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rrdgraph_examples(1)                rrdtool               rrdgraph_examples(1)


       rrdgraph_examples - Examples for rrdtool graph


       rrdtool graph /home/httpd/html/test.png --imgformat PNG

       followed by any of the examples below


       For your convenience some of the commands are explained here by using
       detailed examples. They are not always cut-and-paste ready because
       comments are intermixed with the examples.


   Data with multiple resolutions
           --end now --start end-120000s --width 400
           LINE1:ds0a#0000FF:"default resolution\l"
           LINE1:ds0b#00CCFF:"resolution 1800 seconds per interval\l"
           LINE1:ds0c#FF00FF:"resolution 7200 seconds per interval\l"

   Nicely formatted legend section

       Note: consolidation occurs here.


       Note: 10 spaces to move text to the right

           COMMENT:"          "

       Note: the column titles have to be as wide as the columns

           COMMENT:"Maximum    "
           COMMENT:"Average    "
           COMMENT:"Minimum    "

           COMMENT:"95th percentile\l"
           AREA:ds0bits#00C000:"Inbound "
           GPRINT:ds0max:"%6.2lf %Sbps"
           GPRINT:ds0avg:"%6.2lf %Sbps"
           GPRINT:ds0min:"%6.2lf %Sbps"
           GPRINT:ds0pct:"%6.2lf %Sbps\l"
           GPRINT:ds1max:"%6.2lf %Sbps"
           GPRINT:ds1avg:"%6.2lf %Sbps"
           GPRINT:ds1min:"%6.2lf %Sbps"
           GPRINT:ds1pct:"%6.2lf %Sbps\l"

   Offsetting a line on the y-axis
       Depending on your needs you can do this in two ways:

       o   Offset the data, then graph this


           Note: this will also influence any other command that uses "data"

               LINE1:data#FF0000:"Data with offset"

       o   Graph the original data, with an offset


           Note: no color in the first line so it is not visible


           Note: the second line gets stacked on top of the first one

               LINE1:mydata#FF0000:"Data with offset":STACK

   Drawing dashed lines
       Also works for HRULE and VRULE

       o   default style: - - - - -

               LINE1:data#FF0000:"dashed line":dashes

       o   more fancy style with offset: - -  --- -  --- -

               LINE1:data#FF0000:"another dashed line":dashes=15,5,5,10:dash-offset=10

   Time ranges
           Last four weeks: --start end-4w --end 00:00
           January 2001:    --start 20010101 --end start+31d
           January 2001:    --start 20010101 --end 20010201
           Last hour:       --start end-1h
           Last 24 hours:   <nothing at all>
           Yesterday:       --end 00:00

   Viewing the current and previous week together
           --end now --start end-1w

       Shift the data forward by one week (604800 seconds)

           [ more of the usual VDEF and CDEF stuff if you like ]
           AREA:lastweek#0000FF:Last\ week
           LINE1:thisweek#FF0000:This\ week

   Aberrant Behaviour Detection
       If the specialized function RRAs exist for aberrant behavior detection,
       they can be used to generate the graph of a time series with confidence
       bands and failures.

          rrdtool graph example.png \
                 DEF:obs=monitor.rrd:ifOutOctets:AVERAGE \
                 DEF:pred=monitor.rrd:ifOutOctets:HWPREDICT \
                 DEF:dev=monitor.rrd:ifOutOctets:DEVPREDICT \
                 DEF:fail=monitor.rrd:ifOutOctets:FAILURES \
                 TICK:fail#ffffa0:1.0:"Failures\: Average bits out" \
                 CDEF:scaledobs=obs,8,* \
                 CDEF:upper=pred,dev,2,*,+ \
                 CDEF:lower=pred,dev,2,*,- \
                 CDEF:scaledupper=upper,8,* \
                 CDEF:scaledlower=lower,8,* \
                 LINE2:scaledobs#0000ff:"Average bits out" \
                 LINE1:scaledupper#ff0000:"Upper Confidence Bound: Average bits out" \
                 LINE1:scaledlower#ff0000:"Lower Confidence Bound: Average bits out"

       This example generates a graph of the data series in blue (LINE2 with
       the scaledobs virtual data source), confidence bounds in red
       (scaledupper and scaledlower virtual data sources), and potential
       failures (i.e. potential aberrant behavior) marked by vertical yellow
       lines (the fail data source).

       The raw data comes from an AVERAGE RRA, the finest resolution of the
       observed time series (one consolidated data point per primary data
       point). The predicted (or smoothed) values are stored in the HWPREDICT
       RRA. The predicted deviations (think standard deviation) values are
       stored in the DEVPREDICT RRA. Finally, the FAILURES RRA contains
       indicators, with 1 denoting a potential failure.

       All of the data is rescaled to bits (instead of Octets) by multiplying
       by 8.  The confidence bounds are computed by an offset of 2 deviations
       both above and below the predicted values (the CDEFs upper and lower).
       Vertical lines indicated potential failures are graphed via the TICK
       graph element, which converts non-zero values in an RRA into tick
       marks. Here an axis-fraction argument of 1.0 means the tick marks span
       the entire y-axis, and hence become vertical lines on the graph.

       The choice of 2 deviations (a scaling factor) matches the default used
       internally by the FAILURES RRA. If the internal value is changed (see
       rrdtune), this graphing command should be changed to be consistent.

       A note on data reduction:

       The rrdtool graph command is designed to plot data at a specified
       temporal resolution, regardless of the actually resolution of the data
       in the RRD file.  This can present a problem for the specialized
       consolidation functions which maintain a one-to-one mapping between
       primary data points and consolidated data points. If a graph insists on
       viewing the contents of these RRAs on a coarser temporal scale, the
       graph command tries to do something intelligent, but the confidence
       bands and failures no longer have the same meaning and may be


       rrdgraph gives an overview of how rrdtool graph works.  rrdgraph_data
       describes DEF,CDEF and VDEF in detail.  rrdgraph_rpn describes the RPN
       language used in the xDEF statements.  rrdgraph_graph page describes
       all the graph and print functions.


       Program by Tobias Oetiker <>

       This manual page by Alex van den Bogaerdt <> with
       corrections and/or additions by several people

1.7.1                             2019-02-04              rrdgraph_examples(1)

rrdtool 1.7.1 - Generated Sat Jun 29 11:28:48 CDT 2019
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