.   If  the  string contains a "&"
              character, it is separated into  the  "client  string  &  server
              string",  otherwise  the  same  string  applies to both.  If the
              string (or string portion) contains  no  non-whitespace  charac-
              ters,  the  default compress list is used.  Any unknown compres-
              sion names are discarded from the list, but  a  list  with  only
              invalid names results in a failed negotiation.

              There  are  some  older  rsync  versions that were configured to
              reject a -z option and require the use of -zz because their com-
              pression  library  was not compatible with the default zlib com-
              pression method.  You can usually ignore this  weirdness  unless
              the rsync server complains and tells you to specify -zz.

       --compress-choice=STR, --zc=STR
              This option can be used to override the automatic negotiation of
              the compression algorithm that occurs when --compress  is  used.
              The option implies --compress unless "none" was specified, which
              instead implies --no-compress.

              The compression options that you may be able to use are:


              o      zstd

              o      lz4

              o      zlibx

              o      zlib

              o      none

              Run rsync --version to see the default  compress  list  compiled
              into your version (which may differ from the list above).

              Note  that  if you see an error about an option named --old-com-
              press or --new-compress, this is rsync trying to send the --com-
              press-choice=zlib  or  --compress-choice=zlibx option in a back-
              ward-compatible manner  that  more  rsync  versions  understand.
              This  error indicates that the older rsync version on the server
              will not allow you to force the compression type.

              Note that the "zlibx" compression algorithm is just  the  "zlib"
              algorithm with matched data excluded from the compression stream
              (to try to make it more compatible with an external zlib  imple-
              mentation).

       --compress-level=NUM, --zl=NUM
              Explicitly set the compression level to use (see --compress, -z)
              instead of letting it default.  The --compress option is implied
              as  long as the level chosen is not a "don't compress" level for
              the compression algorithm that is in effect (e.g. zlib  compres-
              sion treats level 0 as "off").

              The  level  values  vary  depending  on  the checksum in effect.
              Because rsync will negotiate a checksum choice by default  (when
              the  remote rsync is new enough), it can be good to combine this
              option with a --compress-choice (--zc) option unless you're sure
              of the choice in effect.  For example:

                  rsync -aiv --zc=zstd --zl=22 host:src/ dest/

              For  zlib  &  zlibx compression the valid values are from 1 to 9
              with 6 being the default.  Specifying --zl=0  turns  compression
              off, and specifying --zl=-1 chooses the default level of 6.

              For  zstd  compression  the  valid values are from -131072 to 22
              with 3 being the default. Specifying 0 chooses the default of 3.

              For  lz4 compression there are no levels, so the value is always
              0.

              If you specify a too-large or too-small  value,  the  number  is
              silently  limited  to a valid value.  This allows you to specify
              something like --zl=999999999 and be assured that you'll end  up
              with  the maximum compression level no matter what algorithm was
              chosen.

              If you want to know the compression level  that  is  in  effect,
              specify  --debug=nstr  to  see  the "negotiated string" results.
              This     will     report     something     like     "Client com-
              press: zstd (level 3)"   (along  with  the  checksum  choice  in
              effect).

       --skip-compress=LIST
              NOTE: no compression method currently supports per-file compres-
              sion changes, so this option has no effect.

              Override  the  list  of file suffixes that will be compressed as
              little as possible.  Rsync sets the compression level on a  per-
              file basis based on the file's suffix.  If the compression algo-
              rithm has an "off" level, then no compression occurs  for  those
              files.   Other  algorithms  that  support changing the streaming
              level on-the-fly will have the level minimized  to  reduces  the
              CPU usage as much as possible for a matching file.

              The  LIST  should be one or more file suffixes (without the dot)
              separated by slashes (/).  You may specify an  empty  string  to
              indicate that no files should be skipped.

              Simple  character-class matching is supported: each must consist
              of a list of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special
              classes, such as "[:alpha:]", are supported, and '-' has no spe-
              cial meaning).

              The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?) have  no  spe-
              cial meaning.

              Here's  an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1 of
              the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes):

                  --skip-compress=gz/jpg/mp[34]/7z/bz2

              The default file suffixes in the skip-compress list in this ver-
              sion of rsync are:

                  3g2  3gp 7z aac ace apk avi bz2 deb dmg ear f4v flac flv gpg
                  gz iso jar jpeg jpg lrz lz lz4 lzma lzo m1a m1v m2a m2ts m2v
                  m4a m4b m4p m4r m4v mka mkv mov mp1 mp2 mp3 mp4 mpa mpeg mpg
                  mpv mts odb odf odg odi odm odp ods odt oga ogg ogm ogv  ogx
                  opus  otg  oth  otp  ots  ott oxt png qt rar rpm rz rzip spx
                  squashfs sxc sxd sxg sxm sxw sz tbz tbz2 tgz tlz ts txz  tzo
                  vob war webm webp xz z zip zst

              This  list  will be replaced by your --skip-compress list in all
              but one situation: a copy from a  daemon  rsync  will  add  your
              skipped  suffixes  to its list of non-compressing files (and its
              list may be configured to a different default).

       --numeric-ids
              With this option rsync will transfer numeric group and user  IDs
              rather  than using user and group names and mapping them at both
              ends.

              By default rsync will use the username and groupname  to  deter-
              mine  what  ownership  to give files.  The special uid 0 and the
              special group 0 are never mapped via user/group  names  even  if
              the --numeric-ids option is not specified.

              If a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no
              match on the destination system, then the numeric  ID  from  the
              source  system is used instead.  See also the use chroot setting
              in the rsyncd.conf manpage for some comments on how  the  chroot
              setting  affects  rsync's  ability  to  look up the names of the
              users and groups and what you can do about it.

       --usermap=STRING, --groupmap=STRING
              These options allow you to specify users and groups that  should
              be  mapped to other values by the receiving side.  The STRING is
              one or more FROM:TO pairs of values separated  by  commas.   Any
              matching  FROM value from the sender is replaced with a TO value
              from the receiver.  You may specify usernames or  user  IDs  for
              the  FROM  and TO values, and the FROM value may also be a wild-
              card string, which will be matched against  the  sender's  names
              (wild-cards  do  NOT  match against ID numbers, though see below
              for why a '*' matches everything).  You may  instead  specify  a
              range of ID numbers via an inclusive range: LOW-HIGH.  For exam-
              ple:

                  --usermap=0-99:nobody,wayne:admin,*:normal --groupmap=usr:1,1:usr

              The first match in the list is the one that is used.  You should
              specify  all your user mappings using a single --usermap option,
              and/or all your group mappings using a single --groupmap option.

              Note  that  the  sender's  name for the 0 user and group are not
              transmitted to the receiver, so you should  either  match  these
              values  using  a  0, or use the names in effect on the receiving
              side (typically "root").  All other FROM names  match  those  in
              use on the sending side.  All TO names match those in use on the
              receiving side.

              Any IDs that do not have a name on the sending side are  treated
              as  having  an  empty  name  for  the purpose of matching.  This
              allows them to be matched via a "*" or using an empty name.  For
              instance:

                  --usermap=:nobody --groupmap=*:nobody

              When  the --numeric-ids option is used, the sender does not send
              any names, so all the IDs are treated as having an  empty  name.
              This  means that you will need to specify numeric FROM values if
              you want to map these nameless IDs to different values.

              For the --usermap option to work, the receiver will need  to  be
              running  as  a super-user (see also the --super and --fake-super
              options).  For the --groupmap option to work, the receiver  will
              need to have permissions to set that group.

              Starting  with  rsync  3.2.4,  the  --usermap option implies the
              --owner (-o) option while  the  --groupmap  option  implies  the
              --group  (-g)  option  (since  rsync needs to have those options
              enabled for the mapping options to work).

              An older rsync client may need to  use  --protect-args  (-s)  to
              avoid  a complaint about wildcard characters, but a modern rsync
              handles this automatically.

       --chown=USER:GROUP
              This option forces all files to be  owned  by  USER  with  group
              GROUP.   This  is  a  simpler  interface  than using --usermap &
              --groupmap directly, but it is implemented using  those  options
              internally so they cannot be mixed.  If either the USER or GROUP
              is empty, no mapping for the omitted user/group will occur.   If
              GROUP  is  empty, the trailing colon may be omitted, but if USER
              is empty, a leading colon must be supplied.

              If you specify "--chown=foo:bar", this is exactly  the  same  as
              specifying  "--usermap=*:foo --groupmap=*:bar", only easier (and
              with the same implied --owner and/or --group options).

              An older rsync client may need to  use  --protect-args  (-s)  to
              avoid  a complaint about wildcard characters, but a modern rsync
              handles this automatically.

       --timeout=SECONDS
              This option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in  seconds.
              If no data is transferred for the specified time then rsync will
              exit.  The default is 0, which means no timeout.

       --contimeout=SECONDS
              This option allows you to set the amount of time that rsync will
              wait  for  its connection to an rsync daemon to succeed.  If the
              timeout is reached, rsync exits with an error.

       --address=ADDRESS
              By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when connect-
              ing  to  an  rsync  daemon.   The --address option allows you to
              specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to.

              See also the daemon version of the --address option.

       --port=PORT
              This specifies an alternate TCP port number to use  rather  than
              the  default  of  873.  This is only needed if you are using the
              double-colon (::) syntax to connect with an rsync daemon  (since
              the  URL  syntax  has a way to specify the port as a part of the
              URL).

              See also the daemon version of the --port option.

