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PERLINTERN(1pm)        Perl Programmers Reference Guide        PERLINTERN(1pm)




NAME

       perlintern - autogenerated documentation of purely internal Perl
       functions


DESCRIPTION

       This file is the autogenerated documentation of functions in the Perl
       interpreter that are documented using Perl's internal documentation
       format but are not marked as part of the Perl API.  In other words,
       they are not for use in extensions!

       It has the same sections as perlapi, though some may be empty.


AV Handling

       "AvFILLp"
           If the array "av" is empty, this returns -1; otherwise it returns
           the maximum value of the indices of all the array elements which
           are currently defined in "av".  It does not handle magic, hence the
           "p" private indication in its name.

            SSize_t  AvFILLp(AV* av)


Callback Functions

       There are only public API items currently in Callback Functions


Casting

       There are only public API items currently in Casting


Character case changing

       There are only public API items currently in Character case changing


Character classification

       There are only public API items currently in Character classification


Compiler and Preprocessor information

       There are only public API items currently in Compiler and Preprocessor
       information


Compiler directives

       There are only public API items currently in Compiler directives


Compile-time scope hooks

       "BhkENTRY"
           NOTE: "BhkENTRY" is experimental and may change or be removed
           without notice.

           Return an entry from the BHK structure.  "which" is a preprocessor
           token indicating which entry to return.  If the appropriate flag is
           not set this will return "NULL".  The type of the return value
           depends on which entry you ask for.

            void *  BhkENTRY(BHK *hk, which)

       "BhkFLAGS"
           NOTE: "BhkFLAGS" is experimental and may change or be removed
           without notice.

           Return the BHK's flags.

            U32  BhkFLAGS(BHK *hk)

       "CALL_BLOCK_HOOKS"
           NOTE: "CALL_BLOCK_HOOKS" is experimental and may change or be
           removed without notice.

           Call all the registered block hooks for type "which".  "which" is a
           preprocessing token; the type of "arg" depends on "which".

            void  CALL_BLOCK_HOOKS(which, arg)


Concurrency

       There are only public API items currently in Concurrency


COP Hint Hashes

       There are only public API items currently in COP Hint Hashes


Custom Operators

       "core_prototype"
           This function assigns the prototype of the named core function to
           "sv", or to a new mortal SV if "sv" is "NULL".  It returns the
           modified "sv", or "NULL" if the core function has no prototype.
           "code" is a code as returned by "keyword()".  It must not be equal
           to 0.

            SV *  core_prototype(SV *sv, const char *name, const int code,
                                 int * const opnum)


CV Handling

       "CvWEAKOUTSIDE"
           Each CV has a pointer, "CvOUTSIDE()", to its lexically enclosing CV
           (if any).  Because pointers to anonymous sub prototypes are stored
           in "&" pad slots, it is a possible to get a circular reference,
           with the parent pointing to the child and vice-versa.  To avoid the
           ensuing memory leak, we do not increment the reference count of the
           CV pointed to by "CvOUTSIDE" in the one specific instance that the
           parent has a "&" pad slot pointing back to us.  In this case, we
           set the "CvWEAKOUTSIDE" flag in the child.  This allows us to
           determine under what circumstances we should decrement the refcount
           of the parent when freeing the child.

           There is a further complication with non-closure anonymous subs
           (i.e. those that do not refer to any lexicals outside that sub).
           In this case, the anonymous prototype is shared rather than being
           cloned.  This has the consequence that the parent may be freed
           while there are still active children, e.g.,

               BEGIN { $a = sub { eval '$x' } }

           In this case, the BEGIN is freed immediately after execution since
           there are no active references to it: the anon sub prototype has
           "CvWEAKOUTSIDE" set since it's not a closure, and $a points to the
           same CV, so it doesn't contribute to BEGIN's refcount either.  When
           $a is executed, the "eval '$x'" causes the chain of "CvOUTSIDE"s to
           be followed, and the freed BEGIN is accessed.

           To avoid this, whenever a CV and its associated pad is freed, any
           "&" entries in the pad are explicitly removed from the pad, and if
           the refcount of the pointed-to anon sub is still positive, then
           that child's "CvOUTSIDE" is set to point to its grandparent.  This
           will only occur in the single specific case of a non-closure anon
           prototype having one or more active references (such as $a above).

           One other thing to consider is that a CV may be merely undefined
           rather than freed, eg "undef &foo".  In this case, its refcount may
           not have reached zero, but we still delete its pad and its "CvROOT"
           etc.  Since various children may still have their "CvOUTSIDE"
           pointing at this undefined CV, we keep its own "CvOUTSIDE" for the
           time being, so that the chain of lexical scopes is unbroken.  For
           example, the following should print 123:

               my $x = 123;
               sub tmp { sub { eval '$x' } }
               my $a = tmp();
               undef &tmp;
               print  $a->();

            bool  CvWEAKOUTSIDE(CV *cv)

       "docatch"
           Check for the cases 0 or 3 of cur_env.je_ret, only used inside an
           eval context.

           0 is used as continue inside eval,

           3 is used for a die caught by an inner eval - continue inner loop

           See cop.h: je_mustcatch, when set at any runlevel to TRUE, means
           eval ops must establish a local jmpenv to handle exception traps.

            OP*  docatch(Perl_ppaddr_t firstpp)


Debugging

       "free_c_backtrace"
           Deallocates a backtrace received from get_c_backtrace.

            void  free_c_backtrace(Perl_c_backtrace* bt)

       "get_c_backtrace"
           Collects the backtrace (aka "stacktrace") into a single linear
           malloced buffer, which the caller must "Perl_free_c_backtrace()".

           Scans the frames back by "depth + skip", then drops the "skip"
           innermost, returning at most "depth" frames.

            Perl_c_backtrace*  get_c_backtrace(int max_depth, int skip)

       "PL_DBsingle"
           When Perl is run in debugging mode, with the -d switch, this SV is
           a boolean which indicates whether subs are being single-stepped.
           Single-stepping is automatically turned on after every step.  This
           is the C variable which corresponds to Perl's $DB::single variable.
           See "PL_DBsub".

           On threaded perls, each thread has an independent copy of this
           variable; each initialized at creation time with the current value
           of the creating thread's copy.

            SV *  PL_DBsingle

       "PL_DBsub"
           When Perl is run in debugging mode, with the -d switch, this GV
           contains the SV which holds the name of the sub being debugged.
           This is the C variable which corresponds to Perl's $DB::sub
           variable.  See "PL_DBsingle".

           On threaded perls, each thread has an independent copy of this
           variable; each initialized at creation time with the current value
           of the creating thread's copy.

            GV *  PL_DBsub

       "PL_DBtrace"
           Trace variable used when Perl is run in debugging mode, with the -d
           switch.  This is the C variable which corresponds to Perl's
           $DB::trace variable.  See "PL_DBsingle".

           On threaded perls, each thread has an independent copy of this
           variable; each initialized at creation time with the current value
           of the creating thread's copy.

            SV *  PL_DBtrace


Display functions

       There are only public API items currently in Display functions


Embedding and Interpreter Cloning

       "cv_dump"
           dump the contents of a CV

            void  cv_dump(const CV *cv, const char *title)

       "cv_forget_slab"
           When a CV has a reference count on its slab ("CvSLABBED"), it is
           responsible for making sure it is freed.  (Hence, no two CVs should
           ever have a reference count on the same slab.)  The CV only needs
           to reference the slab during compilation.  Once it is compiled and
           "CvROOT" attached, it has finished its job, so it can forget the
           slab.

            void  cv_forget_slab(CV *cv)

       "do_dump_pad"
           Dump the contents of a padlist

            void  do_dump_pad(I32 level, PerlIO *file, PADLIST *padlist,
                              int full)

       "pad_alloc_name"
           Allocates a place in the currently-compiling pad (via "pad_alloc"
           in perlapi) and then stores a name for that entry.  "name" is
           adopted and becomes the name entry; it must already contain the
           name string.  "typestash" and "ourstash" and the "padadd_STATE"
           flag get added to "name".  None of the other processing of
           "pad_add_name_pvn" in perlapi is done.  Returns the offset of the
           allocated pad slot.

            PADOFFSET  pad_alloc_name(PADNAME *name, U32 flags, HV *typestash,
                                      HV *ourstash)

       "pad_block_start"
           Update the pad compilation state variables on entry to a new block.

            void  pad_block_start(int full)

       "pad_check_dup"
           Check for duplicate declarations: report any of:

                * a 'my' in the current scope with the same name;
                * an 'our' (anywhere in the pad) with the same name and the
                  same stash as 'ourstash'

           "is_our" indicates that the name to check is an "our" declaration.

            void  pad_check_dup(PADNAME *name, U32 flags, const HV *ourstash)

       "pad_findlex"
           Find a named lexical anywhere in a chain of nested pads.  Add fake
           entries in the inner pads if it's found in an outer one.

           Returns the offset in the bottom pad of the lex or the fake lex.
           "cv" is the CV in which to start the search, and seq is the current
           "cop_seq" to match against.  If "warn" is true, print appropriate
           warnings.  The "out_"* vars return values, and so are pointers to
           where the returned values should be stored.  "out_capture", if non-
           null, requests that the innermost instance of the lexical is
           captured; "out_name" is set to the innermost matched pad name or
           fake pad name; "out_flags" returns the flags normally associated
           with the "PARENT_FAKELEX_FLAGS" field of a fake pad name.

