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TAR(1)                          GNU TAR Manual                          TAR(1)




NAME

       tar - an archiving utility


SYNOPSIS

   Traditional usage
       tar {A|c|d|r|t|u|x}[GnSkUWOmpsMBiajJzZhPlRvwo] [ARG...]

   UNIX-style usage
       tar -A [OPTIONS] ARCHIVE ARCHIVE

       tar -c [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar -d [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar -t [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [MEMBER...]

       tar -r [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar -u [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar -x [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [MEMBER...]

   GNU-style usage
       tar {--catenate|--concatenate} [OPTIONS] ARCHIVE ARCHIVE

       tar --create [--file ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar {--diff|--compare} [--file ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar --delete [--file ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [MEMBER...]

       tar --append [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar --list [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [MEMBER...]

       tar --test-label [--file ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [LABEL...]

       tar --update [--file ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar --update [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar {--extract|--get} [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [MEMBER...]


NOTE

       This manpage is a short description of GNU tar.  For a detailed discus-
       sion, including examples and usage recommendations, refer  to  the  GNU
       Tar Manual available in texinfo format.  If the info reader and the tar
       documentation are properly installed on your system, the command

           info tar

       should give you access to the complete manual.

       You can also view the manual using the info mode in emacs(1),  or  find
       it in various formats online at

           http://www.gnu.org/software/tar/manual

       If any discrepancies occur between this manpage and the GNU Tar Manual,
       the later shall be considered the authoritative source.


DESCRIPTION

       GNU tar is an archiving program designed to store multiple files  in  a
       single file (an archive), and to manipulate such archives.  The archive
       can be either a regular file or a device (e.g. a tape drive, hence  the
       name  of  the  program,  which  stands for tape archiver), which can be
       located either on the local or on a remote machine.



   Option styles
       Options to GNU tar can be given in three different styles.   In  tradi-
       tional style, the first argument is a cluster of option letters and all
       subsequent arguments supply arguments to  those  options  that  require
       them.   The arguments are read in the same order as the option letters.
       Any command line words that remain after all options has been processed
       are treated as non-optional arguments: file or archive member names.

       For  example,  the c option requires creating the archive, the v option
       requests the verbose operation, and the f option takes an argument that
       sets  the  name of the archive to operate upon.  The following command,
       written in the traditional style, instructs tar to store all files from
       the  directory /etc into the archive file etc.tar verbosely listing the
       files being archived:

       tar cfv etc.tar /etc

       In UNIX or short-option style, each option letter is  prefixed  with  a
       single  dash,  as  in other command line utilities.  If an option takes
       argument, the argument follows it, either as a  separate  command  line
       word,  or  immediately  following  the  option.  However, if the option
       takes an optional argument, the argument must follow the option  letter
       without any intervening whitespace, as in -g/tmp/snar.db.

       Any  number  of  options not taking arguments can be clustered together
       after a single dash, e.g. -vkp.  Options that take  arguments  (whether
       mandatory  or  optional), can appear at the end of such a cluster, e.g.
       -vkpf a.tar.

       The example command above written in the short-option style could  look
       like:

       tar -cvf etc.tar /etc or tar -c -v -f etc.tar /etc

       In GNU or long-option style, each option begins with two dashes and has
       a meaningful name, consisting of lower-case letters and  dashes.   When
       used,  the  long option can be abbreviated to its initial letters, pro-
       vided that this does not create ambiguity.  Arguments to  long  options
       are  supplied  either as a separate command line word, immediately fol-
       lowing the option, or separated from the option by an equals sign  with
       no intervening whitespace.  Optional arguments must always use the lat-
       ter method.

       Here are several ways of writing the example command in this style:

       tar --create  --file  etc.tar  --verbose  /etc  or  (abbreviating  some
       options): tar --cre --file=etc.tar --verb /etc

       The  options  in  all three styles can be intermixed, although doing so
       with old options is not encouraged.

   Operation mode
       The options listed in the table below tell GNU tar what operation it is
       to  perform.   Exactly  one  of  them  must  be given.  Meaning of non-
       optional arguments depends on the operation mode requested.

