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img2grd(1)                            GMT                           img2grd(1)




NAME

       img2grd - Extract subset of img file in Mercator or Geographic format


SYNOPSIS

       img2grd imgfile  -Ggrdfile
        -Rregion
        -Ttype [  -C ] [  -D[minlat/maxlat] ] [  -E ] [  -Iminutes ] [  -M ] [
       -Nnavg ] [  -S[scale] ] [  -V[level] ] [  -Wmaxlon ] [ -nflags ]

       Note: No space is allowed between the option flag  and  the  associated
       arguments.


DESCRIPTION

       img2grd reads an img format file, extracts a subset, and writes it to a
       grid file. The -M option dictates whether or not the Spherical Mercator
       projection  of the img file is preserved or if a Geographic grid should
       be written by undoing the Mercator projection. If  geographic  grid  is
       selected you can also request a resampling onto the exact -R given.


REQUIRED ARGUMENTS

       imgfile
              A  Mercator  img  format  file  such  as  the  marine gravity or
              seafloor topography fields estimated  from  satellite  altimeter
              data  by  Sandwell and Smith. If the user has set an environment
              variable $GMT_DATADIR, then img2grd will try to find imgfile  in
              $GMT_DATADIR; else it will try to open imgfile directly.

       -Ggrdfile
              grdfile is the name of the output grid file.

       -Rwest/east/south/north[/zmin/zmax][+r][+uunit]
              west, east, south, and north specify the region of interest, and
              you   may   specify   them   in   decimal    degrees    or    in
              [A+-]dd:mm[:ss.xxx][W|E|S|N]  format Append +r if lower left and
              upper right map coordinates are given instead  of  w/e/s/n.  The
              two  shorthands  -Rg  and -Rd stand for global domain (0/360 and
              -180/+180 in longitude respectively, with -90/+90 in  latitude).
              Alternatively  for grid creation, give Rcodelon/lat/nx/ny, where
              code is a 2-character combination of L, C, R (for left,  center,
              or  right)  and T, M, B for top, middle, or bottom. e.g., BL for
              lower left.  This indicates which point on a rectangular  region
              the lon/lat coordinate refers to, and the grid dimensions nx and
              ny with grid spacings via -I is used to create the corresponding
              region.   Alternatively,  specify  the  name of an existing grid
              file and the -R settings (and grid spacing, if  applicable)  are
              copied from the grid. Appending +uunit expects projected (Carte-
              sian) coordinates compatible with chosen  -J  and  we  inversely
              project  to determine actual rectangular geographic region.  For
              perspective view (-p), optionally append /zmin/zmax.  In case of
              perspective view (-p), a z-range (zmin, zmax) can be appended to
              indicate the third dimension. This needs to be  done  only  when
              using  the -Jz option, not when using only the -p option. In the
              latter case a perspective view of the plane is plotted, with  no
              third dimension.


OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

       -C     Set the x and y Mercator coordinates relative to projection cen-
              ter [Default is relative to lower left corner of grid]. Requires
              -M.

       -D[minlat/maxlat]
              Use  the extended latitude range -80.738/+80.738. Alternatively,
              append minlat/maxlat as the latitude extent  of  the  input  img
              file.   [Default  is -72.006/72.006]. Not usually required since
              we can determine the extent from inspection of the file size.

       -E     Can be used when -M is not set to force the final grid  to  have
              the  exact  same  region  as  requested with -R. By default, the
              final region is a direct projection  of  the  original  Mercator
              region  and  will typically extend slightly beyond the requested
              latitude range, and furthermore the grid increment  in  latitude
              does  not  match  the  longitude  increment.  However, the extra
              resampling introduces small interpolation errors and should only
              be  used  if the output grid must match the requested region and
              have x_inc = y_inc. In this case the region set by  -R  must  be
              given in multiples of the increment (.e.g, -R0/45/45/72).

       -I     Indicate  minutes  as the width of an input img pixel in minutes
              of longitude. [Default is 2.0]. Not usually  required  since  we
              can determine the pixel size from inspection of the size.