           Note that "pad_findlex()" is recursive; it recurses up the chain of
           CVs, then comes back down, adding fake entries as it goes.  It has
           to be this way because fake names in anon prototypes have to store
           in "xpadn_low" the index into the parent pad.

            PADOFFSET  pad_findlex(const char *namepv, STRLEN namelen,
                                   U32 flags, const CV* cv, U32 seq, int warn,
                                   SV** out_capture, PADNAME** out_name,
                                   int *out_flags)

       "pad_fixup_inner_anons"
           For any anon CVs in the pad, change "CvOUTSIDE" of that CV from
           "old_cv" to "new_cv" if necessary.  Needed when a newly-compiled CV
           has to be moved to a pre-existing CV struct.

            void  pad_fixup_inner_anons(PADLIST *padlist, CV *old_cv,
                                        CV *new_cv)

       "pad_free"
           Free the SV at offset po in the current pad.

            void  pad_free(PADOFFSET po)

       "pad_leavemy"
           Cleanup at end of scope during compilation: set the max seq number
           for lexicals in this scope and warn of any lexicals that never got
           introduced.

            OP *  pad_leavemy()

       "padlist_dup"
           Duplicates a pad.

            PADLIST *  padlist_dup(PADLIST *srcpad, CLONE_PARAMS *param)

       "padname_dup"
           Duplicates a pad name.

            PADNAME *  padname_dup(PADNAME *src, CLONE_PARAMS *param)

       "padnamelist_dup"
           Duplicates a pad name list.

            PADNAMELIST *  padnamelist_dup(PADNAMELIST *srcpad,
                                           CLONE_PARAMS *param)

       "pad_push"
           Push a new pad frame onto the padlist, unless there's already a pad
           at this depth, in which case don't bother creating a new one.  Then
           give the new pad an @_ in slot zero.

            void  pad_push(PADLIST *padlist, int depth)

       "pad_reset"
           Mark all the current temporaries for reuse

            void  pad_reset()

       "pad_setsv"
           Set the value at offset "po" in the current (compiling or
           executing) pad.  Use the macro "PAD_SETSV()" rather than calling
           this function directly.

            void  pad_setsv(PADOFFSET po, SV* sv)

       "pad_sv"
           Get the value at offset "po" in the current (compiling or
           executing) pad.  Use macro "PAD_SV" instead of calling this
           function directly.

            SV*  pad_sv(PADOFFSET po)

       "pad_swipe"
           Abandon the tmp in the current pad at offset "po" and replace with
           a new one.

            void  pad_swipe(PADOFFSET po, bool refadjust)


Errno

       "dSAVEDERRNO"
           Declare variables needed to save "errno" and any operating system
           specific error number.

            void  dSAVEDERRNO

       "dSAVE_ERRNO"
           Declare variables needed to save "errno" and any operating system
           specific error number, and save them for optional later restoration
           by "RESTORE_ERRNO".

            void  dSAVE_ERRNO

       "RESTORE_ERRNO"
           Restore "errno" and any operating system specific error number that
           was saved by "dSAVE_ERRNO" or "RESTORE_ERRNO".

            void  RESTORE_ERRNO

       "SAVE_ERRNO"
           Save "errno" and any operating system specific error number for
           optional later restoration by "RESTORE_ERRNO".  Requires
           "dSAVEDERRNO" or "dSAVE_ERRNO" in scope.

            void  SAVE_ERRNO

       "SETERRNO"
           Set "errno", and on VMS set "vaxc$errno".

            void  SETERRNO(int errcode, int vmserrcode)


Exception Handling (simple) Macros

       There are only public API items currently in Exception Handling
       (simple) Macros


Filesystem configuration values

       There are only public API items currently in Filesystem configuration
       values


Floating point configuration values

       There are only public API items currently in Floating point
       configuration values


Formats

       There are only public API items currently in Formats


General Configuration

       There are only public API items currently in General Configuration


Global Variables

       There are only public API items currently in Global Variables


GV Handling

       "gv_stashsvpvn_cached"
           Returns a pointer to the stash for a specified package, possibly
           cached.  Implements both ""gv_stashpvn"" in perlapi and
           ""gv_stashsv"" in perlapi.

           Requires one of either "namesv" or "namepv" to be non-null.

           If the flag "GV_CACHE_ONLY" is set, return the stash only if found
           in the cache; see ""gv_stashpvn"" in perlapi for details on the
           other "flags".

           Note it is strongly preferred for "namesv" to be non-null, for
           performance reasons.

            HV*  gv_stashsvpvn_cached(SV *namesv, const char* name,
                                      U32 namelen, I32 flags)

       "gv_try_downgrade"
           NOTE: "gv_try_downgrade" is experimental and may change or be
           removed without notice.

           If the typeglob "gv" can be expressed more succinctly, by having
           something other than a real GV in its place in the stash, replace
           it with the optimised form.  Basic requirements for this are that
           "gv" is a real typeglob, is sufficiently ordinary, and is only
           referenced from its package.  This function is meant to be used
           when a GV has been looked up in part to see what was there, causing
           upgrading, but based on what was found it turns out that the real
           GV isn't required after all.

           If "gv" is a completely empty typeglob, it is deleted from the
           stash.

           If "gv" is a typeglob containing only a sufficiently-ordinary
           constant sub, the typeglob is replaced with a scalar-reference
           placeholder that more compactly represents the same thing.

            void  gv_try_downgrade(GV* gv)


Hook manipulation

       There are only public API items currently in Hook manipulation


HV Handling

       "hv_ename_add"
           Adds a name to a stash's internal list of effective names.  See
           "hv_ename_delete".

           This is called when a stash is assigned to a new location in the
           symbol table.

            void  hv_ename_add(HV *hv, const char *name, U32 len, U32 flags)

       "hv_ename_delete"
           Removes a name from a stash's internal list of effective names.  If
           this is the name returned by "HvENAME", then another name in the
           list will take its place ("HvENAME" will use it).

           This is called when a stash is deleted from the symbol table.

            void  hv_ename_delete(HV *hv, const char *name, U32 len,
                                  U32 flags)

       "refcounted_he_chain_2hv"
           Generates and returns a "HV *" representing the content of a
           "refcounted_he" chain.  "flags" is currently unused and must be
           zero.

            HV *  refcounted_he_chain_2hv(const struct refcounted_he *c,
                                          U32 flags)

       "refcounted_he_fetch_pv"
           Like "refcounted_he_fetch_pvn", but takes a nul-terminated string
           instead of a string/length pair.

            SV *  refcounted_he_fetch_pv(const struct refcounted_he *chain,
                                         const char *key, U32 hash, U32 flags)

       "refcounted_he_fetch_pvn"
           Search along a "refcounted_he" chain for an entry with the key
           specified by "keypv" and "keylen".  If "flags" has the
           "REFCOUNTED_HE_KEY_UTF8" bit set, the key octets are interpreted as
           UTF-8, otherwise they are interpreted as Latin-1.  "hash" is a
           precomputed hash of the key string, or zero if it has not been
           precomputed.  Returns a mortal scalar representing the value
           associated with the key, or &PL_sv_placeholder if there is no value
           associated with the key.

            SV *  refcounted_he_fetch_pvn(const struct refcounted_he *chain,
                                          const char *keypv, STRLEN keylen,
                                          U32 hash, U32 flags)

       "refcounted_he_fetch_pvs"
           Like "refcounted_he_fetch_pvn", but takes a literal string instead
           of a string/length pair, and no precomputed hash.

            SV *  refcounted_he_fetch_pvs(const struct refcounted_he *chain,
                                          "key", U32 flags)

       "refcounted_he_fetch_sv"
           Like "refcounted_he_fetch_pvn", but takes a Perl scalar instead of
           a string/length pair.

            SV *  refcounted_he_fetch_sv(const struct refcounted_he *chain,
                                         SV *key, U32 hash, U32 flags)

       "refcounted_he_free"
           Decrements the reference count of a "refcounted_he" by one.  If the
           reference count reaches zero the structure's memory is freed, which
           (recursively) causes a reduction of its parent "refcounted_he"'s
           reference count.  It is safe to pass a null pointer to this
           function: no action occurs in this case.

            void  refcounted_he_free(struct refcounted_he *he)

       "refcounted_he_inc"
           Increment the reference count of a "refcounted_he".  The pointer to
           the "refcounted_he" is also returned.  It is safe to pass a null
           pointer to this function: no action occurs and a null pointer is
           returned.

            struct refcounted_he *  refcounted_he_inc(
                                                     struct refcounted_he *he)

       "refcounted_he_new_pv"
           Like "refcounted_he_new_pvn", but takes a nul-terminated string
           instead of a string/length pair.

            struct refcounted_he *  refcounted_he_new_pv(
                                                 struct refcounted_he *parent,
                                                 const char *key, U32 hash,
                                                 SV *value, U32 flags)

       "refcounted_he_new_pvn"
           Creates a new "refcounted_he".  This consists of a single key/value
           pair and a reference to an existing "refcounted_he" chain (which
           may be empty), and thus forms a longer chain.  When using the
           longer chain, the new key/value pair takes precedence over any
           entry for the same key further along the chain.