       --sockopts=OPTIONS
              This option can provide endless fun for people who like to  tune
              their  systems  to  the utmost degree.  You can set all sorts of
              socket options which may make  transfers  faster  (or  slower!).
              Read the manpage for the setsockopt() system call for details on
              some of the options you may be able to set.  By default no  spe-
              cial  socket  options  are set.  This only affects direct socket
              connections to a remote rsync daemon.

              See also the daemon version of the --sockopts option.

       --blocking-io
              This tells rsync to use blocking I/O  when  launching  a  remote
              shell  transport.   If  the remote shell is either rsh or remsh,
              rsync defaults to using blocking I/O, otherwise it  defaults  to
              using  non-blocking  I/O.  (Note  that  ssh prefers non-blocking
              I/O.)

       --outbuf=MODE
              This sets the output buffering mode.  The mode can be None  (aka
              Unbuffered), Line, or Block (aka Full).  You may specify as lit-
              tle as a single letter for the mode,  and  use  upper  or  lower
              case.

              The  main use of this option is to change Full buffering to Line
              buffering when rsync's output is going to a file or pipe.

       --itemize-changes, -i
              Requests a simple itemized list of the changes  that  are  being
              made to each file, including attribute changes.  This is exactly
              the same as specifying --out-format='%i %n%L'.   If  you  repeat
              the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only if the
              receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv  with
              older  versions  of  rsync, but that also turns on the output of
              other verbose messages).

              The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that is  11  letters  long.
              The  general  format is like the string YXcstpoguaxf, where Y is
              replaced by the type of update being done, X is replaced by  the
              file-type,  and  the other letters represent attributes that may
              be output if they are being modified.

              The update types that replace the Y are as follows:


              o      A < means that a file is being transferred to the  remote
                     host (sent).

              o      A  >  means that a file is being transferred to the local
                     host (received).

              o      A c means that a local change/creation is  occurring  for
                     the  item  (such  as  the  creation of a directory or the
                     changing of a symlink, etc.).

              o      A h means that the item is a hard link  to  another  item
                     (requires --hard-links).

              o      A  .  means that the item is not being updated (though it
                     might have attributes that are being modified).

              o      A * means that the rest of the itemized-output area  con-
                     tains a message (e.g. "deleting").

              The  file-types  that replace the X are: f for a file, a d for a
              directory, an L for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S  for  a
              special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

              The  other  letters in the string indicate if some attributes of
              the file have changed, as follows:


              o      "." - the attribute is unchanged.

              o      "+" - the file is newly created.

              o      " " - all the attributes are unchanged (all dots turn  to
                     spaces).

              o      "?"  -  the  change  is unknown (when the remote rsync is
                     old).

              o      A letter indicates an attribute is being updated.

              The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:


              o      A  c  means  either  that  a regular file has a different
                     checksum (requires --checksum) or that a symlink, device,
                     or  special  file  has a changed value.  Note that if you
                     are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this change
                     flag  will be present only for checksum-differing regular
                     files.

              o      A s means the size of a regular  file  is  different  and
                     will be updated by the file transfer.

              o      A t means the modification time is different and is being
                     updated to the sender's  value  (requires  --times).   An
                     alternate  value  of  T  means that the modification time
                     will be set to the transfer time, which  happens  when  a
                     file/symlink/device is updated without --times and when a
                     symlink is changed and the receiver can't set  its  time.
                     (Note:  when  using  an rsync 3.0.0 client, you might see
                     the s flag combined with t instead of the proper  T  flag
                     for this time-setting failure.)

              o      A  p  means  the  permissions are different and are being
                     updated to the sender's value (requires --perms).

              o      An o means the owner is different and is being updated to
                     the sender's value (requires --owner and super-user priv-
                     ileges).

              o      A g means the group is different and is being updated  to
                     the sender's value (requires --group and the authority to
                     set the group).

              o


                     o      A u|n|b indicates the following information:

                            u  means the access (use) time is different and is
                            being  updated  to  the  sender's  value (requires
                            --atimes)

                     o      n means the create time (newness) is different and
                            is  being  updated to the sender's value (requires
                            --crtimes)

                     o      b means that both the access and create times  are
                            being updated

              o      The a means that the ACL information is being changed.

              o      The  x  means  that the extended attribute information is
                     being changed.

              One other output is possible: when deleting files, the "%i" will
              output  the  string  "*deleting"  for  each  item  that is being
              removed (assuming that you are talking to a recent enough  rsync
              that  it  logs deletions instead of outputting them as a verbose
              message).

       --out-format=FORMAT
              This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync client outputs
              to  the user on a per-update basis.  The format is a text string
              containing embedded single-character escape  sequences  prefixed
              with  a  percent  (%)  character.  A default format of "%n%L" is
              assumed if either --info=name or -v is specified (this tells you
              just  the  name of the file and, if the item is a link, where it
              points).  For a full list of the possible escape characters, see
              the log format setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              Specifying  the  --out-format  option  implies  the  --info=name
              option, which will  mention  each  file,  dir,  etc.  that  gets
              updated  in  a  significant way (a transferred file, a recreated
              symlink/device, or a touched directory).  In  addition,  if  the
              itemize-changes  escape  (%i) is included in the string (e.g. if
              the --itemize-changes option was used),  the  logging  of  names
              increases  to  mention  any  item that is changed in any way (as
              long as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4).  See the  --item-
              ize-changes option for a description of the output of "%i".

              Rsync will output the out-format string prior to a file's trans-
              fer unless one of the transfer-statistic escapes  is  requested,
              in  which  case  the  logging  is  done at the end of the file's
              transfer.  When this late logging is in effect and --progress is
              also  specified,  rsync  will  also  output the name of the file
              being transferred prior to its progress  information  (followed,
              of course, by the out-format output).

       --log-file=FILE
              This  option  causes  rsync  to  log what it is doing to a file.
              This is similar to the logging that a daemon does,  but  can  be
              requested  for  the client side and/or the server side of a non-
              daemon transfer.  If specified as a client option, transfer log-
              ging  will  be  enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L".  See
              the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

              Here's a example command that requests the remote  side  to  log
              what is happening:

                  rsync -av --remote-option=--log-file=/tmp/rlog src/ dest/

              This  is  very  useful  if you need to debug why a connection is
              closing unexpectedly.

              See also the daemon version of the --log-file option.

       --log-file-format=FORMAT
              This allows you to specify exactly what  per-update  logging  is
              put into the file specified by the --log-file option (which must
              also be specified for this option to have any effect).   If  you
              specify  an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned in
              the log file.  For a list of the possible escape characters, see
              the log format setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              The  default  FORMAT  used  if  --log-file is specified and this
              option is not is '%i %n%L'.

              See also the daemon version of the --log-file-format option.

       --stats
              This tells rsync to print a verbose set  of  statistics  on  the
              file transfer, allowing you to tell how effective rsync's delta-
              transfer algorithm is for your data.  This option is  equivalent
              to  --info=stats2  if  combined  with  0  or  1  -v  options, or
              --info=stats3 if combined with 2 or more -v options.

              The current statistics are as follows:


              o      Number of files is the  count  of  all  "files"  (in  the
                     generic  sense),  which  includes  directories, symlinks,
                     etc.  The total count will  be  followed  by  a  list  of
                     counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero).  For exam-
                     ple: "(reg: 5, dir: 3, link:  2,  dev:  1,  special:  1)"
                     lists  the  totals  for  regular files, directories, sym-
                     links, devices, and special files.  If any of value is 0,
                     it is completely omitted from the list.

              o      Number of created files  is the count of how many "files"
                     (generic sense) were created  (as  opposed  to  updated).
                     The  total  count will be followed by a list of counts by
                     filetype (if the total is non-zero).

              o      Number of deleted files is the count of how many  "files"
                     (generic  sense)  were  deleted.  The total count will be
                     followed by a list of counts by filetype (if the total is
                     non-zero).   Note  that this line is only output if dele-
                     tions are in effect, and only if  protocol  31  is  being
                     used (the default for rsync 3.1.x).

              o      Number of regular files transferred  is the count of nor-
                     mal files that were updated  via  rsync's  delta-transfer
                     algorithm,  which  does  not include dirs, symlinks, etc.
                     Note that rsync 3.1.0 added the word "regular" into  this
                     heading.

              o      Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in the
                     transfer.  This does not count any size  for  directories
                     or  special files, but does include the size of symlinks.

              o      Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files
                     sizes for just the transferred files.

              o      Literal data  is  how  much unmatched file-update data we
                     had to send to  the  receiver  for  it  to  recreate  the
                     updated files.

              o      Matched data  is  how  much data the receiver got locally
                     when recreating the updated files.

              o      File list size is how big the file-list data was when the
                     sender sent it to the receiver.  This is smaller than the
                     in-memory size for the file list due to some  compressing
                     of duplicated data when rsync sends the list.

              o      File list generation time  is  the number of seconds that
                     the sender spent creating the file list.  This requires a
                     modern  rsync on the sending side for this to be present.

              o      File list transfer time is the number of seconds that the
                     sender spent sending the file list to the receiver.

              o      Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync
                     sent from the client side to the server side.

              o      Total bytes received is  the  count  of  all  non-message
                     bytes  that  rsync  received  by the client side from the
                     server side. "Non-message"  bytes  means  that  we  don't
                     count  the  bytes  for  a verbose message that the server
                     sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent.

