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make(1)                           User Commands                          make(1)


       make - GNU Make utility to maintain groups of programs


       make [OPTION]... [TARGET]...


       The make utility will determine automatically which pieces of a large
       program need to be recompiled, and issue the commands to recompile them.
       The manual describes the GNU implementation of make, which was written by
       Richard Stallman and Roland McGrath, and is currently maintained by Paul
       Smith.  Our examples show C programs, since they are very common, but you
       can use make with any programming language whose compiler can be run with
       a shell command.  In fact, make is not limited to programs.  You can use
       it to describe any task where some files must be updated automatically
       from others whenever the others change.

       To prepare to use make, you must write a file called the makefile that
       describes the relationships among files in your program, and provides
       commands for updating each file.  In a program, typically the executable
       file is updated from object files, which are in turn made by compiling
       source files.

       Once a suitable makefile exists, each time you change some source files,
       this simple shell command:


       suffices to perform all necessary recompilations.  The make program uses
       the makefile description and the last-modification times of the files to
       decide which of the files need to be updated.  For each of those files,
       it issues the commands recorded in the makefile.

       make executes commands in the makefile to update one or more targets,
       where target is typically a program.  If no -f option is present, make
       will look for the makefiles GNUmakefile, makefile, and Makefile, in that

       Normally you should call your makefile either makefile or Makefile.  (We
       recommend Makefile because it appears prominently near the beginning of a
       directory listing, right near other important files such as README.) The
       first name checked, GNUmakefile, is not recommended for most makefiles.
       You should use this name if you have a makefile that is specific to GNU
       Make, and will not be understood by other versions of make.  If makefile
       is '-', the standard input is read.

       make updates a target if it depends on prerequisite files that have been
       modified since the target was last modified, or if the target does not


       -b, -m
            These options are ignored for compatibility with other versions of

       -B, --always-make
            Unconditionally make all targets.

       -C dir, --directory=dir
            Change to directory dir before reading the makefiles or doing
            anything else.  If multiple -C options are specified, each is
            interpreted relative to the previous one: -C / -C etc is equivalent
            to -C /etc.  This is typically used with recursive invocations of

       -d   Print debugging information in addition to normal processing.  The
            debugging information says which files are being considered for
            remaking, which file-times are being compared and with what results,
            which files actually need to be remade, which implicit rules are
            considered and which are applied---everything interesting about how
            make decides what to do.

            Print debugging information in addition to normal processing.  If
            the FLAGS are omitted, then the behavior is the same as if -d was
            specified.  FLAGS may be any or all of the following names, comma-
            or space-separated.  Only the first character is significant: the
            rest may be omitted: all for all debugging output (same as using
            -d), basic for basic debugging, verbose for more verbose basic
            debugging, implicit for showing implicit rule search operations,
            jobs for details on invocation of commands, makefile for debugging
            while remaking makefiles, print shows all recipes that are run even
            if they are silent, and why shows the reason make decided to rebuild
            each target.  Use none to disable all previous debugging flags.

       -e, --environment-overrides
            Give variables taken from the environment precedence over variables
            from makefiles.

       -E string, --eval string
            Interpret string using the eval function, before parsing any

       -f file, --file=file, --makefile=FILE
            Use file as a makefile.

       -i, --ignore-errors
            Ignore all errors in commands executed to remake files.

       -I dir, --include-dir=dir
            Specifies a directory dir to search for included makefiles.  If
            several -I options are used to specify several directories, the
            directories are searched in the order specified.  Unlike the
            arguments to other flags of make, directories given with -I flags
            may come directly after the flag: -Idir is allowed, as well as -I
            dir.  This syntax is allowed for compatibility with the C
            preprocessor's -I flag.

       -j [jobs], --jobs[=jobs]
            Specifies the number of jobs (commands) to run simultaneously.  If
            there is more than one -j option, the last one is effective.  If the
            -j option is given without an argument, make will not limit the
            number of jobs that can run simultaneously.

            The style of jobserver to use.  The style may be one of fifo, pipe,
            or sem (Windows only).

       -k, --keep-going
            Continue as much as possible after an error.  While the target that
            failed, and those that depend on it, cannot be remade, the other
            dependencies of these targets can be processed all the same.