           The new key is specified by "keypv" and "keylen".  If "flags" has
           the "REFCOUNTED_HE_KEY_UTF8" bit set, the key octets are
           interpreted as UTF-8, otherwise they are interpreted as Latin-1.
           "hash" is a precomputed hash of the key string, or zero if it has
           not been precomputed.

           "value" is the scalar value to store for this key.  "value" is
           copied by this function, which thus does not take ownership of any
           reference to it, and later changes to the scalar will not be
           reflected in the value visible in the "refcounted_he".  Complex
           types of scalar will not be stored with referential integrity, but
           will be coerced to strings.  "value" may be either null or
           &PL_sv_placeholder to indicate that no value is to be associated
           with the key; this, as with any non-null value, takes precedence
           over the existence of a value for the key further along the chain.

           "parent" points to the rest of the "refcounted_he" chain to be
           attached to the new "refcounted_he".  This function takes ownership
           of one reference to "parent", and returns one reference to the new
           "refcounted_he".

            struct refcounted_he *  refcounted_he_new_pvn(
                                                 struct refcounted_he *parent,
                                                 const char *keypv,
                                                 STRLEN keylen, U32 hash,
                                                 SV *value, U32 flags)

       "refcounted_he_new_pvs"
           Like "refcounted_he_new_pvn", but takes a literal string instead of
           a string/length pair, and no precomputed hash.

            struct refcounted_he *  refcounted_he_new_pvs(
                                                 struct refcounted_he *parent,
                                                 "key", SV *value, U32 flags)

       "refcounted_he_new_sv"
           Like "refcounted_he_new_pvn", but takes a Perl scalar instead of a
           string/length pair.

            struct refcounted_he *  refcounted_he_new_sv(
                                                 struct refcounted_he *parent,
                                                 SV *key, U32 hash, SV *value,
                                                 U32 flags)


Input/Output

       "PL_last_in_gv"
           The GV which was last used for a filehandle input operation.
           ("<FH>")

           On threaded perls, each thread has an independent copy of this
           variable; each initialized at creation time with the current value
           of the creating thread's copy.

            GV*  PL_last_in_gv

       "PL_ofsgv"
           The glob containing the output field separator - "*," in Perl
           space.

           On threaded perls, each thread has an independent copy of this
           variable; each initialized at creation time with the current value
           of the creating thread's copy.

            GV*  PL_ofsgv

       "PL_rs"
           The input record separator - $/ in Perl space.

           On threaded perls, each thread has an independent copy of this
           variable; each initialized at creation time with the current value
           of the creating thread's copy.

            SV*  PL_rs

       "start_glob"
           NOTE: "start_glob" is experimental and may change or be removed
           without notice.

           Function called by "do_readline" to spawn a glob (or do the glob
           inside perl on VMS).  This code used to be inline, but now perl
           uses "File::Glob" this glob starter is only used by miniperl during
           the build process, or when PERL_EXTERNAL_GLOB is defined.  Moving
           it away shrinks pp_hot.c; shrinking pp_hot.c helps speed perl up.

           NOTE: "start_glob" must be explicitly called as "Perl_start_glob"
           with an "aTHX_" parameter.

            PerlIO*  Perl_start_glob(pTHX_ SV *tmpglob, IO *io)


Integer configuration values

       There are only public API items currently in Integer configuration
       values


Lexer interface

       "validate_proto"
           NOTE: "validate_proto" is experimental and may change or be removed
           without notice.

           This function performs syntax checking on a prototype, "proto".  If
           "warn" is true, any illegal characters or mismatched brackets will
           trigger illegalproto warnings, declaring that they were detected in
           the prototype for "name".

           The return value is "true" if this is a valid prototype, and
           "false" if it is not, regardless of whether "warn" was "true" or
           "false".

           Note that "NULL" is a valid "proto" and will always return "true".

            bool  validate_proto(SV *name, SV *proto, bool warn,
                                 bool curstash)


Locales

       There are only public API items currently in Locales


Magic

       "magic_clearhint"
           Triggered by a delete from "%^H", records the key to
           "PL_compiling.cop_hints_hash".

            int  magic_clearhint(SV* sv, MAGIC* mg)

       "magic_clearhints"
           Triggered by clearing "%^H", resets "PL_compiling.cop_hints_hash".

            int  magic_clearhints(SV* sv, MAGIC* mg)

       "magic_methcall"
           Invoke a magic method (like FETCH).

           "sv" and "mg" are the tied thingy and the tie magic.

           "meth" is the name of the method to call.

           "argc" is the number of args (in addition to $self) to pass to the
           method.

           The "flags" can be:

               G_DISCARD     invoke method with G_DISCARD flag and don't
                             return a value
               G_UNDEF_FILL  fill the stack with argc pointers to
                             PL_sv_undef

           The arguments themselves are any values following the "flags"
           argument.

           Returns the SV (if any) returned by the method, or "NULL" on
           failure.

           NOTE: "magic_methcall" must be explicitly called as
           "Perl_magic_methcall" with an "aTHX_" parameter.

            SV*  Perl_magic_methcall(pTHX_ SV *sv, const MAGIC *mg, SV *meth,
                                     U32 flags, U32 argc, ...)

       "magic_sethint"
           Triggered by a store to "%^H", records the key/value pair to
           "PL_compiling.cop_hints_hash".  It is assumed that hints aren't
           storing anything that would need a deep copy.  Maybe we should warn
           if we find a reference.

            int  magic_sethint(SV* sv, MAGIC* mg)

       "mg_localize"
           Copy some of the magic from an existing SV to new localized version
           of that SV.  Container magic (e.g., %ENV, $1, "tie") gets copied,
           value magic doesn't (e.g., "taint", "pos").

           If "setmagic" is false then no set magic will be called on the new
           (empty) SV.  This typically means that assignment will soon follow
           (e.g. 'local $x = $y'), and that will handle the magic.

            void  mg_localize(SV* sv, SV* nsv, bool setmagic)


Memory Management

       There are only public API items currently in Memory Management


MRO

       "mro_get_linear_isa_dfs"
           Returns the Depth-First Search linearization of @ISA the given
           stash.  The return value is a read-only AV*.  "level" should be 0
           (it is used internally in this function's recursion).

           You are responsible for "SvREFCNT_inc()" on the return value if you
           plan to store it anywhere semi-permanently (otherwise it might be
           deleted out from under you the next time the cache is invalidated).

            AV*  mro_get_linear_isa_dfs(HV* stash, U32 level)

       "mro_isa_changed_in"
           Takes the necessary steps (cache invalidations, mostly) when the
           @ISA of the given package has changed.  Invoked by the "setisa"
           magic, should not need to invoke directly.

            void  mro_isa_changed_in(HV* stash)

       "mro_package_moved"
           Call this function to signal to a stash that it has been assigned
           to another spot in the stash hierarchy.  "stash" is the stash that
           has been assigned.  "oldstash" is the stash it replaces, if any.
           "gv" is the glob that is actually being assigned to.

           This can also be called with a null first argument to indicate that
           "oldstash" has been deleted.

           This function invalidates isa caches on the old stash, on all
           subpackages nested inside it, and on the subclasses of all those,
           including non-existent packages that have corresponding entries in
           "stash".

           It also sets the effective names ("HvENAME") on all the stashes as
           appropriate.

           If the "gv" is present and is not in the symbol table, then this
           function simply returns.  This checked will be skipped if "flags &
           1".

            void  mro_package_moved(HV * const stash, HV * const oldstash,
                                    const GV * const gv, U32 flags)


Multicall Functions

       There are only public API items currently in Multicall Functions


Numeric Functions

       "grok_atoUV"
           parse a string, looking for a decimal unsigned integer.

           On entry, "pv" points to the beginning of the string; "valptr"
           points to a UV that will receive the converted value, if found;
           "endptr" is either NULL or points to a variable that points to one
           byte beyond the point in "pv" that this routine should examine.  If
           "endptr" is NULL, "pv" is assumed to be NUL-terminated.

           Returns FALSE if "pv" doesn't represent a valid unsigned integer
           value (with no leading zeros).  Otherwise it returns TRUE, and sets
           *valptr to that value.

           If you constrain the portion of "pv" that is looked at by this
           function (by passing a non-NULL "endptr"), and if the intial bytes
           of that portion form a valid value, it will return TRUE, setting
           *endptr to the byte following the final digit of the value.  But if
           there is no constraint at what's looked at, all of "pv" must be
           valid in order for TRUE to be returned.  *endptr is unchanged from
           its value on input if FALSE is returned;

           The only characters this accepts are the decimal digits '0'..'9'.

           As opposed to atoi(3) or strtol(3), "grok_atoUV" does NOT allow
           optional leading whitespace, nor negative inputs.  If such features
           are required, the calling code needs to explicitly implement those.

           Note that this function returns FALSE for inputs that would
           overflow a UV, or have leading zeros.  Thus a single 0 is accepted,
           but not 00 nor 01, 002, etc.

