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md5(1)                    BSD General Commands Manual                   md5(1)


NAME

     md5 -- calculate a message-digest fingerprint (checksum) for a file


SYNOPSIS

     md5 [-pqrtx] [-s string] [file ...]


DESCRIPTION

     The md5 utility takes as input a message of arbitrary length and produces
     as output a ``fingerprint'' or ``message digest'' of the input.  It is
     conjectured that it is computationally infeasible to produce two messages
     having the same message digest, or to produce any message having a given
     prespecified target message digest.  The MD5 algorithm is intended for
     digital signature applications, where a large file must be ``compressed''
     in a secure manner before being encrypted with a private (secret) key
     under a public-key cryptosystem such as RSA.

     MD5's designer Ron Rivest has stated "md5 and sha1 are both clearly bro-
     ken (in terms of collision-resistance)".  So MD5 should be avoided when
     creating new protocols, or implementing protocols with better options.
     SHA256 and SHA512 are better options as they have been more resilient to
     attacks (as of 2009).

     The following options may be used in any combination and must precede any
     files named on the command line.  The hexadecimal checksum of each file
     listed on the command line is printed after the options are processed.

     -s string
             Print a checksum of the given string.

     -p      Echo stdin to stdout and append the checksum to stdout.

     -q      Quiet mode - only the checksum is printed out.  Overrides the -r
             option.

     -r      Reverses the format of the output.  This helps with visual diffs.
             Does nothing when combined with the -ptx options.

     -t      Run a built-in time trial.

     -x      Run a built-in test script.


EXIT STATUS

     The md5 utility exits 0 on success, and 1 if at least one of the input
     files could not be read.


SEE ALSO

     cksum(1), md5(3), ripemd(3), sha(3), CC_SHA256_Init(3)

     Vlastimil Klima, Finding MD5 Collisions - a Toy For a Notebook,
     Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2005/075.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

     This program is placed in the public domain for free general use by RSA
     Data Security.

BSD                              June 6, 2004                              BSD

Mac OS X 10.8 - Generated Wed Aug 22 15:21:03 CDT 2012
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