       -M     Output  a  Spherical  Mercator  grid  [Default  is  a geographic
              lon/lat grid]. The Spherical Mercator projection of the img file
              is  preserved, so that the region -R set by the user is modified
              slightly; the modified region corresponds to the edges of pixels
              [or  groups of navg pixels]. The grid file header is set so that
              the x and y axis lengths represent distance from  the  west  and
              south  edges  of the image, measured in user default units, with
              -Jm1 and the adjusted -R. By setting the default PROJ_ ELLIPSOID
              =  Sphere,  the  user  can make overlays with the adjusted -R so
              that they match. See EXAMPLES below. The  adjusted  -R  is  also
              written in the grid header remark, so it can be found later. See
              -C to set coordinates relative to projection center.

       -Nnavg Average the values in the input img pixels  into  navg  by  navg
              squares,  and  create  one output pixel for each such square. If
              used with -T3 it will report an average constraint between 0 and
              1. If used with -T2 the output will be average data value or NaN
              according to whether average constraint  is  >  0.5.  navg  must
              evenly  divide  into  the  dimensions  of the imgfile in pixels.
              [Default 1 does no averaging].

       -S[scale]
              Multiply the img file values by scale  before  storing  in  grid
              file.   [Default  is  1.0]. For recent img files: img topo files
              are stored in (corrected) meters [-S1]; free-air  gravity  files
              in  mGal*10  [-S0.1  to  get mGal]; vertical deflection files in
              micro-radians*10 [-S0.1 to get micro-radians], vertical  gravity
              gradient files in Eotvos*50 [-S0.02 to get Eotvos, or -S0.002 to
              get mGal/km]). If no scale is given  we  try  to  determine  the
              scale by examining the file name for clues.

       -Ttype type  handles  the  encoding of constraint information. type = 0
              indicates that no such information is encoded in  the  img  file
              (used  for  pre-1995  versions of the gravity data) and gets all
              data. type > 0 indicates that constraint information is  encoded
              (1995 and later (current) versions of the img files) so that one
              may produce a grid file as follows: -T1 gets data values at  all
              points,  -T2  gets  data values at constrained points and NaN at
              interpolated points; -T3 gets 1 at constrained points and  0  at
              interpolated points [Default is 1].

       -V[level] (more a|)
              Select verbosity level [c]. Particularly recommended here, as it
              is helpful to see how the coordinates are adjusted.

       -Wmaxlon
              Indicate maxlon as the maximum longitude extent of the input img
              file.  Versions  since  1995 have had maxlon = 360.0, while some
              earlier files had maxlon = 390.0. [Default is 360.0].

       -n[b|c|l|n][+a][+bBC][+c][+tthreshold] (more a|)
              Select interpolation mode for grids.

       -^ or just -
              Print a short message about the  syntax  of  the  command,  then
              exits (NOTE: on Windows just use -).

       -+ or just +
              Print  an extensive usage (help) message, including the explana-
              tion of any module-specific  option  (but  not  the  GMT  common
              options), then exits.

       -? or no arguments
              Print a complete usage (help) message, including the explanation
              of all options, then exits.


GEOGRAPHIC EXAMPLES

       The -M option should be excluded if you need the output grid to  be  in
       geographic  coordinates. To extract data in the region -R-40/40/-70/-30
       from world_grav.img.7.2 and reproject to yield geographic  coordinates,
       you can try

              img2grd world_grav.img.16.1 -Gmerc_grav.nc -R-40/40/-70/-30 -V

       Because the latitude spacing in the img file is equidistant in Mercator
       units, the resulting grid will not match the specified -R exactly,  and
       the  latitude spacing will not equal the longitude spacing. If you need
       an exact match with your -R and the same spacing in longitude and lati-
       tude, use the -E option:

              img2grd world_grav.img.16.1 -Gmerc_grav.nc -R-40/40/-70/-30 -E -V


MERCATOR EXAMPLES

       Since  the  img  files  are  in  a  Mercator projection, you should NOT
       extract a geographic grid if your plan is to make a  Mercator  map.  If
       you  did  that  you end of projecting and reprojection the grid, losing
       short-wavelength detail. Better to use -M and plot  the  grid  using  a
       linear  projection  with the same scale as the desired Mercator projec-
       tion  (see  GMT  Example  29).   To  extract   data   in   the   region
       -R-40/40/-70/-30 from world_grav.img.7.2, run