           Background: "atoi" has severe problems with illegal inputs, it
           cannot be used for incremental parsing, and therefore should be
           avoided "atoi" and "strtol" are also affected by locale settings,
           which can also be seen as a bug (global state controlled by user
           environment).

            bool  grok_atoUV(const char* pv, UV* valptr, const char** endptr)

       "isinfnansv"
           Checks whether the argument would be either an infinity or "NaN"
           when used as a number, but is careful not to trigger non-numeric or
           uninitialized warnings.  it assumes the caller has done
           "SvGETMAGIC(sv)" already.

            bool  isinfnansv(SV *sv)


Optree construction

       There are only public API items currently in Optree construction


Optree Manipulation Functions

       "finalize_optree"
           This function finalizes the optree.  Should be called directly
           after the complete optree is built.  It does some additional
           checking which can't be done in the normal "ck_"xxx functions and
           makes the tree thread-safe.

            void  finalize_optree(OP* o)

       "newATTRSUB_x"
           Construct a Perl subroutine, also performing some surrounding jobs.

           This function is expected to be called in a Perl compilation
           context, and some aspects of the subroutine are taken from global
           variables associated with compilation.  In particular, "PL_compcv"
           represents the subroutine that is currently being compiled.  It
           must be non-null when this function is called, and some aspects of
           the subroutine being constructed are taken from it.  The
           constructed subroutine may actually be a reuse of the "PL_compcv"
           object, but will not necessarily be so.

           If "block" is null then the subroutine will have no body, and for
           the time being it will be an error to call it.  This represents a
           forward subroutine declaration such as "sub foo ($$);".  If "block"
           is non-null then it provides the Perl code of the subroutine body,
           which will be executed when the subroutine is called.  This body
           includes any argument unwrapping code resulting from a subroutine
           signature or similar.  The pad use of the code must correspond to
           the pad attached to "PL_compcv".  The code is not expected to
           include a "leavesub" or "leavesublv" op; this function will add
           such an op.  "block" is consumed by this function and will become
           part of the constructed subroutine.

           "proto" specifies the subroutine's prototype, unless one is
           supplied as an attribute (see below).  If "proto" is null, then the
           subroutine will not have a prototype.  If "proto" is non-null, it
           must point to a "const" op whose value is a string, and the
           subroutine will have that string as its prototype.  If a prototype
           is supplied as an attribute, the attribute takes precedence over
           "proto", but in that case "proto" should preferably be null.  In
           any case, "proto" is consumed by this function.

           "attrs" supplies attributes to be applied the subroutine.  A
           handful of attributes take effect by built-in means, being applied
           to "PL_compcv" immediately when seen.  Other attributes are
           collected up and attached to the subroutine by this route.  "attrs"
           may be null to supply no attributes, or point to a "const" op for a
           single attribute, or point to a "list" op whose children apart from
           the "pushmark" are "const" ops for one or more attributes.  Each
           "const" op must be a string, giving the attribute name optionally
           followed by parenthesised arguments, in the manner in which
           attributes appear in Perl source.  The attributes will be applied
           to the sub by this function.  "attrs" is consumed by this function.

           If "o_is_gv" is false and "o" is null, then the subroutine will be
           anonymous.  If "o_is_gv" is false and "o" is non-null, then "o"
           must point to a "const" OP, which will be consumed by this
           function, and its string value supplies a name for the subroutine.
           The name may be qualified or unqualified, and if it is unqualified
           then a default stash will be selected in some manner.  If "o_is_gv"
           is true, then "o" doesn't point to an "OP" at all, but is instead a
           cast pointer to a "GV" by which the subroutine will be named.

           If there is already a subroutine of the specified name, then the
           new sub will either replace the existing one in the glob or be
           merged with the existing one.  A warning may be generated about
           redefinition.

           If the subroutine has one of a few special names, such as "BEGIN"
           or "END", then it will be claimed by the appropriate queue for
           automatic running of phase-related subroutines.  In this case the
           relevant glob will be left not containing any subroutine, even if
           it did contain one before.  In the case of "BEGIN", the subroutine
           will be executed and the reference to it disposed of before this
           function returns.

           The function returns a pointer to the constructed subroutine.  If
           the sub is anonymous then ownership of one counted reference to the
           subroutine is transferred to the caller.  If the sub is named then
           the caller does not get ownership of a reference.  In most such
           cases, where the sub has a non-phase name, the sub will be alive at
           the point it is returned by virtue of being contained in the glob
           that names it.  A phase-named subroutine will usually be alive by
           virtue of the reference owned by the phase's automatic run queue.
           But a "BEGIN" subroutine, having already been executed, will quite
           likely have been destroyed already by the time this function
           returns, making it erroneous for the caller to make any use of the
           returned pointer.  It is the caller's responsibility to ensure that
           it knows which of these situations applies.

            CV*  newATTRSUB_x(I32 floor, OP *o, OP *proto, OP *attrs,
                              OP *block, bool o_is_gv)

       "newXS_len_flags"
           Construct an XS subroutine, also performing some surrounding jobs.

           The subroutine will have the entry point "subaddr".  It will have
           the prototype specified by the nul-terminated string "proto", or no
           prototype if "proto" is null.  The prototype string is copied; the
           caller can mutate the supplied string afterwards.  If "filename" is
           non-null, it must be a nul-terminated filename, and the subroutine
           will have its "CvFILE" set accordingly.  By default "CvFILE" is set
           to point directly to the supplied string, which must be static.  If
           "flags" has the "XS_DYNAMIC_FILENAME" bit set, then a copy of the
           string will be taken instead.

           Other aspects of the subroutine will be left in their default
           state.  If anything else needs to be done to the subroutine for it
           to function correctly, it is the caller's responsibility to do that
           after this function has constructed it.  However, beware of the
           subroutine potentially being destroyed before this function
           returns, as described below.

           If "name" is null then the subroutine will be anonymous, with its
           "CvGV" referring to an "__ANON__" glob.  If "name" is non-null then
           the subroutine will be named accordingly, referenced by the
           appropriate glob.  "name" is a string of length "len" bytes giving
           a sigilless symbol name, in UTF-8 if "flags" has the "SVf_UTF8" bit
           set and in Latin-1 otherwise.  The name may be either qualified or
           unqualified, with the stash defaulting in the same manner as for
           "gv_fetchpvn_flags".  "flags" may contain flag bits understood by
           "gv_fetchpvn_flags" with the same meaning as they have there, such
           as "GV_ADDWARN".  The symbol is always added to the stash if
           necessary, with "GV_ADDMULTI" semantics.

           If there is already a subroutine of the specified name, then the
           new sub will replace the existing one in the glob.  A warning may
           be generated about the redefinition.  If the old subroutine was
           "CvCONST" then the decision about whether to warn is influenced by
           an expectation about whether the new subroutine will become a
           constant of similar value.  That expectation is determined by
           "const_svp".  (Note that the call to this function doesn't make the
           new subroutine "CvCONST" in any case; that is left to the caller.)
           If "const_svp" is null then it indicates that the new subroutine
           will not become a constant.  If "const_svp" is non-null then it
           indicates that the new subroutine will become a constant, and it
           points to an "SV*" that provides the constant value that the
           subroutine will have.

           If the subroutine has one of a few special names, such as "BEGIN"
           or "END", then it will be claimed by the appropriate queue for
           automatic running of phase-related subroutines.  In this case the
           relevant glob will be left not containing any subroutine, even if
           it did contain one before.  In the case of "BEGIN", the subroutine
           will be executed and the reference to it disposed of before this
           function returns, and also before its prototype is set.  If a
           "BEGIN" subroutine would not be sufficiently constructed by this
           function to be ready for execution then the caller must prevent
           this happening by giving the subroutine a different name.

           The function returns a pointer to the constructed subroutine.  If
           the sub is anonymous then ownership of one counted reference to the
           subroutine is transferred to the caller.  If the sub is named then
           the caller does not get ownership of a reference.  In most such
           cases, where the sub has a non-phase name, the sub will be alive at
           the point it is returned by virtue of being contained in the glob
           that names it.  A phase-named subroutine will usually be alive by
           virtue of the reference owned by the phase's automatic run queue.
           But a "BEGIN" subroutine, having already been executed, will quite
           likely have been destroyed already by the time this function
           returns, making it erroneous for the caller to make any use of the
           returned pointer.  It is the caller's responsibility to ensure that
           it knows which of these situations applies.

            CV *  newXS_len_flags(const char *name, STRLEN len,
                                  XSUBADDR_t subaddr,
                                  const char *const filename,
                                  const char *const proto, SV **const_svp,
                                  U32 flags)

       "optimize_optree"
           This function applies some optimisations to the optree in top-down
           order.  It is called before the peephole optimizer, which processes
           ops in execution order. Note that finalize_optree() also does a
           top-down scan, but is called *after* the peephole optimizer.

            void  optimize_optree(OP* o)

       "traverse_op_tree"
           Return the next op in a depth-first traversal of the op tree,
           returning NULL when the traversal is complete.

           The initial call must supply the root of the tree as both top and
           o.

           For now it's static, but it may be exposed to the API in the
           future.