       -l [load], --load-average[=load]
            Specifies that no new jobs (commands) should be started if there are
            others jobs running and the load average is at least load (a
            floating-point number).  With no argument, removes a previous load

       -L, --check-symlink-times
            Use the latest mtime between symlinks and target.

       -n, --just-print, --dry-run, --recon
            Print the commands that would be executed, but do not execute them
            (except in certain circumstances).

       -o file, --old-file=file, --assume-old=file
            Do not remake the file file even if it is older than its
            dependencies, and do not remake anything on account of changes in
            file.  Essentially the file is treated as very old and its rules are

       -O[type], --output-sync[=type]
            When running multiple jobs in parallel with -j, ensure the output of
            each job is collected together rather than interspersed with output
            from other jobs.  If type is not specified or is target the output
            from the entire recipe for each target is grouped together.  If type
            is line the output from each command line within a recipe is grouped
            together.  If type is recurse output from an entire recursive make
            is grouped together.  If type is none output synchronization is

       -p, --print-data-base
            Print the data base (rules and variable values) that results from
            reading the makefiles; then execute as usual or as otherwise
            specified.  This also prints the version information given by the -v
            switch (see below).  To print the data base without trying to remake
            any files, use make -p -f/dev/null.

       -q, --question
            ``Question mode''.  Do not run any commands, or print anything; just
            return an exit status that is zero if the specified targets are
            already up to date, nonzero otherwise.

       -r, --no-builtin-rules
            Eliminate use of the built-in implicit rules.  Also clear out the
            default list of suffixes for suffix rules.

       -R, --no-builtin-variables
            Don't define any built-in variables.

       -s, --silent, --quiet
            Silent operation; do not print the commands as they are executed.

            Cancel the effect of the -s option.

       -S, --no-keep-going, --stop
            Cancel the effect of the -k option.

       -t, --touch
            Touch files (mark them up to date without really changing them)
            instead of running their commands.  This is used to pretend that the
            commands were done, in order to fool future invocations of make.

            Information about the disposition of each target is printed (why the
            target is being rebuilt and what commands are run to rebuild it).

       -v, --version
            Print the version of the make program plus a copyright, a list of
            authors and a notice that there is no warranty.

       -w, --print-directory
            Print a message containing the working directory before and after
            other processing.  This may be useful for tracking down errors from
            complicated nests of recursive make commands.

            Turn off -w, even if it was turned on implicitly.

            Enable shuffling of goal and prerequisite ordering.  MODE is one of
            none to disable shuffle mode, random to shuffle prerequisites in
            random order, reverse to consider prerequisites in reverse order, or
            an integer <seed> which enables random mode with a specific seed
            value.  If MODE is omitted the default is random.

       -W file, --what-if=file, --new-file=file, --assume-new=file
            Pretend that the target file has just been modified.  When used with
            the -n flag, this shows you what would happen if you were to modify
            that file.  Without -n, it is almost the same as running a touch
            command on the given file before running make, except that the
            modification time is changed only in the imagination of make.

            Warn when an undefined variable is referenced.


       GNU Make exits with a status of zero if all makefiles were successfully
       parsed and no targets that were built failed.  A status of one will be
       returned if the -q flag was used and make determines that a target needs
       to be rebuilt.  A status of two will be returned if any errors were


       The full documentation for make is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If
       the info and make programs are properly installed at your site, the

              info make

       should give you access to the complete manual.


       See the chapter ``Problems and Bugs'' in The GNU Make Manual.


       This manual page contributed by Dennis Morse of Stanford University.
       Further updates contributed by Mike Frysinger.  It has been reworked by
       Roland McGrath.  Maintained by Paul Smith.


       Copyright © 1992-1993, 1996-2023 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  This
       file is part of GNU Make.

       GNU Make is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
       the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free
       Software Foundation; either version 3 of the License, or (at your option)
       any later version.

       GNU Make is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
       ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
       FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License for
       more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with this program.  If not, see

GNU                                26 May 2023                           make(1)

gmake 4.4.1 - Generated Thu Mar 23 18:58:39 CDT 2023
© 2000-2023
Individual documents may contain additional copyright information.