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od(1)                     BSD General Commands Manual                    od(1)


NAME

     od -- octal, decimal, hex, ASCII dump


SYNOPSIS

     od [-aBbcDdeFfHhIiLlOosvXx] [-A base] [-j skip] [-N length] [-t type]
        [[+]offset[.][Bb]] [file ...]


DESCRIPTION

     The od utility is a filter which displays the specified files, or stan-
     dard input if no files are specified, in a user specified format.

     The options are as follows:

     -A base     Specify the input address base.  base may be one of d, o, x
                 or n, which specify decimal, octal, hexadecimal addresses or
                 no address, respectively.

     -a          Output named characters.  Equivalent to -t a.

     -B, -o      Output octal shorts.  Equivalent to -t o2.

     -b          Output octal bytes.  Equivalent to -t o1.

     -c          Output C-style escaped characters.  Equivalent to -t c.

     -D          Output unsigned decimal ints.  Equivalent to -t u4.

     -e, -F      Output double-precision floating point numbers.  Equivalent
                 to -t fD.

     -f          Output single-precision floating point numbers.  Equivalent
                 to -t fF.

     -H, -X      Output hexadecimal ints.  Equivalent to -t x4.

     -h, -x      Output hexadecimal shorts.  Equivalent to -t x2.

     -I, -L, -l  Output signed decimal longs.  Equivalent to -t dL.

     -i          Output signed decimal ints.  Equivalent to -t dI.

     -j skip     Skip skip bytes of the combined input before dumping.  The
                 number may be followed by one of b, k or m which specify the
                 units of the number as blocks (512 bytes), kilobytes and
                 megabytes, respectively.

     -N length   Dump at most length bytes of input.

     -O          Output octal ints.  Equivalent to -t o4.

     -s          Output signed decimal shorts.  Equivalent to -t d2.

     -t type     Specify the output format.  type is a string containing one
                 or more of the following kinds of type specifiers:

                 a       Named characters (ASCII).  Control characters are
                         displayed using the following names:

                         000 NUL 001 SOH 002 STX 003 ETX 004 EOT 005 ENQ
                         006 ACK 007 BEL 008 BS  009 HT  00a NL  00b VT
                         00c FF  00d CR  00e SO  00f SI  010 DLE 011 DC1
                         012 DC2 013 DC3 014 DC4 015 NAK 016 SYN 017 ETB
                         018 CAN 019 EM  01a SUB 01b ESC 01c FS  01d GS
                         01e RS  01f US  020 SP  0ff DEL

                 c       Characters in the default character set.  Non-print-
                         ing characters are represented as 3-digit octal char-
                         acter codes, except the following characters, which
                         are represented as C escapes:

                         NUL              \0
                         alert            \a
                         backspace        \b
                         newline          \n
                         carriage-return  \r
                         tab              \t
                         vertical tab     \v

                         Multi-byte characters are displayed in the area cor-
                         responding to the first byte of the character. The
                         remaining bytes are shown as `**'.

                 [d|o|u|x][C|S|I|L|n]
                         Signed decimal (d), octal (o), unsigned decimal (u)
                         or hexadecimal (x).  Followed by an optional size
                         specifier, which may be either C (char), S (short), I
                         (int), L (long), or a byte count as a decimal inte-
                         ger.

                 f[F|D|L|n]
                         Floating-point number.  Followed by an optional size
                         specifier, which may be either F (float), D (double)
                         or L (long double).

     -v          Write all input data, instead of replacing lines of duplicate
                 values with a `*'.

     Multiple options that specify output format may be used; the output will
     contain one line for each format.

     If no output format is specified, -t oS is assumed.


ENVIRONMENT

     The LANG, LC_ALL and LC_CTYPE environment variables affect the execution
     of od as described in environ(7).


DIAGNOSTICS

     The od utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.


COMPATIBILITY

     The traditional -s option to extract string constants is not supported;
     consider using strings(1) instead.


SEE ALSO

     hexdump(1), strings(1)


STANDARDS

     The od utility conforms to IEEE Std 1003.1-2001 (``POSIX.1'').


HISTORY

     An od command appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX.

BSD                              July 11, 2004                             BSD

Mac OS X 10.8 - Generated Wed Aug 22 15:50:54 CDT 2012
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