       --8-bit-output, -8
              This tells rsync to leave all high-bit characters  unescaped  in
              the  output  instead  of  trying  to test them to see if they're
              valid in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones.   All
              control  characters (but never tabs) are always escaped, regard-
              less of this option's setting.

              The escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is to  output  a  literal
              backslash  (\)  and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3 octal dig-
              its.  For example, a newline would output as "\#012".  A literal
              backslash that is in a filename is not escaped unless it is fol-
              lowed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

       --human-readable, -h
              Output numbers in a more human-readable  format.   There  are  3
              possible levels:


              1.     output  numbers  with  a  separator between each set of 3
                     digits (either a comma or a period, depending on  if  the
                     decimal point is represented by a period or a comma).

              2.     output  numbers in units of 1000 (with a character suffix
                     for larger units -- see below).

              3.     output numbers in units of 1024.

              The default is human-readable level 1.  Each -h option increases
              the  level  by one.  You can take the level down to 0 (to output
              numbers as pure digits) by  specifying  the  --no-human-readable
              (--no-h) option.

              The  unit  letters  that  are  appended in levels 2 and 3 are: K
              (kilo), M (mega), G (giga), T (tera), or P (peta).  For example,
              a  1234567-byte  file would output as 1.23M in level-2 (assuming
              that a period is your local decimal point).

              Backward compatibility note: versions of rsync prior to 3.1.0 do
              not support human-readable level 1, and they default to level 0.
              Thus, specifying one or two -h options will behave in a compara-
              ble manner in old and new versions as long as you didn't specify
              a --no-h option prior to  one  or  more  -h  options.   See  the
              --list-only option for one difference.

       --partial
              By  default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file if
              the transfer is interrupted.  In some circumstances it  is  more
              desirable to keep partially transferred files.  Using the --par-
              tial option tells rsync to keep the partial  file  which  should
              make  a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much faster.

       --partial-dir=DIR
              This option modifies the behavior of the --partial option  while
              also  implying  that  it be enabled.  This enhanced partial-file
              method puts any partially transferred files into  the  specified
              DIR  instead  of writing the partial file out to the destination
              file.  On the next transfer, rsync will use a file found in this
              dir  as data to speed up the resumption of the transfer and then
              delete it after it has served its purpose.

              Note that if --whole-file is specified (or  implied),  any  par-
              tial-dir  files  that are found for a file that is being updated
              will simply be removed (since rsync  is  sending  files  without
              using rsync's delta-transfer algorithm).

              Rsync  will  create  the DIR if it is missing, but just the last
              dir -- not the whole path.  This makes it easy to use a relative
              path (such as "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial") to have rsync cre-
              ate the partial-directory in the  destination  file's  directory
              when  it  is  needed,  and then remove it again when the partial
              file is deleted.  Note that this directory removal is only  done
              for a relative pathname, as it is expected that an absolute path
              is to a directory that is reserved for partial-dir work.

              If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add
              an  exclude rule at the end of all your existing excludes.  This
              will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files that may exist
              on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion
              of partial-dir items on the receiving  side.   An  example:  the
              above  --partial-dir  option  would  add  the equivalent of this
              "perishable" exclude at the  end  of  any  other  filter  rules:
              -f '-p .rsync-partial/'

              If you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need to add
              your own exclude/hide/protect rule for the partial-dir because:


              1.     the auto-added rule may be ineffective at the end of your
                     other rules, or

              2.     you may wish to override rsync's exclude choice.

              For  instance,  if you want to make rsync clean-up any left-over
              partial-dirs that  may  be  lying  around,  you  should  specify
              --delete-after and add a "risk" filter rule, e.g.  -f 'R .rsync-
              partial/'. Avoid using --delete-before or --delete-during unless
              you  don't  need  rsync  to use any of the left-over partial-dir
              data during the current run.

              IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not  be  writable  by  other
              users or it is a security risk!  E.g. AVOID "/tmp"!

              You  can  also  set  the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR
              environment variable.  Setting this in the environment does  not
              force  --partial to be enabled, but rather it affects where par-
              tial files  go  when  --partial  is  specified.   For  instance,
              instead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along with --progress,
              you could set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in  your  environment
              and  then use the -P option to turn on the use of the .rsync-tmp
              dir for partial transfers.  The only times  that  the  --partial
              option does not look for this environment value are:


              1.     when  --inplace  was specified (since --inplace conflicts
                     with --partial-dir), and

              2.     when --delay-updates was specified (see below).

              When a modern rsync resumes the transfer of a file in  the  par-
              tial-dir,  that  partial file is now updated in-place instead of
              creating yet another tmp-file copy (so it maxes out  at  dest  +
              tmp  instead  of dest + partial + tmp).  This requires both ends
              of the transfer to be at least version 3.2.0.

              For the purposes of the  daemon-config's  "refuse options"  set-
              ting, --partial-dir does not imply --partial.  This is so that a
              refusal of the --partial option can  be  used  to  disallow  the
              overwriting  of destination files with a partial transfer, while
              still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

       --delay-updates
              This option puts the temporary file from each updated file  into
              a holding directory until the end of the transfer, at which time
              all the files are renamed into place in rapid succession.   This
              attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic.
              By default the files are placed into a directory named .~tmp~ in
              each  file's  destination directory, but if you've specified the
              --partial-dir option, that directory will be used instead.   See
              the  comments  in  the --partial-dir section for a discussion of
              how this .~tmp~ dir will be excluded from the transfer, and what
              you  can  do  if  you want rsync to cleanup old .~tmp~ dirs that
              might be lying around.  Conflicts with --inplace and --append.

              This option implies --no-inc-recursive since it needs  the  full
              file  list  in  memory in order to be able to iterate over it at
              the end.

              This option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit  per
              file  transferred)  and  also requires enough free disk space on
              the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated
              files.   Note  also  that you should not use an absolute path to
              --partial-dir unless:


              1.     there is no chance of any of the files  in  the  transfer
                     having the same name (since all the updated files will be
                     put into a single directory if the path is absolute), and

              2.     there  are  no  mount  points in the hierarchy (since the
                     delayed updates will fail if they can't be  renamed  into
                     place).

              See  also the "atomic-rsync" python script in the "support" sub-
              dir for an update algorithm that is even more  atomic  (it  uses
              --link-dest and a parallel hierarchy of files).

       --prune-empty-dirs, -m
              This option tells the receiving rsync to get rid of empty direc-
              tories from the file-list,  including  nested  directories  that
              have no non-directory children.  This is useful for avoiding the
              creation of a bunch of  useless  directories  when  the  sending
              rsync  is  recursively  scanning  a  hierarchy  of  files  using
              include/exclude/filter rules.

              Note that the use of transfer  rules,  such  as  the  --min-size
              option,  does  not affect what goes into the file list, and thus
              does not leave directories empty, even if none of the files in a
              directory match the transfer rule.

              Because the file-list is actually being pruned, this option also
              affects what directories get deleted when a  delete  is  active.
              However,  keep  in  mind that excluded files and directories can
              prevent existing items from being deleted due to an exclude both
              hiding  source  files and protecting destination files.  See the
              perishable filter-rule option for how to avoid this.

              You can prevent the pruning of certain  empty  directories  from
              the file-list by using a global "protect" filter.  For instance,
              this option would ensure that the directory "emptydir" was  kept
              in the file-list:

                  --filter 'protect emptydir/'

              Here's  an  example  that  copies all .pdf files in a hierarchy,
              only creating the necessary destination directories to hold  the
              .pdf  files, and ensures that any superfluous files and directo-
              ries in the destination are removed (note  the  hide  filter  of
              non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

                  rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */' src/ dest

              If  you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files, the
              more time-honored options of --include='*/' --exclude='*'  would
              work  fine  in place of the hide-filter (if that is more natural
              to you).

       --progress
              This  option  tells  rsync  to  print  information  showing  the
              progress  of the transfer.  This gives a bored user something to
              watch.  With a modern rsync  this  is  the  same  as  specifying
              --info=flist2,name,progress,  but any user-supplied settings for
              those      info      flags      takes      precedence      (e.g.
              --info=flist0 --progress).

              While  rsync  is  transferring  a  regular  file,  it  updates a
              progress line that looks like this:

                  782448  63%  110.64kB/s    0:00:04

              In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes  or
              63% of the sender's file, which is being reconstructed at a rate
              of 110.64 kilobytes per second, and the transfer will finish  in
              4 seconds if the current rate is maintained until the end.

              These  statistics  can  be  misleading if rsync's delta-transfer
              algorithm is in use.  For example, if the sender's file consists
              of the basis file followed by additional data, the reported rate
              will probably drop dramatically when the receiver  gets  to  the
              literal data, and the transfer will probably take much longer to
              finish than the receiver  estimated  as  it  was  finishing  the
              matched part of the file.

              When  the  file  transfer  finishes, rsync replaces the progress
              line with a summary line that looks like this:

                  1,238,099 100%  146.38kB/s    0:00:08  (xfr#5, to-chk=169/396)

              In this example, the file was 1,238,099 bytes long in total, the
              average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes
              per second over the 8 seconds that it took to complete,  it  was
              the 5th transfer of a regular file during the current rsync ses-
              sion, and there are 169 more files for the receiver to check (to
              see  if  they  are  up-to-date  or not) remaining out of the 396
              total files in the file-list.