            OP*  traverse_op_tree(OP* top, OP* o)


Pack and Unpack

       There are only public API items currently in Pack and Unpack


Pad Data Structures

       "CX_CURPAD_SAVE"
           Save the current pad in the given context block structure.

            void  CX_CURPAD_SAVE(struct context)

       "CX_CURPAD_SV"
           Access the SV at offset "po" in the saved current pad in the given
           context block structure (can be used as an lvalue).

            SV *  CX_CURPAD_SV(struct context, PADOFFSET po)

       "PAD_BASE_SV"
           Get the value from slot "po" in the base (DEPTH=1) pad of a padlist

            SV *  PAD_BASE_SV(PADLIST padlist, PADOFFSET po)

       "PAD_CLONE_VARS"
           Clone the state variables associated with running and compiling
           pads.

            void  PAD_CLONE_VARS(PerlInterpreter *proto_perl,
                                 CLONE_PARAMS* param)

       "PAD_COMPNAME_FLAGS"
           Return the flags for the current compiling pad name at offset "po".
           Assumes a valid slot entry.

            U32  PAD_COMPNAME_FLAGS(PADOFFSET po)

       "PAD_COMPNAME_GEN"
           The generation number of the name at offset "po" in the current
           compiling pad (lvalue).

            STRLEN  PAD_COMPNAME_GEN(PADOFFSET po)

       "PAD_COMPNAME_GEN_set"
           Sets the generation number of the name at offset "po" in the
           current ling pad (lvalue) to "gen".

            STRLEN  PAD_COMPNAME_GEN_set(PADOFFSET po, int gen)

       "PAD_COMPNAME_OURSTASH"
           Return the stash associated with an "our" variable.  Assumes the
           slot entry is a valid "our" lexical.

            HV *  PAD_COMPNAME_OURSTASH(PADOFFSET po)

       "PAD_COMPNAME_PV"
           Return the name of the current compiling pad name at offset "po".
           Assumes a valid slot entry.

            char *  PAD_COMPNAME_PV(PADOFFSET po)

       "PAD_COMPNAME_TYPE"
           Return the type (stash) of the current compiling pad name at offset
           "po".  Must be a valid name.  Returns null if not typed.

            HV *  PAD_COMPNAME_TYPE(PADOFFSET po)

       "PadnameIsOUR"
           Whether this is an "our" variable.

            bool  PadnameIsOUR(PADNAME * pn)

       "PadnameIsSTATE"
           Whether this is a "state" variable.

            bool  PadnameIsSTATE(PADNAME * pn)

       "PadnameOURSTASH"
           The stash in which this "our" variable was declared.

            HV *  PadnameOURSTASH(PADNAME * pn)

       "PadnameOUTER"
           Whether this entry belongs to an outer pad.  Entries for which this
           is true are often referred to as 'fake'.

            bool  PadnameOUTER(PADNAME * pn)

       "PadnameTYPE"
           The stash associated with a typed lexical.  This returns the %Foo::
           hash for "my Foo $bar".

            HV *  PadnameTYPE(PADNAME * pn)

       "PAD_RESTORE_LOCAL"
           Restore the old pad saved into the local variable "opad" by
           "PAD_SAVE_LOCAL()"

            void  PAD_RESTORE_LOCAL(PAD *opad)

       "PAD_SAVE_LOCAL"
           Save the current pad to the local variable "opad", then make the
           current pad equal to "npad"

            void  PAD_SAVE_LOCAL(PAD *opad, PAD *npad)

       "PAD_SAVE_SETNULLPAD"
           Save the current pad then set it to null.

            void  PAD_SAVE_SETNULLPAD()

       "PAD_SETSV"
           Set the slot at offset "po" in the current pad to "sv"

            SV *  PAD_SETSV(PADOFFSET po, SV* sv)

       "PAD_SET_CUR"
           Set the current pad to be pad "n" in the padlist, saving the
           previous current pad.  NB currently this macro expands to a string
           too long for some compilers, so it's best to replace it with

               SAVECOMPPAD();
               PAD_SET_CUR_NOSAVE(padlist,n);

            void  PAD_SET_CUR(PADLIST padlist, I32 n)

       "PAD_SET_CUR_NOSAVE"
           like PAD_SET_CUR, but without the save

            void  PAD_SET_CUR_NOSAVE(PADLIST padlist, I32 n)

       "PAD_SV"
           Get the value at offset "po" in the current pad

            SV *  PAD_SV(PADOFFSET po)

       "PAD_SVl"
           Lightweight and lvalue version of "PAD_SV".  Get or set the value
           at offset "po" in the current pad.  Unlike "PAD_SV", does not print
           diagnostics with -DX.  For internal use only.

            SV *  PAD_SVl(PADOFFSET po)

       "SAVECLEARSV"
           Clear the pointed to pad value on scope exit.  (i.e. the runtime
           action of "my")

            void  SAVECLEARSV(SV **svp)

       "SAVECOMPPAD"
           save "PL_comppad" and "PL_curpad"

            void  SAVECOMPPAD()

       "SAVEPADSV"
           Save a pad slot (used to restore after an iteration)

            void  SAVEPADSV(PADOFFSET po)


Password and Group access

       There are only public API items currently in Password and Group access


Paths to system commands

       There are only public API items currently in Paths to system commands


Prototype information

       There are only public API items currently in Prototype information


REGEXP Functions

       There are only public API items currently in REGEXP Functions


Signals

       There are only public API items currently in Signals


Site configuration

       There are only public API items currently in Site configuration


Sockets configuration values

       There are only public API items currently in Sockets configuration
       values


Source Filters

       There are only public API items currently in Source Filters


Stack Manipulation Macros

       "djSP"
           Declare Just "SP".  This is actually identical to "dSP", and
           declares a local copy of perl's stack pointer, available via the
           "SP" macro.  See ""SP" in perlapi".  (Available for backward source
           code compatibility with the old (Perl 5.005) thread model.)

              djSP();

       "LVRET"
           True if this op will be the return value of an lvalue subroutine


String Handling

       "delimcpy_no_escape"
           Copy a source buffer to a destination buffer, stopping at (but not
           including) the first occurrence in the source of the delimiter
           byte, "delim".  The source is the bytes between
           "from" and "from_end" - 1.  Similarly, the dest is "to" up to
           "to_end".

           The number of bytes copied is written to *retlen.

           Returns the position of "delim" in the "from" buffer, but if there
           is no such occurrence before "from_end", then "from_end" is
           returned, and the entire buffer "from" .. "from_end" - 1 is copied.

           If there is room in the destination available after the copy, an
           extra terminating safety "NUL" byte is appended (not included in
           the returned length).

           The error case is if the destination buffer is not large enough to
           accommodate everything that should be copied.  In this situation, a
           value larger than "to_end" - "to" is written to *retlen, and as
           much of the source as fits will be written to the destination.  Not
           having room for the safety "NUL" is not considered an error.

            char*  delimcpy_no_escape(char* to, const char* to_end,
                                      const char* from, const char* from_end,
                                      const int delim, I32* retlen)

       "quadmath_format_needed"
           "quadmath_format_needed()" returns true if the "format" string
           seems to contain at least one non-Q-prefixed "%[efgaEFGA]" format
           specifier, or returns false otherwise.

           The format specifier detection is not complete printf-syntax
           detection, but it should catch most common cases.

           If true is returned, those arguments should in theory be processed
           with "quadmath_snprintf()", but in case there is more than one such
           format specifier (see "quadmath_format_valid"), and if there is
           anything else beyond that one (even just a single byte), they
           cannot be processed because "quadmath_snprintf()" is very strict,
           accepting only one format spec, and nothing else.  In this case,
           the code should probably fail.

            bool  quadmath_format_needed(const char* format)

       "quadmath_format_valid"
           "quadmath_snprintf()" is very strict about its "format" string and
           will fail, returning -1, if the format is invalid.  It accepts
           exactly one format spec.

           "quadmath_format_valid()" checks that the intended single spec
           looks sane: begins with "%", has only one "%", ends with
           "[efgaEFGA]", and has "Q" before it.  This is not a full "printf
           syntax check", just the basics.

           Returns true if it is valid, false if not.

           See also "quadmath_format_needed".

            bool  quadmath_format_valid(const char* format)


SV Flags

       "SVt_INVLIST"
           Type flag for scalars.  See "svtype" in perlapi.


SV Handling

       "PL_Sv"
           A scratch pad SV for whatever temporary use you need.  Chiefly used
           as a fallback by macros on platforms where
           "PERL_USE_GCC_BRACE_GROUPS" in perlapi> is unavailable, and which
           would otherwise evaluate their SV parameter more than once.

              PL_Sv

       "sv_2bool"
           This macro is only used by "sv_true()" or its macro equivalent, and
           only if the latter's argument is neither "SvPOK", "SvIOK" nor
           "SvNOK".  It calls "sv_2bool_flags" with the "SV_GMAGIC" flag.

            bool  sv_2bool(SV *const sv)

       "sv_2bool_flags"
           This function is only used by "sv_true()" and friends,  and only if
           the latter's argument is neither "SvPOK", "SvIOK" nor "SvNOK".  If
           the flags contain "SV_GMAGIC", then it does an "mg_get()" first.

            bool  sv_2bool_flags(SV *sv, I32 flags)

       "sv_2num"
           NOTE: "sv_2num" is experimental and may change or be removed
           without notice.

