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```tex(1)                                                                  tex(1)

```

## NAME

```       tex, initex - text formatting and typesetting

```

## SYNOPSIS

```       tex [options] [&format] [file|\commands]

```

## DESCRIPTION

```       Run the TeX typesetter on file, usually creating file.dvi.  If the file
argument has no extension, ".tex" will be appended to it.  Instead of a
filename,  a  set of TeX commands can be given, the first of which must
start with a backslash.  With a &format argument TeX uses  a  different
set  of  precompiled  commands,  contained in format.fmt; it is usually
better to use the -fmt format option instead.

TeX formats the interspersed text and commands contained in  the  named
files  and  outputs a typesetter independent file (called DVI, which is
short for DeVice Independent).  TeX's  capabilities  and  language  are
described  in  The  TeXbook.  TeX is normally used with a large body of
precompiled macros, and there are several specific formatting  systems,
such as LaTeX, which require the support of several macro files.

This  version  of TeX looks at its command line to see what name it was
called under.  If they exist, then both initex and virtex are  symbolic
links  to  the tex executable.  When called as initex (or when the -ini
option is given) it can be used to precompile macros into a .fmt  file.
When  called as virtex it will use the plain format.  When called under
any other name, TeX will use that name as the name  of  the  format  to
use.   For example, when called as tex the tex format is used, which is
identical to the plain format.  The commands defined by the plain  for-
mat are documented in The TeXbook.  Other formats that are often avail-
able include latex and amstex.

The non-option command line arguments to the TeX program are passed  to
it  as  the first input line.  (But it is often easier to type extended
arguments as the first input line, since UNIX shells tend to gobble  up
or  misinterpret  TeX's  favorite symbols, like backslashes, unless you
quote them.)  As described in The TeXbook, that first line should begin
with a filename, a \controlsequence, or a &formatname.

The normal usage is to say
tex paper
to start processing paper.tex.  The name paper will be the ``jobname'',
and is used in forming output filenames.  If TeX doesn't get a filename
in the first line, the jobname is texput.  When looking for a file, TeX
looks for the name  with  and  without  the  default  extension  (.tex)
appended, unless the name already contains that extension.  If paper is
the ``jobname'', a log of error messages, with rather more detail  than
normally  appears on the screen, will appear in paper.log, and the out-
put file will be in paper.dvi.

This version of TeX can look in the first line of the file paper.tex to
see  if it begins with the magic sequence %&.  If the first line begins
with %&format -translate-file tcxname then TeX will use the named  for-
mat  and  translation table tcxname to process the source file.  Either
the format name or the -translate-file specification  may  be  omitted,
but not both.  This overrides the format selection based on the name by
which the program is invoked.   The  -parse-first-line  option  or  the
parse_first_line configuration variable controls whether this behaviour
is enabled.

The e response to TeX's error prompt causes the system  default  editor
to  start  up at the current line of the current file.  The environment
variable TEXEDIT can be used to change the editor used.  It may contain
a string with "%s" indicating where the filename goes and "%d" indicat-
ing where the decimal line  number  (if  any)  goes.   For  example,  a
TEXEDIT string for emacs can be set with the sh command
TEXEDIT="emacs +%d %s"; export TEXEDIT

A convenient file in the library is null.tex, containing nothing.  When
TeX can't find a file it thinks you want to input, it keeps asking  you
for another filename; responding `null' gets you out of the loop if you
don't want to input anything.  You can also  type  your  EOF  character
(usually control-D).

```

## OPTIONS

```       This version of TeX understands the following command line options.

-cnf-line string
Parse  string as a texmf.cnf configuration line.  See the Kpath-
sea manual.

-enc   Enable the encTeX extensions.  This option is only effective  in
combination  with  -ini.  For documentation of the encTeX exten-
sions see http://www.olsak.net/enctex.html.

-file-line-error
Print error messages in the form file:line:error which is  simi-
lar to the way many compilers format them.

-no-file-line-error
Disable printing error messages in the file:line:error style.

-file-line-error-style
This is the old name of the -file-line-error option.

-fmt format
Use  format as the name of the format to be used, instead of the
name by which TeX was called or a %& line.

-halt-on-error
Exit with an error code when an error is encountered during pro-
cessing.

-help  Print help message and exit.

-ini   Start  in INI mode, which is used to dump formats.  The INI mode
can be used for typesetting, but no  format  is  preloaded,  and
basic initializations like setting catcodes may be required.

-interaction mode
Sets  the  interaction  mode.  The mode can be either batchmode,
nonstopmode, scrollmode,  and  errorstopmode.   The  meaning  of
these  modes is the same as that of the corresponding \commands.

-ipc   Send DVI output to a socket as well as the  usual  output  file.
Whether this option is available is the choice of the installer.

-ipc-start
As -ipc, and starts  the  server  at  the  other  end  as  well.
Whether this option is available is the choice of the installer.

-jobname name
Use name for the job name, instead of deriving it from the  name
of the input file.

Sets  path  searching  debugging flags according to the bitmask.
See the Kpathsea manual for details.

-mktex fmt
Enable mktexfmt, where fmt must be either tex or tfm.

-mltex Enable MLTeX extensions.  Only  effective  in  combination  with
-ini.

-no-mktex fmt
Disable mktexfmt, where fmt must be either tex or tfm.

-output-comment string
Use string for the DVI file comment instead of the date.