              In an incremental recursion scan, rsync  won't  know  the  total
              number  of  files  in the file-list until it reaches the ends of
              the scan, but since it starts to transfer files during the scan,
              it  will  display a line with the text "ir-chk" (for incremental
              recursion check) instead of "to-chk" until  the  point  that  it
              knows  the  full size of the list, at which point it will switch
              to using "to-chk".  Thus, seeing "ir-chk" lets you know that the
              total count of files in the file list is still going to increase
              (and each time it does, the count of files left  to  check  will
              increase by the number of the files added to the list).

       -P     The -P option is equivalent to "--partial --progress".  Its pur-
              pose is to make it much easier to specify these two options  for
              a long transfer that may be interrupted.

              There  is also a --info=progress2 option that outputs statistics
              based on the whole transfer, rather than individual files.   Use
              this  flag without outputting a filename (e.g. avoid -v or spec-
              ify --info=name0) if you want to see how the transfer  is  doing
              without  scrolling  the  screen  with a lot of names. (You don't
              need  to  specify  the  --progress  option  in  order   to   use
              --info=progress2.)

              Finally, you can get an instant progress report by sending rsync
              a signal of either SIGINFO or SIGVTALRM.  On BSD systems, a SIG-
              INFO  is  generated  by typing a Ctrl+T (Linux doesn't currently
              support  a  SIGINFO  signal).   When  the  client-side   process
              receives one of those signals, it sets a flag to output a single
              progress report which is output when the current  file  transfer
              finishes  (so  it  may take a little time if a big file is being
              handled when the signal arrives).   A  filename  is  output  (if
              needed)  followed  by  the  --info=progress2  format of progress
              info.  If you don't know which of the 3 rsync processes  is  the
              client  process,  it's  OK to signal all of them (since the non-
              client processes ignore the signal).

              CAUTION: sending SIGVTALRM to an older  rsync  (pre-3.2.0)  will
              kill it.

       --password-file=FILE
              This  option  allows  you to provide a password for accessing an
              rsync daemon via a file or via standard input if FILE is -.  The
              file  should  contain  just  the password on the first line (all
              other lines are ignored).  Rsync will exit with an error if FILE
              is  world  readable  or if a root-run rsync command finds a non-
              root-owned file.

              This option does not supply a password to a remote shell  trans-
              port  such  as  ssh; to learn how to do that, consult the remote
              shell's documentation.  When accessing an rsync daemon  using  a
              remote  shell  as  the  transport,  this  option only comes into
              effect after the remote shell finishes its authentication  (i.e.
              if  you  have  also  specified a password in the daemon's config
              file).

       --early-input=FILE
              This option allows rsync to send up to 5K of data to the  "early
              exec"  script on its stdin.  One possible use of this data is to
              give the script a secret that can be used to mount an  encrypted
              filesystem (which you should unmount in the the "post-xfer exec"
              script).

              The daemon must be at least version 3.2.1.

       --list-only
              This option will cause the source files to be listed instead  of
              transferred.   This  option  is  inferred  if  there is a single
              source arg and no destination specified, so its main uses are:


              1.     to turn a copy command that includes  a  destination  arg
                     into a file-listing command, or

              2.     to be able to specify more than one source arg.  Note: be
                     sure to include the destination.

              CAUTION: keep in mind that a source  arg  with  a  wild-card  is
              expanded by the shell into multiple args, so it is never safe to
              try to list such an arg without using this option. For example:

                  rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/

              Starting with rsync 3.1.0, the sizes output by  --list-only  are
              affected  by  the --human-readable option.  By default they will
              contain digit separators, but higher levels of readability  will
              output  the sizes with unit suffixes.  Note also that the column
              width for the size output has increased from 11 to 14 characters
              for all human-readable levels.  Use --no-h if you want just dig-
              its in the sizes, and the old column width of 11 characters.

              Compatibility note: when requesting a remote  listing  of  files
              from  an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or older, you may encounter
              an error if you  ask  for  a  non-recursive  listing.   This  is
              because  a  file  listing implies the --dirs option w/o --recur-
              sive, and older rsyncs don't have that option.   To  avoid  this
              problem,  either specify the --no-dirs option (if you don't need
              to expand a directory's  content),  or  turn  on  recursion  and
              exclude the content of subdirectories: -r --exclude='/*/*'.

       --bwlimit=RATE
              This  option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for
              the data sent over the socket, specified in  units  per  second.
              The  RATE value can be suffixed with a string to indicate a size
              multiplier, and may be a fractional value (e.g. --bwlimit=1.5m).
              If  no  suffix  is specified, the value will be assumed to be in
              units of 1024 bytes (as if "K" or "KiB" had been appended).  See
              the  --max-size  option  for  a description of all the available
              suffixes.  A value of 0 specifies no limit.

              For backward-compatibility  reasons,  the  rate  limit  will  be
              rounded  to  the  nearest KiB unit, so no rate smaller than 1024
              bytes per second is possible.

              Rsync writes data over the socket in  blocks,  and  this  option
              both  limits the size of the blocks that rsync writes, and tries
              to keep the average transfer rate at the requested limit.   Some
              burstiness  may  be  seen where rsync writes out a block of data
              and then sleeps to bring the average rate into compliance.

              Due to the internal buffering of data, the --progress option may
              not  be  an  accurate  reflection  on how fast the data is being
              sent.  This is because some files can show up as  being  rapidly
              sent  when the data is quickly buffered, while other can show up
              as very slow when the flushing  of  the  output  buffer  occurs.
              This may be fixed in a future version.

              See also the daemon version of the --bwlimit option.

       --stop-after=MINS, (--time-limit=MINS)
              This  option tells rsync to stop copying when the specified num-
              ber of minutes has elapsed.

              For maximal flexibility, rsync does not communicate this  option
              to  the remote rsync since it is usually enough that one side of
              the connection quits as specified.  This allows the option's use
              even  when only one side of the connection supports it.  You can
              tell the remote side about the time limit using  --remote-option
              (-M), should the need arise.

              The --time-limit version of this option is deprecated.

       --stop-at=y-m-dTh:m
              This option tells rsync to stop copying when the specified point
              in time has been reached. The date & time can be fully specified
              in   a   numeric   format  of  year-month-dayThour:minute  (e.g.
              2000-12-31T23:59) in the local timezone.  You may choose to sep-
              arate the date numbers using slashes instead of dashes.

              The  value can also be abbreviated in a variety of ways, such as
              specifying a 2-digit year and/or leaving off various values.  In
              all cases, the value will be taken to be the next possible point
              in time where the supplied information matches.   If  the  value
              specifies  the  current time or a past time, rsync exits with an
              error.

              For example, "1-30" specifies the next January 30th (at midnight
              local  time),  "14:00"  specifies the next 2 P.M., "1" specifies
              the next 1st of the month at midnight, "31" specifies  the  next
              month where we can stop on its 31st day, and ":59" specifies the
              next 59th minute after the hour.

              For maximal flexibility, rsync does not communicate this  option
              to  the remote rsync since it is usually enough that one side of
              the connection quits as specified.  This allows the option's use
              even  when only one side of the connection supports it.  You can
              tell the remote side about the time limit using  --remote-option
              (-M),  should  the  need arise.  Do keep in mind that the remote
              host may have a different default timezone than your local host.

       --fsync
              Cause  the receiving side to fsync each finished file.  This may
              slow down the transfer, but can help to provide  peace  of  mind
              when updating critical files.

       --write-batch=FILE
              Record  a  file  that  can later be applied to another identical
              destination with --read-batch.  See the "BATCH MODE" section for
              details, and also the --only-write-batch option.

              This  option  overrides the negotiated checksum & compress lists
              and always negotiates a choice based on old-school  md5/md4/zlib
              choices.   If you want a more modern choice, use the --checksum-
              choice (--cc) and/or --compress-choice (--zc) options.

       --only-write-batch=FILE
              Works like --write-batch, except that no updates are made on the
              destination  system  when  creating  the  batch.   This lets you
              transport the changes to the destination system via  some  other
              means and then apply the changes via --read-batch.

              Note  that you can feel free to write the batch directly to some
              portable media: if this media fills to capacity before  the  end
              of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer to the
              destination and repeat the whole process to get the rest of  the
              changes  (as long as you don't mind a partially updated destina-
              tion system while the multi-update cycle is happening).

              Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a
              remote  system  because  this  allows  the  batched  data  to be
              diverted from the sender into the batch file without  having  to
              flow  over the wire to the receiver (when pulling, the sender is
              remote, and thus can't write the batch).

       --read-batch=FILE
              Apply all of the changes stored in FILE, a file previously  gen-
              erated  by  --write-batch.  If FILE is -, the batch data will be
              read from standard input.  See  the  "BATCH  MODE"  section  for
              details.

       --protocol=NUM
              Force  an older protocol version to be used.  This is useful for
              creating a batch file that is compatible with an  older  version
              of  rsync.   For instance, if rsync 2.6.4 is being used with the
              --write-batch option, but rsync 2.6.3 is what will  be  used  to
              run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when
              creating the batch file to force the older protocol  version  to
              be  used in the batch file (assuming you can't upgrade the rsync
              on the reading system).

       --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC
              Rsync can convert filenames between character  sets  using  this
              option.   Using a CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync to look up the
              default character-set via the locale setting.  Alternately,  you
              can  fully specify what conversion to do by giving a local and a
              remote   charset   separated   by   a   comma   in   the   order
              --iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE,  e.g.  --iconv=utf8,iso88591.   This order
              ensures that the option will stay the same whether you're  push-
              ing  or  pulling  files.   Finally, you can specify either --no-
              iconv or a CONVERT_SPEC of "-" to turn off any conversion.   The
              default setting of this option is site-specific, and can also be
              affected via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable.