           Return an SV with the numeric value of the source SV, doing any
           necessary reference or overload conversion.  The caller is expected
           to have handled get-magic already.

            SV*  sv_2num(SV *const sv)

       "sv_2pvbyte_nolen"
           Return a pointer to the byte-encoded representation of the SV.  May
           cause the SV to be downgraded from UTF-8 as a side-effect.

           Usually accessed via the "SvPVbyte_nolen" macro.

            char*  sv_2pvbyte_nolen(SV* sv)

       "sv_2pvutf8_nolen"
           Return a pointer to the UTF-8-encoded representation of the SV.
           May cause the SV to be upgraded to UTF-8 as a side-effect.

           Usually accessed via the "SvPVutf8_nolen" macro.

            char*  sv_2pvutf8_nolen(SV* sv)

       "sv_2pv_flags"
           Returns a pointer to the string value of an SV, and sets *lp to its
           length.  If flags has the "SV_GMAGIC" bit set, does an "mg_get()"
           first.  Coerces "sv" to a string if necessary.  Normally invoked
           via the "SvPV_flags" macro.  "sv_2pv()" and "sv_2pv_nomg" usually
           end up here too.

            char*  sv_2pv_flags(SV *const sv, STRLEN *const lp,
                                const U32 flags)

       "sv_2pv_nolen"
           Like "sv_2pv()", but doesn't return the length too.  You should
           usually use the macro wrapper "SvPV_nolen(sv)" instead.

            char*  sv_2pv_nolen(SV* sv)

       "sv_add_arena"
           Given a chunk of memory, link it to the head of the list of arenas,
           and split it into a list of free SVs.

            void  sv_add_arena(char *const ptr, const U32 size,
                               const U32 flags)

       "sv_clean_all"
           Decrement the refcnt of each remaining SV, possibly triggering a
           cleanup.  This function may have to be called multiple times to
           free SVs which are in complex self-referential hierarchies.

            I32  sv_clean_all()

       "sv_clean_objs"
           Attempt to destroy all objects not yet freed.

            void  sv_clean_objs()

       "sv_free_arenas"
           Deallocate the memory used by all arenas.  Note that all the
           individual SV heads and bodies within the arenas must already have
           been freed.

            void  sv_free_arenas()

       "sv_grow"
           Expands the character buffer in the SV.  If necessary, uses
           "sv_unref" and upgrades the SV to "SVt_PV".  Returns a pointer to
           the character buffer.  Use the "SvGROW" wrapper instead.

            char*  sv_grow(SV *const sv, STRLEN newlen)

       "sv_iv"
           "DEPRECATED!"  It is planned to remove "sv_iv" from a future
           release of Perl.  Do not use it for new code; remove it from
           existing code.

           A private implementation of the "SvIVx" macro for compilers which
           can't cope with complex macro expressions.  Always use the macro
           instead.

            IV  sv_iv(SV* sv)

       "sv_newref"
           Increment an SV's reference count.  Use the "SvREFCNT_inc()"
           wrapper instead.

            SV*  sv_newref(SV *const sv)

       "sv_nv"
           "DEPRECATED!"  It is planned to remove "sv_nv" from a future
           release of Perl.  Do not use it for new code; remove it from
           existing code.

           A private implementation of the "SvNVx" macro for compilers which
           can't cope with complex macro expressions.  Always use the macro
           instead.

            NV  sv_nv(SV* sv)

       "sv_pv"
           Use the "SvPV_nolen" macro instead

            char*  sv_pv(SV *sv)

       "sv_pvbyte"
           Use "SvPVbyte_nolen" instead.

            char*  sv_pvbyte(SV *sv)

       "sv_pvbyten"
           "DEPRECATED!"  It is planned to remove "sv_pvbyten" from a future
           release of Perl.  Do not use it for new code; remove it from
           existing code.

           A private implementation of the "SvPVbyte" macro for compilers
           which can't cope with complex macro expressions.  Always use the
           macro instead.

            char*  sv_pvbyten(SV *sv, STRLEN *lp)

       "sv_pvbyten_force"
           The backend for the "SvPVbytex_force" macro.  Always use the macro
           instead.  If the SV cannot be downgraded from UTF-8, this croaks.

            char*  sv_pvbyten_force(SV *const sv, STRLEN *const lp)

       "sv_pvn"
           "DEPRECATED!"  It is planned to remove "sv_pvn" from a future
           release of Perl.  Do not use it for new code; remove it from
           existing code.

           A private implementation of the "SvPV" macro for compilers which
           can't cope with complex macro expressions.  Always use the macro
           instead.

            char*  sv_pvn(SV *sv, STRLEN *lp)

       "sv_pvn_force"
           Get a sensible string out of the SV somehow.  A private
           implementation of the "SvPV_force" macro for compilers which can't
           cope with complex macro expressions.  Always use the macro instead.

            char*  sv_pvn_force(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp)

       "sv_pvutf8"
           Use the "SvPVutf8_nolen" macro instead

            char*  sv_pvutf8(SV *sv)

       "sv_pvutf8n"
           "DEPRECATED!"  It is planned to remove "sv_pvutf8n" from a future
           release of Perl.  Do not use it for new code; remove it from
           existing code.

           A private implementation of the "SvPVutf8" macro for compilers
           which can't cope with complex macro expressions.  Always use the
           macro instead.

            char*  sv_pvutf8n(SV *sv, STRLEN *lp)

       "sv_pvutf8n_force"
           The backend for the "SvPVutf8x_force" macro.  Always use the macro
           instead.

            char*  sv_pvutf8n_force(SV *const sv, STRLEN *const lp)

       "sv_taint"
           Taint an SV.  Use "SvTAINTED_on" instead.

            void  sv_taint(SV* sv)

       "sv_tainted"
           Test an SV for taintedness.  Use "SvTAINTED" instead.

            bool  sv_tainted(SV *const sv)

       "SvTHINKFIRST"
           A quick flag check to see whether an "sv" should be passed to
           "sv_force_normal" to be "downgraded" before "SvIVX" or "SvPVX" can
           be modified directly.

           For example, if your scalar is a reference and you want to modify
           the "SvIVX" slot, you can't just do "SvROK_off", as that will leak
           the referent.

           This is used internally by various sv-modifying functions, such as
           "sv_setsv", "sv_setiv" and "sv_pvn_force".

           One case that this does not handle is a gv without SvFAKE set.
           After

               if (SvTHINKFIRST(gv)) sv_force_normal(gv);

           it will still be a gv.

           "SvTHINKFIRST" sometimes produces false positives.  In those cases
           "sv_force_normal" does nothing.

            U32  SvTHINKFIRST(SV *sv)

       "sv_true"
           Returns true if the SV has a true value by Perl's rules.  Use the
           "SvTRUE" macro instead, which may call "sv_true()" or may instead
           use an in-line version.

            I32  sv_true(SV *const sv)

       "sv_untaint"
           Untaint an SV.  Use "SvTAINTED_off" instead.

            void  sv_untaint(SV *const sv)

       "sv_uv"
           "DEPRECATED!"  It is planned to remove "sv_uv" from a future
           release of Perl.  Do not use it for new code; remove it from
           existing code.

           A private implementation of the "SvUVx" macro for compilers which
           can't cope with complex macro expressions.  Always use the macro
           instead.

            UV  sv_uv(SV* sv)


Time

       There are only public API items currently in Time


Typedef names

       There are only public API items currently in Typedef names


Unicode Support

       "bytes_from_utf8_loc"
           NOTE: "bytes_from_utf8_loc" is experimental and may change or be
           removed without notice.

           Like ""bytes_from_utf8" in perlapi()", but takes an extra
           parameter, a pointer to where to store the location of the first
           character in "s" that cannot be converted to non-UTF8.

           If that parameter is "NULL", this function behaves identically to
           "bytes_from_utf8".

           Otherwise if *is_utf8p is 0 on input, the function behaves
           identically to "bytes_from_utf8", except it also sets
           *first_non_downgradable to "NULL".

           Otherwise, the function returns a newly created "NUL"-terminated
           string containing the non-UTF8 equivalent of the convertible first
           portion of "s".  *lenp is set to its length, not including the
           terminating "NUL".  If the entire input string was converted,
           *is_utf8p is set to a FALSE value, and *first_non_downgradable is
           set to "NULL".

           Otherwise, *first_non_downgradable is set to point to the first
           byte of the first character in the original string that wasn't
           converted.  *is_utf8p is unchanged.  Note that the new string may
           have length 0.

           Another way to look at it is, if *first_non_downgradable is
           non-"NULL" and *is_utf8p is TRUE, this function starts at the
           beginning of "s" and converts as many characters in it as possible
           stopping at the first one it finds that can't be converted to
           non-UTF-8.  *first_non_downgradable is set to point to that.  The
           function returns the portion that could be converted in a newly
           created "NUL"-terminated string, and *lenp is set to its length,
           not including the terminating "NUL".  If the very first character
           in the original could not be converted, *lenp will be 0, and the
           new string will contain just a single "NUL".  If the entire input
           string was converted, *is_utf8p is set to FALSE and
           *first_non_downgradable is set to "NULL".