-output-directory directory
Write  output  files  in directory instead of the current direc-
tory.  Look up input files in directory first,  then  along  the
normal  search  path.   See  also description of the TEXMFOUTPUT
environment variable.

-parse-first-line
If the first line of the main input file begins with %& parse it
to look for a dump name or a -translate-file option.

-no-parse-first-line
Disable parsing of the first line of the main input file.

-progname name
Pretend  to  be program name.  This affects both the format used
and the search paths.

-recorder
Enable the filename recorder.  This leaves a trace of the  files
opened for input and output in a file with extension .fls.

-shell-escape
Enable  the \write18{command} construct.  The command can be any
shell command.  This construct is normally disallowed for  secu-
rity reasons.

-no-shell-escape
Disable  the  \write18{command} construct, even if it is enabled
in the texmf.cnf file.

-src-specials
Insert source specials into the DVI file.

-src-specials where
Insert source specials in certain places of the DVI file.  where
is  a  comma-separated value list: cr, display, hbox, math, par,
parent, or vbox.

-translate-file tcxname
Use the tcxname translation table to set the  mapping  of  input
characters and re-mapping of output characters.

-default-translate-file tcxname
Like  -translate-file  except  that  a %& line can overrule this
setting.

-version
Print version information and exit.

```

## ENVIRONMENT

```       See the Kpathsearch library documentation  (the  `Path  specifications'
node)  for  precise  details of how the environment variables are used.
The kpsewhich utility can be used to query the values of the variables.

One  caveat:  In  most  TeX formats, you cannot use ~ in a filename you
give directly to TeX, because ~ is an active character,  and  hence  is
expanded,  not  taken as part of the filename.  Other programs, such as
Metafont, do not have this problem.

TEXMFOUTPUT
Normally, TeX puts its output files in  the  current  directory.
If  any  output file cannot be opened there, it tries to open it
in the directory specified in the environment variable TEXMFOUT-
PUT.  There is no default value for that variable.  For example,
if you say tex paper and the current directory is not  writable,
if  TEXMFOUTPUT  has  the  value  /tmp,  TeX  attempts to create
/tmp/paper.log (and /tmp/paper.dvi, if any output is  produced.)
TEXMFOUTPUT is also checked for input files, as TeX often gener-
ates files that need to be subsequently read; for input, no suf-
fixes (such as ``.tex'') are added by default, the input name is
simply checked as given.

TEXINPUTS
Search path for \input and \openin files.  This  probably  start
with  ``.'',  so  that user files are found before system files.
An empty path component will be replaced with the paths  defined
in   the   texmf.cnf   file.   For  example,  set  TEXINPUTS  to
".:/home/user/tex:"  to  prepend  the  current   directory   and
``/home/user/tex'' to the standard search path.

TEXFORMATS
Search path for format files.

TEXPOOL
search path for tex internal strings.

TEXEDIT
Command  template for switching to editor.  The default, usually
vi, is set when TeX is compiled.

TFMFONTS
Search path for font metric (.tfm) files.

```

## FILES

```       The location of the files mentioned below varies from system to system.
Use the kpsewhich utility to find their locations.

texmf.cnf
Configuration  file.   This contains definitions of search paths
as well as other configuration parameters like parse_first_line.

tex.pool
Text file containing TeX's internal strings.

texfonts.map
Filename mapping definitions.

*.tfm  Metric files for TeX's fonts.

*.fmt  Predigested TeX format (.fmt) files.

\$TEXMFMAIN/tex/plain/base/plain.tex
The basic macro package described in the TeXbook.

```

## NOTES

```       This  manual page is not meant to be exhaustive.  The complete documen-
tation for this version of TeX can be found in the info manual Web2C: A
TeX implementation.

```

## BUGS

```       This  version  of  TeX  implements a number of optional extensions.  In
fact, many of these extensions conflict to a greater or  lesser  extent
with the definition of TeX.  When such extensions are enabled, the ban-
ner printed when TeX starts is changed to print TeXk instead of TeX.

This version of TeX fails to trap arithmetic overflow  when  dimensions
are added or subtracted.  Cases where this occurs are rare, but when it
does the generated DVI file will be invalid.

```

```       mf(1),
Donald E. Knuth, The TeXbook, Addison-Wesley, 1986, ISBN 0-201-13447-0.
Leslie  Lamport, LaTeX - A Document Preparation System, Addison-Wesley,
1985, ISBN 0-201-15790-X.
K. Berry, Eplain: Expanded plain TeX, https://tug.org/eplain
Michael Spivak, The Joy of TeX, 2nd edition, Addison-Wesley, 1990, ISBN
0-8218-2997-1.
TUGboat (the journal of the TeX Users Group).  https://tug.org/TUGboat

```

## TRIVIA

```       TeX,   pronounced  properly,  rhymes  with  ``blecchhh.''   The  proper
spelling in  typewriter-like  fonts  is  ``TeX''  and  not  ``TEX''  or
``tex.''

```

## AUTHORS

```       TeX  was  created  by Donald E. Knuth, who implemented it using his Web
system for Pascal programs.  It was  ported  to  Unix  at  Stanford  by
Howard  Trickey,  and  at  Cornell  by  Pavel  Curtis.  The version now
offered with the Unix TeX distribution is that generated by the Web  to
C system (web2c), originally written by Tomas Rokicki and Tim Morgan.

The encTeX extensions were written by Petr Olsak.

Web2C 2020                       6 August 2019                          tex(1)
```

texlive-bin 2020.54632 - Generated Wed Jul 15 10:55:02 CDT 2020
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