              For a list of what charset names your local iconv  library  sup-
              ports, you can run "iconv --list".

              If you specify the --protect-args (-s) option, rsync will trans-
              late the filenames you specify  on  the  command-line  that  are
              being  sent  to  the  remote  host.   See  also the --files-from
              option.

              Note that rsync does not do any conversion of  names  in  filter
              files  (including  include/exclude  files).   It is up to you to
              ensure that you're specifying matching rules that can  match  on
              both sides of the transfer.  For instance, you can specify extra
              include/exclude rules if there are filename differences  on  the
              two sides that need to be accounted for.

              When  you  pass an --iconv option to an rsync daemon that allows
              it, the daemon uses the charset specified in its "charset"  con-
              figuration  parameter regardless of the remote charset you actu-
              ally pass.  Thus, you may feel free to specify  just  the  local
              charset for a daemon transfer (e.g.  --iconv=utf8).

       --ipv4, -4 or --ipv6, -6
              Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating sockets or running
              ssh.  This affects sockets that rsync has direct  control  over,
              such  as  the  outgoing socket when directly contacting an rsync
              daemon, as well as the forwarding of the -4 or -6 option to  ssh
              when  rsync  can  deduce  that  ssh  is being used as the remote
              shell.  For other remote  shells  you'll  need  to  specify  the
              "--rsh SHELL -4"  option  directly  (or  whatever IPv4/IPv6 hint
              options it uses).

              See also the daemon version of these options.

              If rsync was compiled  without  support  for  IPv6,  the  --ipv6
              option  will  have  no  effect.  The rsync --version output will
              contain "no IPv6" if is the case.

       --checksum-seed=NUM
              Set the checksum seed to the integer NUM.  This 4 byte  checksum
              seed is included in each block and MD4 file checksum calculation
              (the more modern MD5 file  checksums  don't  use  a  seed).   By
              default  the  checksum  seed  is  generated  by  the  server and
              defaults to the current time().  This option is used  to  set  a
              specific  checksum  seed,  which is useful for applications that
              want repeatable block checksums, or in the case where  the  user
              wants  a  more  random  checksum  seed.  Setting NUM to 0 causes
              rsync to use the default of time() for checksum seed.



DAEMON OPTIONS

       The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:


       --daemon
              This tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon  you
              start  running  may  be accessed using an rsync client using the
              host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

              If standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that it  is
              being  run  via inetd, otherwise it will detach from the current
              terminal and become a background daemon.  The daemon  will  read
              the  config  file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by a client
              and respond to requests accordingly.

              See the rsyncd.conf(5) manpage for more details.

       --address=ADDRESS
              By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when run as a
              daemon  with  the  --daemon option.  The --address option allows
              you to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to  bind  to.
              This  makes  virtual  hosting  possible  in conjunction with the
              --config option.

              See also the address global option in  the  rsyncd.conf  manpage
              and the client version of the --address option.

       --bwlimit=RATE
              This  option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for
              the data the daemon sends over the socket.  The client can still
              specify  a  smaller --bwlimit value, but no larger value will be
              allowed.

              See the client version of the --bwlimit option  for  some  extra
              details.

       --config=FILE
              This  specifies an alternate config file than the default.  This
              is only relevant when --daemon is  specified.   The  default  is
              /etc/rsyncd.conf  unless  the  daemon  is  running over a remote
              shell program and the remote user is not the super-user; in that
              case  the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory (typi-
              cally $HOME).

       --dparam=OVERRIDE, -M
              This option can be used to set a  daemon-config  parameter  when
              starting  up  rsync  in daemon mode.  It is equivalent to adding
              the parameter at the end of the global  settings  prior  to  the
              first module's definition.  The parameter names can be specified
              without spaces, if you so desire.  For instance:

                  rsync --daemon -M pidfile=/path/rsync.pid

       --no-detach
              When running as a daemon, this option  instructs  rsync  to  not
              detach  itself  and become a background process.  This option is
              required when running as a service on Cygwin, and  may  also  be
              useful when rsync is supervised by a program such as daemontools
              or AIX's System Resource Controller.  --no-detach is also recom-
              mended  when  rsync is run under a debugger.  This option has no
              effect if rsync is run from inetd or sshd.

       --port=PORT
              This specifies an alternate TCP port number for  the  daemon  to
              listen on rather than the default of 873.

              See  also  the  client version of the --port option and the port
              global setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

       --log-file=FILE
              This option tells the rsync daemon to  use  the  given  log-file
              name instead of using the "log file" setting in the config file.

              See also the client version of the --log-file option.

       --log-file-format=FORMAT
              This option tells the rsync  daemon  to  use  the  given  FORMAT
              string  instead  of using the "log format" setting in the config
              file.  It also enables "transfer logging" unless the  string  is
              empty, in which case transfer logging is turned off.

              See also the client version of the --log-file-format option.

       --sockopts
              This  overrides  the  socket options  setting in the rsyncd.conf
              file and has the same syntax.

              See also the client version of the --sockopts option.

       --verbose, -v
              This option increases the amount of information the daemon  logs
              during  its  startup phase.  After the client connects, the dae-
              mon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the
              client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's con-
              fig section.

              See also the client version of the --verbose option.

       --ipv4, -4 or --ipv6, -6
              Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming sock-
              ets  that  the  rsync daemon will use to listen for connections.
              One of these options may be required in older versions of  Linux
              to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if you see an "address
              already in use" error when nothing else is using the  port,  try
              specifying --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting the daemon).

              See also the client version of these options.

              If  rsync  was  compiled  without  support  for IPv6, the --ipv6
              option will have no effect.   The  rsync --version  output  will
              contain "no IPv6" if is the case.

       --help, -h
              When  specified after --daemon, print a short help page describ-
              ing the options available for starting an rsync daemon.



FILTER RULES

       The filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files to  trans-
       fer  (include)  and  which  files  to skip (exclude).  The rules either
       directly specify include/exclude patterns or  they  specify  a  way  to
       acquire  more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a file).

       As the list of files/directories to transfer  is  built,  rsync  checks
       each  name  to  be transferred against the list of include/exclude pat-
       terns in turn, and the first matching pattern is acted on: if it is  an
       exclude pattern, then that file is skipped; if it is an include pattern
       then that filename is not skipped; if no  matching  pattern  is  found,
       then the filename is not skipped.

       Aside:  because  the interactions of filter rules can be complex, it is
       useful to use the --debug=FILTER option if things  aren't  working  the
       way  you expect.  The level-1 output (the default if no level number is
       specified) mentions the filter rule that is first matched by each  file
       in  the  transfer.   It also warns if a filter rule has trailing white-
       space.  The level-2 output mentions a lot more filter events, including
       the  definition  of  each rule and the handling of per-directory filter
       files.

       Rsync builds an ordered list of filter rules as specified on  the  com-
       mand-line.  Filter rules have the following syntax:

           RULE [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME]
           RULE,MODIFIERS [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME]

       You  have  your  choice  of  using  either short or long RULE names, as
       described below.  If you use a short-named rule, the ',' separating the
       RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.  The PATTERN or FILENAME that fol-
       lows (when present) must come after either a single space or an  under-
       score (_).  Here are the available rule prefixes:


       exclude, '-'
              specifies an exclude pattern.

       include, '+'
              specifies an include pattern.

       merge, '.'
              specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.

       dir-merge, ':'
              specifies a per-directory merge-file.

       hide, 'H'
              specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer.

       show, 'S'
              files that match the pattern are not hidden.

       protect, 'P'
              specifies a pattern for protecting files from deletion.

       risk, 'R'
              files that match the pattern are not protected.

       clear, '!'
              clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

       When  rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as are
       whole-line comments that start with a '#' (filename rules that  contain
       a hash are unaffected).

       Note  that  the --include & --exclude command-line options do not allow
       the full range of rule parsing as described above --  they  only  allow
       the  specification  of  include  / exclude patterns plus a "!" token to
       clear the list (and the normal comment parsing when rules are read from
       a  file).   If a pattern does not begin with "- " (dash, space) or "+ "
       (plus, space), then the rule will be interpreted as  if  "+ "  (for  an
       include  option)  or  "- " (for an exclude option) were prefixed to the
       string.  A --filter option, on the  other  hand,  must  always  contain
       either a short or long rule name at the start of the rule.

       Note  also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take one
       rule/pattern each.  To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options on
       the  command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option, or
       the --include-from / --exclude-from options.



INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERN RULES

       You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the "+",
       "-",  etc.  filter  rules  (as  introduced  in the FILTER RULES section
       above).  The include/exclude rules  each  specify  a  pattern  that  is
       matched  against  the  names  of  the files that are going to be trans-
       ferred.  These patterns can take several forms:


       o      if the pattern starts with a / then it is anchored to a particu-
              lar  spot  in  the  hierarchy  of files, otherwise it is matched
              against the end of the pathname.  This is similar to a leading ^
              in  regular  expressions.  Thus /foo would match a name of "foo"
              at either the "root of the transfer" (for a global rule)  or  in
              the  merge-file's  directory  (for  a  per-directory  rule).  An
              unqualified foo would match a name of "foo" anywhere in the tree
              because  the algorithm is applied recursively from the top down;
              it behaves as if each path component gets a turn  at  being  the
              end  of the filename.  Even the unanchored "sub/foo" would match
              at any point in the hierarchy where a "foo" was found  within  a
              directory   named   "sub".    See   the   section  on  ANCHORING
              INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for a full discussion of how to specify
              a pattern that matches at the root of the transfer.

       o      if  the  pattern  ends with a / then it will only match a direc-
              tory, not a regular file, symlink, or device.

       o      rsync chooses between doing a simple string match  and  wildcard
              matching  by checking if the pattern contains one of these three
              wildcard characters: '*', '?', and '[' .

       o      a '*' matches any path component, but it stops at slashes.

       o      use '**' to match anything, including slashes.

       o      a '?' matches any character except a slash (/).

       o      a  '['  introduces  a  character  class,  such   as   [a-z]   or
              [[:alpha:]].

       o      in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be used to escape a wild-
              card character, but it is matched literally  when  no  wildcards
              are  present.   This means that there is an extra level of back-
              slash removal when a pattern contains wildcard  characters  com-
              pared to a pattern that has none.  e.g. if you add a wildcard to
              "foo\bar" (which matches the backslash) you would  need  to  use
              "foo\\bar*" to avoid the "\b" becoming just "b".

       o      if  the  pattern  contains  a / (not counting a trailing /) or a
              "**", then it is matched against the  full  pathname,  including
              any  leading directories.  If the pattern doesn't contain a / or
              a "**", then it is matched only against the final  component  of
              the  filename.  (Remember  that  the algorithm is applied recur-
              sively so "full filename" can actually be any portion of a  path
              from the starting directory on down.)

       o      a  trailing  "dir_name/***" will match both the directory (as if
              "dir_name/" had been specified) and everything in the  directory
              (as  if  "dir_name/**"  had  been specified).  This behavior was
              added in version 2.6.7.

       Note that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied  by
       -a),  every  subdir  component  of every path is visited left to right,
       with each directory having a chance for exclusion before  its  content.
       In  this  way  include/exclude  patterns are applied recursively to the
       pathname of each node in the filesystem's tree (those inside the trans-
       fer).  The exclude patterns short-circuit the directory traversal stage
       as rsync finds the files to send.

       For instance, to include "/foo/bar/baz",  the  directories  "/foo"  and
       "/foo/bar"  must not be excluded.  Excluding one of those parent direc-
       tories prevents the examination of its  content,  cutting  off  rsync's
       recursion into those paths and rendering the include for "/foo/bar/baz"
       ineffectual (since rsync can't match something it  never  sees  in  the
       cut-off section of the directory hierarchy).

       The  concept  path  exclusion  is  particularly  important when using a
       trailing '*' rule.  For instance, this won't work:

           + /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
           + /file-is-included
           - *

       This fails because the parent directory "some" is excluded by  the  '*'
       rule,  so  rsync  never  visits  any  of  the  files  in  the "some" or
       "some/path" directories.  One solution is to ask for all directories in
       the  hierarchy  to  be  included by using a single rule: "+ */" (put it
       somewhere before the "- *" rule), and perhaps  use  the  --prune-empty-
       dirs option.  Another solution is to add specific include rules for all
       the parent dirs that need to be visited.  For  instance,  this  set  of
       rules works fine:

           + /some/
           + /some/path/
           + /some/path/this-file-is-found
           + /file-also-included
           - *

       Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:


       o      "- *.o" would exclude all names matching *.o

       o      "- /foo"  would  exclude  a file (or directory) named foo in the
              transfer-root directory

       o      "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo

       o      "- /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is at  two
              levels  below  a directory named foo in the transfer-root direc-
              tory

       o      "- /foo/**/bar" would exclude any file named  bar  two  or  more
              levels  below  a directory named foo in the transfer-root direc-
              tory

       o      The combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include  all
              directories  and  C  source files but nothing else (see also the
              --prune-empty-dirs option)

       o      The combination of  "+ foo/",  "+ foo/bar.c",  and  "- *"  would
              include  only the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo directory
              must be explicitly included or it would be excluded by the "*")

       The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-":


       o      A / specifies that the include/exclude rule  should  be  matched
              against the absolute pathname of the current item.  For example,
              "-/ /etc/passwd" would exclude the  passwd  file  any  time  the
              transfer  was  sending  files from the "/etc" directory, and "-/
              subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is in a dir named
              "subdir",  even if "foo" is at the root of the current transfer.

       o      A ! specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if the
              pattern fails to match.  For instance, "-! */" would exclude all
              non-directories.

       o      A C is used to indicate that all the  global  CVS-exclude  rules
              should  be  inserted  as  excludes in place of the "-C".  No arg
              should follow.

       o      An s is used to indicate that the rule applies  to  the  sending
              side.   When  a rule affects the sending side, it prevents files
              from being transferred.  The default is for  a  rule  to  affect
              both sides unless --delete-excluded was specified, in which case
              default rules become sender-side only.  See also  the  hide  (H)
              and  show (S) rules, which are an alternate way to specify send-
              ing-side includes/excludes.

       o      An r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the  receiving
              side.  When a rule affects the receiving side, it prevents files
              from being deleted.  See the s modifier for more info.  See also
              the  protect  (P) and risk (R) rules, which are an alternate way
              to specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

       o      A p indicates that a rule is  perishable,  meaning  that  it  is
              ignored  in  directories  that are being deleted.  For instance,
              the --cvs-exclude  (-C)  option's  default  rules  that  exclude
              things  like  "CVS" and "*.o" are marked as perishable, and will
              not prevent a directory that was  removed  on  the  source  from
              being deleted on the destination.

       o      An  x  indicates  that  a  rule  affects  xattr  names  in xattr
              copy/delete  operations  (and  is  thus  ignored  when  matching
              file/dir  names).   If  no xattr-matching rules are specified, a
              default xattr filtering rule is used (see the --xattrs  option).



MERGE-FILE FILTER RULES

       You can merge whole files into your filter rules by specifying either a
       merge (.) or a dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in  the  FILTER
       RULES section above).

       There  are  two kinds of merged files -- single-instance ('.') and per-
       directory (':').  A single-instance merge file is read  one  time,  and
       its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the "."
       rule.  For per-directory merge files, rsync will scan  every  directory
       that  it  traverses  for  the named file, merging its contents when the
       file exists into the current list of inherited rules.  These per-direc-
       tory  rule  files must be created on the sending side because it is the
       sending side that is being scanned for the available files to transfer.
       These  rule files may also need to be transferred to the receiving side
       if you want them to affect what files don't get deleted (see PER-DIREC-
       TORY RULES AND DELETE below).

       Some examples:

           merge /etc/rsync/default.rules
           . /etc/rsync/default.rules
           dir-merge .per-dir-filter
           dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
           :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:


       o      A  - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude pat-
              terns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A + specifies that the file should consist of only include  pat-
              terns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A  C  is a way to specify that the file should be read in a CVS-
              compatible manner.  This turns on 'n', 'w', and  '-',  but  also
              allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified.  If no file-
              name is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed.

       o      A e will exclude the merge-file name  from  the  transfer;  e.g.
              "dir-merge,e  .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".

       o      An n specifies that the rules are not inherited  by  subdirecto-
              ries.

       o      A  w  specifies  that  the  rules  are  word-split on whitespace
              instead of the normal line-splitting.  This also turns off  com-
              ments.   Note: the space that separates the prefix from the rule
              is treated specially, so "- foo + bar" is parsed  as  two  rules
              (assuming that prefix-parsing wasn't also disabled).

       o      You  may  also  specify  any of the modifiers for the "+" or "-"
              rules (above) in order to have the rules that are read  in  from
              the  file  default to having that modifier set (except for the !
              modifier, which would not be useful).  For  instance,  "merge,-/
              .excl"  would  treat  the  contents  of  .excl  as absolute-path
              excludes, while "dir-merge,s .filt" and ":sC"  would  each  make
              all  their  per-directory  rules apply only on the sending side.
              If the merge rule specifies sides to affect (via the s or r mod-
              ifier  or  both),  then  the  rules in the file must not specify
              sides (via a modifier or a rule prefix such as hide).

       Per-directory rules are inherited in all subdirectories of  the  direc-
       tory  where  the merge-file was found unless the 'n' modifier was used.
       Each subdirectory's rules are prefixed to the  inherited  per-directory
       rules  from its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher priority
       than the inherited rules.   The  entire  set  of  dir-merge  rules  are
       grouped  together in the spot where the merge-file was specified, so it
       is possible to override dir-merge rules via a rule that  got  specified
       earlier in the list of global rules.  When the list-clearing rule ("!")
       is read from a per-directory file, it only clears the  inherited  rules
       for the current merge file.

       Another  way  to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file from being
       inherited is to anchor it with a leading slash.  Anchored  rules  in  a
       per-directory merge-file are relative to the merge-file's directory, so
       a pattern "/foo" would only match the file "foo" in the directory where
       the dir-merge filter file was found.

       Here's   an   example  filter  file  which  you'd  specify  via  --fil-
       ter=". file":

           merge /home/user/.global-filter
           - *.gz
           dir-merge .rules
           + *.[ch]
           - *.o
           - foo*

       This will merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter  file  at
       the  start of the list and also turns the ".rules" filename into a per-
       directory filter file.  All rules read in prior to  the  start  of  the
       directory  scan follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a leading slash
       matches at the root of the transfer).