           Upon successful return, the number of variants in the converted
           portion of the string can be computed by having saved the value of
           *lenp before the call, and subtracting the after-call value of
           *lenp from it.

            U8*  bytes_from_utf8_loc(const U8 *s, STRLEN *lenp,
                                     bool *is_utf8p,
                                     const U8 ** first_unconverted)

       "find_uninit_var"
           NOTE: "find_uninit_var" is experimental and may change or be
           removed without notice.

           Find the name of the undefined variable (if any) that caused the
           operator to issue a "Use of uninitialized value" warning.  If match
           is true, only return a name if its value matches "uninit_sv".  So
           roughly speaking, if a unary operator (such as "OP_COS") generates
           a warning, then following the direct child of the op may yield an
           "OP_PADSV" or "OP_GV" that gives the name of the undefined
           variable.  On the other hand, with "OP_ADD" there are two branches
           to follow, so we only print the variable name if we get an exact
           match.  "desc_p" points to a string pointer holding the description
           of the op.  This may be updated if needed.

           The name is returned as a mortal SV.

           Assumes that "PL_op" is the OP that originally triggered the error,
           and that "PL_comppad"/"PL_curpad" points to the currently executing
           pad.

            SV*  find_uninit_var(const OP *const obase,
                                 const SV *const uninit_sv, bool match,
                                 const char **desc_p)

       "isSCRIPT_RUN"
           Returns a bool as to whether or not the sequence of bytes from "s"
           up to but not including "send" form a "script run".  "utf8_target"
           is TRUE iff the sequence starting at "s" is to be treated as UTF-8.
           To be precise, except for two degenerate cases given below, this
           function returns TRUE iff all code points in it come from any
           combination of three "scripts" given by the Unicode "Script
           Extensions" property: Common, Inherited, and possibly one other.
           Additionally all decimal digits must come from the same consecutive
           sequence of 10.

           For example, if all the characters in the sequence are Greek, or
           Common, or Inherited, this function will return TRUE, provided any
           decimal digits in it are from the same block of digits in Common.
           (These are the ASCII digits "0".."9" and additionally a block for
           full width forms of these, and several others used in mathematical
           notation.)   For scripts (unlike Greek) that have their own digits
           defined this will accept either digits from that set or from one of
           the Common digit sets, but not a combination of the two.  Some
           scripts, such as Arabic, have more than one set of digits.  All
           digits must come from the same set for this function to return
           TRUE.

           *ret_script, if "ret_script" is not NULL, will on return of TRUE
           contain the script found, using the "SCX_enum" typedef.  Its value
           will be "SCX_INVALID" if the function returns FALSE.

           If the sequence is empty, TRUE is returned, but *ret_script (if
           asked for) will be "SCX_INVALID".

           If the sequence contains a single code point which is unassigned to
           a character in the version of Unicode being used, the function will
           return TRUE, and the script will be "SCX_Unknown".  Any other
           combination of unassigned code points in the input sequence will
           result in the function treating the input as not being a script
           run.

           The returned script will be "SCX_Inherited" iff all the code points
           in it are from the Inherited script.

           Otherwise, the returned script will be "SCX_Common" iff all the
           code points in it are from the Inherited or Common scripts.

            bool  isSCRIPT_RUN(const U8 *s, const U8 *send,
                               const bool utf8_target)

       "is_utf8_non_invariant_string"
           Returns TRUE if "is_utf8_invariant_string" in perlapi returns FALSE
           for the first "len" bytes of the string "s", but they are,
           nonetheless, legal Perl-extended UTF-8; otherwise returns FALSE.

           A TRUE return means that at least one code point represented by the
           sequence either is a wide character not representable as a single
           byte, or the representation differs depending on whether the
           sequence is encoded in UTF-8 or not.

           See also ""is_utf8_invariant_string" in perlapi", ""is_utf8_string"
           in perlapi"

            bool  is_utf8_non_invariant_string(const U8* const s, STRLEN len)

       "report_uninit"
           Print appropriate "Use of uninitialized variable" warning.

            void  report_uninit(const SV *uninit_sv)

       "utf8n_to_uvuni"
           "DEPRECATED!"  It is planned to remove "utf8n_to_uvuni" from a
           future release of Perl.  Do not use it for new code; remove it from
           existing code.

           Instead use "utf8_to_uvchr_buf" in perlapi, or rarely,
           "utf8n_to_uvchr" in perlapi.

           This function was useful for code that wanted to handle both EBCDIC
           and ASCII platforms with Unicode properties, but starting in Perl
           v5.20, the distinctions between the platforms have mostly been made
           invisible to most code, so this function is quite unlikely to be
           what you want.  If you do need this precise functionality, use
           instead "NATIVE_TO_UNI(utf8_to_uvchr_buf(...))"  or
           "NATIVE_TO_UNI(utf8n_to_uvchr(...))".

            UV  utf8n_to_uvuni(const U8 *s, STRLEN curlen, STRLEN *retlen,
                               U32 flags)

       "utf8_to_uvuni"
           "DEPRECATED!"  It is planned to remove "utf8_to_uvuni" from a
           future release of Perl.  Do not use it for new code; remove it from
           existing code.

           Returns the Unicode code point of the first character in the string
           "s" which is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding; "retlen" will be set
           to the length, in bytes, of that character.

           Some, but not all, UTF-8 malformations are detected, and in fact,
           some malformed input could cause reading beyond the end of the
           input buffer, which is one reason why this function is deprecated.
           The other is that only in extremely limited circumstances should
           the Unicode versus native code point be of any interest to you.
           See "utf8_to_uvuni_buf" for alternatives.

           If "s" points to one of the detected malformations, and UTF8
           warnings are enabled, zero is returned and *retlen is set (if
           "retlen" doesn't point to NULL) to -1.  If those warnings are off,
           the computed value if well-defined (or the Unicode REPLACEMENT
           CHARACTER, if not) is silently returned, and *retlen is set (if
           "retlen" isn't NULL) so that ("s" + *retlen) is the next possible
           position in "s" that could begin a non-malformed character.  See
           "utf8n_to_uvchr" in perlapi for details on when the REPLACEMENT
           CHARACTER is returned.

            UV  utf8_to_uvuni(const U8 *s, STRLEN *retlen)

       "utf8_to_uvuni_buf"
           "DEPRECATED!"  It is planned to remove "utf8_to_uvuni_buf" from a
           future release of Perl.  Do not use it for new code; remove it from
           existing code.

           Only in very rare circumstances should code need to be dealing in
           Unicode (as opposed to native) code points.  In those few cases,
           use "NATIVE_TO_UNI(utf8_to_uvchr_buf(...))" instead.  If you are
           not absolutely sure this is one of those cases, then assume it
           isn't and use plain "utf8_to_uvchr_buf" instead.

           Returns the Unicode (not-native) code point of the first character
           in the string "s" which is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding; "send"
           points to 1 beyond the end of "s".  "retlen" will be set to the
           length, in bytes, of that character.

           If "s" does not point to a well-formed UTF-8 character and UTF8
           warnings are enabled, zero is returned and *retlen is set (if
           "retlen" isn't NULL) to -1.  If those warnings are off, the
           computed value if well-defined (or the Unicode REPLACEMENT
           CHARACTER, if not) is silently returned, and *retlen is set (if
           "retlen" isn't NULL) so that ("s" + *retlen) is the next possible
           position in "s" that could begin a non-malformed character.  See
           "utf8n_to_uvchr" in perlapi for details on when the REPLACEMENT
           CHARACTER is returned.

            UV  utf8_to_uvuni_buf(const U8 *s, const U8 *send, STRLEN *retlen)

       "uvoffuni_to_utf8_flags"
           THIS FUNCTION SHOULD BE USED IN ONLY VERY SPECIALIZED
           CIRCUMSTANCES.  Instead, Almost all code should use "uvchr_to_utf8"
           in perlapi or "uvchr_to_utf8_flags" in perlapi.

           This function is like them, but the input is a strict Unicode (as
           opposed to native) code point.  Only in very rare circumstances
           should code not be using the native code point.

           For details, see the description for "uvchr_to_utf8_flags" in
           perlapi.

            U8*  uvoffuni_to_utf8_flags(U8 *d, UV uv, const UV flags)

       "uvuni_to_utf8_flags"
           "DEPRECATED!"  It is planned to remove "uvuni_to_utf8_flags" from a
           future release of Perl.  Do not use it for new code; remove it from
           existing code.

           Instead you almost certainly want to use "uvchr_to_utf8" in perlapi
           or "uvchr_to_utf8_flags" in perlapi.

           This function is a deprecated synonym for "uvoffuni_to_utf8_flags",
           which itself, while not deprecated, should be used only in isolated
           circumstances.  These functions were useful for code that wanted to
           handle both EBCDIC and ASCII platforms with Unicode properties, but
           starting in Perl v5.20, the distinctions between the platforms have
           mostly been made invisible to most code, so this function is quite
           unlikely to be what you want.

            U8*  uvuni_to_utf8_flags(U8 *d, UV uv, UV flags)

       "valid_utf8_to_uvchr"
           Like ""utf8_to_uvchr_buf" in perlapi", but should only be called
           when it is known that the next character in the input UTF-8 string
           "s" is well-formed (e.g., it passes ""isUTF8_CHAR" in perlapi".
           Surrogates, non-character code points, and non-Unicode code points
           are allowed.