              gmt img2grd -M world_grav.img.7.2 -Gmerc_grav.nc -R-40/40/-70/-30 -V

       Note  that  the  -V  option  tells  us  that  the range was adjusted to
       -R-40/40/-70.0004681551/-29.9945810754. For scripting purposes  we  can
       extract this original region string using grdinfo -Ii.  Furthermore, we
       can also use grdinfo to find that the grid file header shows its region
       to  be -R0/80/0/67.9666667. This is the range of x,y we will get from a
       Spherical             Mercator             projection             using
       -R-40/40/-70.0004681551/-29.9945810754   and   -Jm1.   Thus,   to  take
       ship.lonlatgrav and use it to sample the merc_grav.nc, we can do this:

              gmt set PROJ_ELLIPSOID Sphere

              gmt mapproject -R-40/40/-70.0004681551/-29.9945810754 -Jm1i ship.lonlatgrav | \
                        gmt grdtrack -Gmerc_grav.nc | gmt mapproject \
                        -R-40/40/-70.0004681551/-29.9945810754 -Jm1i -I > ship.lonlatgravsat

       It is recommended to use the above method of projecting and  unproject-
       ing  the  data  in  such an application, because then there is only one
       interpolation step (in grdtrack). If one first  tries  to  convert  the
       grid  file  to  lon,lat and then sample it, there are two interpolation
       steps (in conversion and in sampling).

       To make a lon,lat grid from the above grid we can use

              gmt grdproject merc_grav.nc -R-40/40/-70.0004681551/-29.9945810754 -Jm1i -I -D2m -Ggrav.nc

       In some cases this will not be easy as the -R  in  the  two  coordinate
       systems  may  not  align  well.  When this happens, we can also use (in
       fact, it may be always better to use)

              gmt grd2xyz merc_grav.nc | gmt mapproject \
                  -R-40/40/-70.0004681551/-29.994581075 -Jm1i -I | \
                  gmt surface -R-40/40/-70/70 -I2m -Ggrav.nc

       To make a Mercator map of the above region, suppose our gmt.conf  value
       for PROJ_LENGTH_UNIT is inch. Then since the above merc_grav.nc file is
       projected with -Jm1i it is 80 inches wide. We can make a map  8  inches
       wide  by  using -Jx0.1i on any map programs applied to this grid (e.g.,
       grdcontour, grdimage, grdview), and then for  overlays  which  work  in
       lon,lat  (e.g.,  psxy,  pscoast)  we  can use the above adjusted -R and
       -Jm0.1 to get the two systems to match up.

       However, we can be smarter than this. Realizing that the input img file
       had  pixels  2.0  minutes  wide (or checking the nx and ny with grdinfo
       merc_grav.nc) we realize that merc_grav.nc used the full resolution  of
       the  img file and it has 2400 by 2039 pixels, and at 8 inches wide this
       is 300 pixels per inch. We decide we do not need that many and we  will
       be  satisfied  with 100 pixels per inch, so we want to average the data
       into 3 by 3 squares. (If we want a contour plot we will probably choose
       to  average  the data much more (e.g., 6 by 6) to get smooth contours.)
       Since 2039 isnat divisible by 3 we will get  a  different  adjusted  -R
       this time:

              gmt img2grd -M world_grav.img.7.2 -Gmerc_grav_2.nc -R-40/40/-70/-30 -N3 -V

       This      time      we      find     the     adjusted     region     is
       -R-40/40/-70.023256525/-29.9368261101 and the output is 800 by 601 pix-
       els, a better size for us. Now we can create an artificial illumination
       file for this using grdgradient:

              gmt grdgradient merc_grav_2.nc -Gillum.nc -A0/270 -Ne0.6

       and if we also have a CPT called  agrav.cpta  we  can  create  a  color
       shaded relief map like this:

              gmt grdimage merc_grav_2.nc -Iillum.nc -Cgrav.cpt -Jx0.1i -K > map.ps
              gmt psbasemap -R-40/40/-70.023256525/-29.9368261101 -Jm0.1i -Ba10 -O >> map.ps

       Suppose you want to obtain only the constrained data values from an img
       file, in lat/lon coordinates. Then run img2grd with the -T2 option, use
       grd2xyz to dump the values, pipe through grep -v NaN to eliminate NaNs,
       and pipe through mapproject with the inverse projection as above.


SEE ALSO

       gmt(1)


COPYRIGHT

       2017, P. Wessel, W. H. F. Smith, R. Scharroo, J. Luis, and F. Wobbe



5.4.2                            Jun 24, 2017                       img2grd(1)

gmt5 5.4.2 - Generated Thu Jun 29 13:44:34 CDT 2017
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