       If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent
       directory of the first transfer directory, rsync will scan all the par-
       ent dirs from that starting point to the  transfer  directory  for  the
       indicated  per-directory  file.   For instance, here is a common filter
       (see -F):

           --filter=': /.rsync-filter'

       That rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all  direc-
       tories  from the root down through the parent directory of the transfer
       prior to the start of the normal directory scan  of  the  file  in  the
       directories  that  are  sent  as  a part of the transfer. (Note: for an
       rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module's "path".)

       Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

           rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
           rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
           rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir

       The first two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in  "/"  and
       "/src"   before  the  normal  scan  begins  looking  for  the  file  in
       "/src/path" and its subdirectories.  The last command avoids  the  par-
       ent-dir  scan  and  only  looks  for  the ".rsync-filter" files in each
       directory that is a part of the transfer.

       If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns,
       you  should use the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the .cvsig-
       nore file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner.  You can use this  to
       affect  where  the  --cvs-exclude  (-C)  option's inclusion of the per-
       directory .cvsignore file gets placed into your rules  by  putting  the
       ":C" wherever you like in your filter rules.  Without this, rsync would
       add the dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of  all  your
       other  rules (giving it a lower priority than your command-line rules).
       For example:

           cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b
           + foo.o
           :C
           - *.old
           EOT
           rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b

       Both of the above rsync commands are identical.  Each  one  will  merge
       all the per-directory .cvsignore rules in the middle of the list rather
       than at the end.  This allows their dir-specific rules to supersede the
       rules  that  follow  the  :C  instead  of being subservient to all your
       rules.  To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of
       exclusions,  the contents of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of $CVSIG-
       NORE) you should omit the -C command-line option and instead  insert  a
       "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g.  "--filter=-C".



LIST-CLEARING FILTER RULE

       You  can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!" filter
       rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).  The  "current"
       list  is  either  the  global list of rules (if the rule is encountered
       while parsing the filter options)  or  a  set  of  per-directory  rules
       (which  are  inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory can use
       this to clear out the parent's rules).



ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS

       As mentioned earlier, global include/exclude patterns are  anchored  at
       the "root of the transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which
       are anchored at the merge-file's  directory).   If  you  think  of  the
       transfer  as  a  subtree  of  names  that are being sent from sender to
       receiver, the transfer-root is where the tree starts to  be  duplicated
       in  the  destination  directory.  This root governs where patterns that
       start with a / match.

       Because the matching is relative to  the  transfer-root,  changing  the
       trailing  slash on a source path or changing your use of the --relative
       option affects the path you need to use in your matching  (in  addition
       to  changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on the destination
       host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

       Let's say that we want to match two source files, one with an  absolute
       path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".
       Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

           Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
           +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
           +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
           Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
           Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

           Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
           +/- pattern: /foo/bar               (note missing "me")
           +/- pattern: /bar/baz               (note missing "you")
           Target file: /dest/foo/bar
           Target file: /dest/bar/baz

           Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
           +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar       (note full path)
           +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz      (ditto)
           Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
           Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz

           Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest
           +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar      (starts at specified path)
           +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz     (ditto)
           Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
           Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

       The  easiest  way to see what name you should filter is to just look at
       the output when using --verbose and put a / in front of the  name  (use
       the --dry-run option if you're not yet ready to copy any files).



PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE

       Without  a  delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the
       sending side, so you can feel free to exclude  the  merge  files  them-
       selves without affecting the transfer.  To make this easy, the 'e' mod-
       ifier adds this exclude for you, as seen in these two  equivalent  com-
       mands:

           rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest
           rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest

       However,  if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you want
       some files to be excluded from being deleted, you'll need  to  be  sure
       that  the  receiving side knows what files to exclude.  The easiest way
       is to include the per-directory merge files in  the  transfer  and  use
       --delete-after,  because  this ensures that the receiving side gets all
       the same exclude rules as the sending side before it  tries  to  delete
       anything:

           rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest

       However, if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need
       to either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the com-
       mand  line),  or  you'll  need to maintain your own per-directory merge
       files on the receiving side.  An example of the first is  this  (assume
       that the remote .rules files exclude themselves):

           rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
              --delete host:src/dir /dest

       In  the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of the
       transfer, but (on the sending side) the rules are  subservient  to  the
       rules  merged  from  the .rules files because they were specified after
       the per-directory merge rule.

       In one final example, the remote side is  excluding  the  .rsync-filter
       files from the transfer, but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files
       to control what gets deleted on the receiving side.  To do this we must
       specifically  exclude the per-directory merge files (so that they don't
       get deleted) and then put rules into the local files  to  control  what
       else should not get deleted.  Like one of these commands:

           rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
               host:src/dir /dest
           rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest



BATCH MODE

       Batch mode can be used to apply the same set of updates to many identi-
       cal systems.  Suppose one has a tree which is replicated on a number of
       hosts.  Now suppose some changes have been made to this source tree and
       those changes need to be propagated to the other hosts.  In order to do
       this  using  batch  mode,  rsync  is run with the write-batch option to
       apply the changes made to the source tree to  one  of  the  destination
       trees.   The  write-batch  option causes the rsync client to store in a
       "batch file" all  the  information  needed  to  repeat  this  operation
       against other, identical destination trees.

       Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status,
       checksum, and data block generation more than once when updating multi-
       ple  destination  trees.   Multicast transport protocols can be used to
       transfer the batch update files in parallel  to  many  hosts  at  once,
       instead of sending the same data to every host individually.

       To  apply  the  recorded changes to another destination tree, run rsync
       with the read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch file,
       and the destination tree.  Rsync updates the destination tree using the
       information stored in the batch file.

       For your convenience, a script file is also  created  when  the  write-
       batch  option is used: it will be named the same as the batch file with
       ".sh" appended.  This script file contains a command-line suitable  for
       updating a destination tree using the associated batch file.  It can be
       executed using a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell, optionally  passing  in
       an  alternate  destination  tree pathname which is then used instead of
       the original destination path.  This is  useful  when  the  destination
       tree  path  on the current host differs from the one used to create the
       batch file.

       Examples:

           $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
           $ scp foo* remote:
           $ ssh remote ./foo.sh /bdest/dir/

           $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/
           $ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo

       In  these  examples,  rsync  is  used  to   update   /adest/dir/   from
       /source/dir/  and the information to repeat this operation is stored in
       "foo" and "foo.sh".  The host "remote" is then updated with the batched
       data  going into the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences between the
       two examples reveals some of the flexibility you have in how  you  deal
       with batches:


       o      The first example shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be
              local -- you can push or pull data to/from a remote  host  using
              either  the  remote-shell  syntax  or  rsync  daemon  syntax, as
              desired.

       o      The first example uses the created  "foo.sh"  file  to  get  the
              right  rsync  options when running the read-batch command on the
              remote host.

       o      The second example reads the batch data via  standard  input  so
              that  the  batch  file  doesn't  need to be copied to the remote
              machine first.  This example avoids the foo.sh script because it
              needed to use a modified --read-batch option, but you could edit
              the script file if you wished to make use of it  (just  be  sure
              that  no  other  option is trying to use standard input, such as
              the --exclude-from=- option).

       Caveats:

       The read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is  updating
       to  be  identical  to  the destination tree that was used to create the
       batch update fileset.  When a difference between the destination  trees
       is  encountered  the  update  might be discarded with a warning (if the
       file appears to be  up-to-date  already)  or  the  file-update  may  be
       attempted  and  then, if the file fails to verify, the update discarded
       with an error.  This means that it should be safe  to  re-run  a  read-
       batch  operation  if the command got interrupted.  If you wish to force
       the batched-update to always be attempted regardless of the file's size
       and  date,  use  the  -I  option (when reading the batch).  If an error
       occurs, the destination tree will probably be in  a  partially  updated
       state.  In that case, rsync can be used in its regular (non-batch) mode
       of operation to fix up the destination tree.

       The rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as  new  as
       the  one used to generate the batch file.  Rsync will die with an error
       if the protocol version in the batch file is too  new  for  the  batch-
       reading  rsync  to handle.  See also the --protocol option for a way to
       have the creating rsync generate a batch file that an older  rsync  can
       understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in version 2.6.3, so
       mixing versions older than that with newer versions will not work.)

       When reading a batch file,  rsync  will  force  the  value  of  certain
       options  to  match the data in the batch file if you didn't set them to
       the same as the batch-writing command.  Other options can (and  should)
       be  changed.   For  instance  --write-batch  changes  to  --read-batch,
       --files-from is dropped, and  the  --filter  /  --include  /  --exclude
       options are not needed unless one of the --delete options is specified.

       The  code  that  creates  the  BATCH.sh  file   transforms   any   fil-
       ter/include/exclude  options  into  a single list that is appended as a
       "here" document to the shell script file.  An  advanced  user  can  use
       this  to  modify  the  exclude list if a change in what gets deleted by
       --delete is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just use
       the  shell  script  as  an easy way to run the appropriate --read-batch
       command for the batched data.

       The original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the  latest
       version uses a new implementation.



SYMBOLIC LINKS

       Three  basic  behaviors  are  possible when rsync encounters a symbolic
       link in the source directory.

       By default, symbolic links are  not  transferred  at  all.   A  message
       "skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

       If  --links  is  specified,  then  symlinks  are  added to the transfer
       (instead of being noisily ignored), and  the  default  handling  is  to
       recreate them with the same target on the destination.  Note that --ar-
       chive implies --links.