            UV  valid_utf8_to_uvchr(const U8 *s, STRLEN *retlen)

       "variant_under_utf8_count"
           This function looks at the sequence of bytes between "s" and "e",
           which are assumed to be encoded in ASCII/Latin1, and returns how
           many of them would change should the string be translated into
           UTF-8.  Due to the nature of UTF-8, each of these would occupy two
           bytes instead of the single one in the input string.  Thus, this
           function returns the precise number of bytes the string would
           expand by when translated to UTF-8.

           Unlike most of the other functions that have "utf8" in their name,
           the input to this function is NOT a UTF-8-encoded string.  The
           function name is slightly odd to emphasize this.

           This function is internal to Perl because khw thinks that any XS
           code that would want this is probably operating too close to the
           internals.  Presenting a valid use case could change that.

           See also ""is_utf8_invariant_string" in perlapi" and
           ""is_utf8_invariant_string_loc" in perlapi",

            Size_t  variant_under_utf8_count(const U8* const s,
                                             const U8* const e)


Utility Functions

       There are only public API items currently in Utility Functions


Versioning

       There are only public API items currently in Versioning


Warning and Dieing

       "PL_dowarn"
           The C variable that roughly corresponds to Perl's $^W warning
           variable.  However, $^W is treated as a boolean, whereas
           "PL_dowarn" is a collection of flag bits.

           On threaded perls, each thread has an independent copy of this
           variable; each initialized at creation time with the current value
           of the creating thread's copy.

            U8  PL_dowarn


XS

       There are only public API items currently in XS


Undocumented elements

       The following functions are currently undocumented.  If you use one of
       them, you may wish to consider creating and submitting documentation
       for it.



        abort_execution
        add_cp_to_invlist
        _add_range_to_invlist
        alloc_LOGOP
        allocmy
        amagic_cmp
        amagic_cmp_desc
        amagic_cmp_locale
        amagic_cmp_locale_desc
        amagic_is_enabled
        amagic_i_ncmp
        amagic_i_ncmp_desc
        amagic_ncmp
        amagic_ncmp_desc
        append_utf8_from_native_byte
        apply
        ASCII_TO_NEED
        av_arylen_p
        av_extend_guts
        av_iter_p
        av_nonelem
        av_reify
        bind_match
        boot_core_mro
        boot_core_PerlIO
        boot_core_UNIVERSAL
        _byte_dump_string
        cando
        cast_i32
        cast_iv
        cast_ulong
        cast_uv
        check_utf8_print
        ck_anoncode
        ck_backtick
        ck_bitop
        ck_cmp
        ck_concat
        ck_defined
        ck_delete
        ck_each
        ck_entersub_args_core
        ck_eof
        ck_eval
        ck_exec
        ck_exists
        ck_ftst
        ck_fun
        ck_glob
        ck_grep
        ck_index
        ck_isa
        ck_join
        ck_length
        ck_lfun
        ck_listiob
        ck_match
        ck_method
        ck_null
        ck_open
        ck_prototype
        ck_readline
        ck_refassign
        ck_repeat
        ck_require
        ck_return
        ck_rfun
        ck_rvconst
        ck_sassign
        ck_select
        ck_shift
        ck_smartmatch
        ck_sort
        ck_spair
        ck_split
        ck_stringify
        ck_subr
        ck_substr
        ck_svconst
        ck_tell
        ck_trunc
        ck_trycatch
        ckwarn
        ckwarn_d
        closest_cop
        cmpchain_extend
        cmpchain_finish
        cmpchain_start
        cmp_desc
        cmp_locale_desc
        cntrl_to_mnemonic
        coresub_op
        create_eval_scope
        croak_caller
        croak_memory_wrap
        croak_no_mem
        croak_popstack
        csighandler
        csighandler1
        csighandler3
        current_re_engine
        custom_op_get_field
        cv_ckproto_len_flags
        cv_clone_into
        cv_const_sv_or_av
        cvgv_from_hek
        cvgv_set
        cvstash_set
        cv_undef_flags
        cx_dump
        cx_dup
        cxinc
        cx_popblock
        cx_popeval
        cx_popformat
        cx_popgiven
        cx_poploop
        cx_popsub
        cx_popsub_args
        cx_popsub_common
        cx_popwhen
        cx_pushblock
        cx_pusheval
        cx_pushformat
        cx_pushgiven
        cx_pushloop_for
        cx_pushloop_plain
        cx_pushsub
        cx_pushtry
        cx_pushwhen
        cx_topblock
        deb_stack_all
        defelem_target
        delete_eval_scope
        despatch_signals
        die_unwind
        do_aexec
        do_aexec5
        do_eof
        does_utf8_overflow
        do_exec
        do_exec3
        dofile
        do_gvgv_dump
        do_gv_dump
        do_hv_dump
        doing_taint
        do_ipcctl
        do_ipcget
        do_magic_dump
        do_msgrcv
        do_msgsnd
        do_ncmp
        do_open6
        do_open_raw
        do_op_dump
        do_pmop_dump
        do_print
        do_readline
        do_seek
        do_semop
        do_shmio
        do_sv_dump
        do_sysseek
        do_tell
        do_trans
        do_uniprop_match
        do_vecget
        do_vecset
        do_vop
        drand48_init_r
        drand48_r
        dtrace_probe_call
        dtrace_probe_load
        dtrace_probe_op
        dtrace_probe_phase
        dump_all_perl
        dump_indent
        dump_packsubs_perl
        dump_sub_perl
        dump_sv_child
        dump_vindent
        dup_warnings
        emulate_cop_io
        find_first_differing_byte_pos
        find_lexical_cv
        find_runcv_where
        find_script
        foldEQ_latin1
        foldEQ_latin1_s2_folded
        foldEQ_utf8_flags
        _force_out_malformed_utf8_message
        form_alien_digit_msg
        form_cp_too_large_msg
        free_tied_hv_pool
        free_tmps
        get_and_check_backslash_N_name
        get_db_sub
        get_debug_opts
        get_deprecated_property_msg
        getenv_len
        get_hash_seed
        get_invlist_iter_addr
        get_invlist_offset_addr
        get_invlist_previous_index_addr
        get_no_modify
        get_opargs
        get_prop_definition
        get_prop_values
        get_regclass_nonbitmap_data
        get_regex_charset_name
        get_re_arg
        get_re_gclass_nonbitmap_data
        gimme_V
        grok_bin_oct_hex
        grok_bslash_c
        grok_bslash_o
        grok_bslash_x
        gv_check
        gv_fetchmeth_internal
        gv_override
        gv_setref
        gv_stashpvn_internal
        hfree_next_entry
        hv_backreferences_p
        hv_common
        hv_common_key_len
        hv_kill_backrefs
        hv_placeholders_p
        hv_pushkv
        hv_undef_flags
        init_argv_symbols
        init_constants
        init_dbargs
        init_debugger
        init_i18nl10n
        init_i18nl14n
        init_named_cv
        init_uniprops
        _inverse_folds
        invert
        invlist_array
        invlist_clear
        invlist_clone
        invlist_contents
        _invlistEQ
        invlist_extend
        invlist_highest
        invlist_is_iterating
        invlist_iterfinish
        invlist_iterinit
        invlist_iternext
        invlist_lowest
        invlist_max
        invlist_previous_index
        invlist_set_len
        invlist_set_previous_index
        invlist_trim
        _invlist_array_init
        _invlist_contains_cp
        _invlist_dump
        _invlist_intersection
        _invlist_intersection_maybe_complement_2nd
        _invlist_invert
        _invlist_len
        _invlist_search
        _invlist_subtract
        _invlist_union
        _invlist_union_maybe_complement_2nd
        invmap_dump
        io_close
        isFF_OVERLONG
        is_grapheme
        is_invlist
        is_utf8_char_helper
        is_utf8_common
        is_utf8_overlong_given_start_byte_ok
        _is_cur_LC_category_utf8
        _is_in_locale_category
        _is_uni_FOO
        _is_uni_perl_idcont
        _is_uni_perl_idstart
        _is_utf8_FOO
        _is_utf8_perl_idcont
        _is_utf8_perl_idstart
        jmaybe
        keyword
        keyword_plugin_standard
        list
        load_charnames
        localize
        lossless_NV_to_IV
        magic_cleararylen_p
        magic_clearenv
        magic_clearisa
        magic_clearpack
        magic_clearsig
        magic_clear_all_env
        magic_copycallchecker
        magic_existspack


AUTHORS

       The autodocumentation system was originally added to the Perl core by
       Benjamin Stuhl.  Documentation is by whoever was kind enough to
       document their functions.


SEE ALSO

       config.h, perlapi(1), perlapio(1), perlcall(1), perlclib(1),
       perlfilte(1)r, perlguts(1), perlinterp(1), perliol(1), perlmroapi(1),
       perlreguts(1), perlxs(1)



perl v5.34.0                      2022-01-04                   PERLINTERN(1pm)

perl 5.34.0 - Generated Sat Feb 26 05:55:03 CST 2022
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