       If --copy-links is specified, then symlinks are "collapsed" by  copying
       their referent, rather than the symlink.

       Rsync  can  also  distinguish  "safe"  and "unsafe" symbolic links.  An
       example where this might be used is a web site mirror  that  wishes  to
       ensure  that  the rsync module that is copied does not include symbolic
       links to /etc/passwd in the public section of the site.  Using  --copy-
       unsafe-links  will  cause any links to be copied as the file they point
       to on the destination.  Using --safe-links will cause unsafe  links  to
       be  omitted  by  the  receiver.   (Note  that you must specify or imply
       --links for --safe-links to have any effect.)

       Symbolic links are considered unsafe  if  they  are  absolute  symlinks
       (start  with  /),  empty,  or if they contain enough ".." components to
       ascend from the top of the transfer.

       Here's a summary of how the symlink options are interpreted.  The  list
       is in order of precedence, so if your combination of options isn't men-
       tioned, use the first line that is a complete subset of your options:


       --copy-links
              Turn all symlinks into normal files and directories (leaving  no
              symlinks in the transfer for any other options to affect).

       --copy-dirlinks
              Turn just symlinks to directories into real directories, leaving
              all other symlinks to be handled as described below.

       --links --copy-unsafe-links
              Turn all unsafe symlinks into files and  create  all  safe  sym-
              links.

       --copy-unsafe-links
              Turn  all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily skip all safe sym-
              links.

       --links --safe-links
              The receiver skips creating unsafe symlinks found in the  trans-
              fer and creates the safe ones.

       --links
              Create all symlinks.

       For  the  effect  of --munge-links, see the discussion in that option's
       section.

       Note that the --keep-dirlinks option does not effect  symlinks  in  the
       transfer  but instead affects how rsync treats a symlink to a directory
       that already exists on the receiving side.  See that  option's  section
       for a warning.



DIAGNOSTICS

       Rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem a little cryp-
       tic.  The one that seems to cause the most confusion is "protocol  ver-
       sion mismatch -- is your shell clean?".

       This  message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote shell
       facility producing unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync  is  using
       for  its  transport.   The  way to diagnose this problem is to run your
       remote shell like this:

           ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

       then look at out.dat.  If everything is working correctly then  out.dat
       should  be a zero length file.  If you are getting the above error from
       rsync then you will probably find that out.dat contains  some  text  or
       data.   Look  at the contents and try to work out what is producing it.
       The most common cause is incorrectly configured shell  startup  scripts
       (such  as  .cshrc  or .profile) that contain output statements for non-
       interactive logins.

       If you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try  specify-
       ing  the  -vv  option.   At this level of verbosity rsync will show why
       each individual file is included or excluded.



EXIT VALUES

       o      0 - Success

       o      1 - Syntax or usage error

       o      2 - Protocol incompatibility

       o      3 - Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

       o


              o      4 - Requested action not supported. Either:

                     an attempt was made to manipulate 64-bit files on a plat-
                     form that cannot support them

              o      an  option  was specified that is supported by the client
                     and not by the server

       o      5 - Error starting client-server protocol

       o      6 - Daemon unable to append to log-file

       o      10 - Error in socket I/O

       o      11 - Error in file I/O

       o      12 - Error in rsync protocol data stream

       o      13 - Errors with program diagnostics

       o      14 - Error in IPC code

       o      20 - Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       o      21 - Some error returned by waitpid()

       o      22 - Error allocating core memory buffers

       o      23 - Partial transfer due to error

       o      24 - Partial transfer due to vanished source files

       o      25 - The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       o      30 - Timeout in data send/receive

       o      35 - Timeout waiting for daemon connection



ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

       CVSIGNORE
              The CVSIGNORE environment variable supplements any  ignore  pat-
              terns  in  .cvsignore  files.   See the --cvs-exclude option for
              more details.

       RSYNC_ICONV
              Specify a default --iconv setting using this  environment  vari-
              able. First supported in 3.0.0.

       RSYNC_OLD_ARGS
              Specify a "1" if you want the --old-args option to be enabled by
              default, a "2" (or more) if you want it to  be  enabled  in  the
              repeated-option state, or a "0" to make sure that it is disabled
              by default. When this environment variable is set to a  non-zero
              value, it supersedes the RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS variable.

              This variable is ignored if --old-args, --no-old-args, or --pro-
              tect-args is specified on the command line.

              First supported in 3.2.4.

       RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS
              Specify a non-zero numeric value if you want the  --protect-args
              option  to  be  enabled by default, or a zero value to make sure
              that it is disabled by default.

              This variable is ignored if  --protect-args,  --no-protect-args,
              or --old-args is specified on the command line.

              First  supported  in 3.1.0.  Starting in 3.2.4, this variable is
              ignored if RSYNC_OLD_ARGS is set to a non-zero value.

       RSYNC_RSH
              This environment variable allows you  to  override  the  default
              shell used as the transport for rsync.  Command line options are
              permitted after the command name, just  as  in  the  --rsh  (-e)
              option.

       RSYNC_PROXY
              This  environment  variable  allows  you  to redirect your rsync
              client to use a web proxy when connecting to  an  rsync  daemon.
              You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

       RSYNC_PASSWORD
              This  environment variable allows you to set the password for an
              rsync daemon connection, which avoids the password prompt.  Note
              that this does not supply a password to a remote shell transport
              such as ssh (consult its documentation for how to do that).

       USER or LOGNAME
              The USER or LOGNAME environment variables are used to  determine
              the  default  username  sent  to an rsync daemon.  If neither is
              set, the username defaults to "nobody".  If both are  set,  USER
              takes precedence.

       RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR
              This  environment  variable specifies the directory to use for a
              --partial transfer without implying that  partial  transfers  be
              enabled.  See the --partial-dir option for full details.

       RSYNC_COMPRESS_LIST
              This  environment  variable allows you to customize the negotia-
              tion of the compression algorithm  by  specifying  an  alternate
              order  or a reduced list of names.  Use the command rsync --ver-
              sion to see the available compression names.  See the --compress
              option for full details.

       RSYNC_CHECKSUM_LIST
              This  environment  variable allows you to customize the negotia-
              tion of the checksum algorithm by specifying an alternate  order
              or  a reduced list of names.  Use the command rsync --version to
              see the available checksum  names.   See  the  --checksum-choice
              option for full details.

       RSYNC_MAX_ALLOC
              This  environment  variable sets an allocation maximum as if you
              had used the --max-alloc option.

       RSYNC_PORT
              This environment variable is not read by rsync, but  is  instead
              set  in  its  sub-environment  when  rsync is running the remote
              shell in combination with a daemon connection.   This  allows  a
              script such as rsync-ssl to be able to know the port number that
              the user specified on the command line.

       HOME   This environment variable is used to  find  the  user's  default
              .cvsignore file.

       RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG
              This  environment variable is mainly used in debug setups to set
              the program to use when making a daemon  connection.   See  CON-
              NECTING TO AN RSYNC DAEMON for full details.

       RSYNC_SHELL
              This  environment variable is mainly used in debug setups to set
              the program to use to run the program specified  by  [RSYNC_CON-
              NECT_PROG].  See CONNECTING TO AN RSYNC DAEMON for full details.



FILES

       /etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf



SEE ALSO

       rsync(1)



BUGS

       o      Times are transferred as *nix time_t values.

       o      When transferring to FAT filesystems rsync may  re-sync  unmodi-
              fied files.  See the comments on the --modify-window option.

       o      File permissions, devices, etc. are transferred as native numer-
              ical values.

       o      See also the comments on the --delete option.

       Please report bugs! See the web site at https://rsync.samba.org/.



VERSION

       This manpage is current for version 3.2.4 of rsync.



INTERNAL OPTIONS

       The options --server and --sender are used  internally  by  rsync,  and
       should  never  be  typed  by  a  user under normal circumstances.  Some
       awareness of these options may be needed in certain scenarios, such  as
       when  setting  up  a  login  that  can  only run an rsync command.  For
       instance, the support directory of the rsync distribution has an  exam-
       ple  script named rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used with a
       restricted ssh login.



CREDITS

       Rsync is distributed under the GNU General  Public  License.   See  the
       file COPYING for details.

       An  rsync  web site is available at https://rsync.samba.org/.  The site
       includes an FAQ-O-Matic which may cover questions  unanswered  by  this
       manual page.

       The rsync github project is https://github.com/WayneD/rsync.

       We  would  be  delighted  to  hear  from  you if you like this program.
       Please contact the mailing-list at rsync@lists.samba.org.

       This program uses the excellent zlib  compression  library  written  by
       Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler.



THANKS

       Special  thanks  go  out  to: John Van Essen, Matt McCutchen, Wesley W.
       Terpstra, David Dykstra, Jos Backus, Sebastian  Krahmer,  Martin  Pool,
       and our gone-but-not-forgotten compadre, J.W. Schultz.

       Thanks also to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen Roth-
       well and David Bell.  I've probably missed some people, my apologies if
       I have.



AUTHOR

       Rsync  was  originally  written  by Andrew Tridgell and Paul Mackerras.
       Many people have later contributed to it. It is currently maintained by
       Wayne Davison.

       Mailing   lists   for   support   and   development  are  available  at
       https://lists.samba.org/.



rsync 3.2.4                       15 Apr 2022                         rsync(1)

rsync 3.2.4 - Generated Thu Apr 21 07:44:07 CDT 2022
© manpagez.com 2000-2022
Individual documents may contain additional copyright information.