       -A, --catenate, --concatenate
              Append archive to the end of another archive.  The arguments are
              treated  as  the names of archives to append.  All archives must
              be of the same format as the archive they are appended to,  oth-
              erwise  the  resulting  archive  might  be unusable with non-GNU
              implementations of tar.  Notice also that when more than one ar-
              chive  is  given, the members from archives other than the first
              one will be accessible in the resulting archive  only  if  using
              the -i (--ignore-zeros) option.

              Compressed archives cannot be concatenated.

       -c, --create
              Create  a  new archive.  Arguments supply the names of the files
              to be archived.  Directories are  archived  recursively,  unless
              the --no-recursion option is given.

       -d, --diff, --compare
              Find differences between archive and file system.  The arguments
              are optional and specify archive members  to  compare.   If  not
              given, the current working directory is assumed.

       --delete
              Delete  from the archive.  The arguments supply names of the ar-
              chive members to be removed.  At  least  one  argument  must  be
              given.

              This  option  does not operate on compressed archives.  There is
              no short option equivalent.

       -r, --append
              Append files to the end of an archive.  Arguments have the  same
              meaning as for -c (--create).

       -t, --list
              List  the contents of an archive.  Arguments are optional.  When
              given, they specify the names of the members to list.

       --test-label
              Test the archive volume label and exit.  When used without argu-
              ments, it prints the volume label (if any) and exits with status
              0.  When one or more command line arguments are given.  tar com-
              pares the volume label with each argument.  It exits with code 0
              if a match is found, and with code 1 otherwise.   No  output  is
              displayed,  unless used together with the -v (--verbose) option.

              There is no short option equivalent for this option.

       -u, --update
              Append files which are newer than the corresponding copy in  the
              archive.   Arguments  have  the  same  meaning as with -c and -r
              options.  Notice, that newer files don't replace their  old  ar-
              chive  copies,  but  instead are appended to the end of archive.
              The resulting archive can thus contain several  members  of  the
              same name, corresponding to various versions of the same file.

       -x, --extract, --get
              Extract  files  from  an archive.  Arguments are optional.  When
              given,  they  specify  names  of  the  archive  members  to   be
              extracted.


       --show-defaults
              Show  built-in defaults for various tar options and exit.
              No arguments are allowed.

       -?, --help
              Display a short option summary and  exit.   No  arguments
              allowed.

       --usage
              Display  a  list of available options and exit.  No argu-
              ments allowed.

       --version
              Print program version and copyright information and exit.


OPTIONS

   Operation modifiers
       --check-device
              Check  device  numbers when creating incremental archives
              (default).

       -g, --listed-incremental=FILE
              Handle new GNU-format incremental backups.  FILE  is  the
              name  of  a  snapshot  file,  where tar stores additional
              information which is used to decide which  files  changed
              since  the  previous  incremental dump and, consequently,
              must be dumped again.  If FILE does not exist when creat-
              ing  an archive, it will be created and all files will be
              added to the resulting archive (the level  0  dump).   To
              create incremental archives of non-zero level N, create a
              copy of the snapshot file created during the  level  N-1,
              and use it as FILE.

              When  listing  or extracting, the actual contents of FILE
              is not inspected, it is needed only  due  to  syntactical
              requirements.   It  is  therefore  common practice to use
              /dev/null in its place.

       --hole-detection=METHOD
              Use METHOD to detect holes in sparse files.  This  option
              implies  --sparse.   Valid values for METHOD are seek and
              raw.  Default is seek  with  fallback  to  raw  when  not
              applicable.

       -G, --incremental
              Handle old GNU-format incremental backups.

       --ignore-failed-read
              Do not exit with nonzero on unreadable files.

       --level=NUMBER
              Set  dump  level  for created listed-incremental archive.
              Currently only --level=0 is meaningful: it instructs  tar
              to  truncate  the  snapshot  file before dumping, thereby
              forcing a level 0 dump.

       -n, --seek
              Assume the archive is seekable.  Normally tar  determines
              automatically  whether  the archive can be seeked or not.
              This option is intended for use in cases when such recog-
              nition  fails.   It  takes  effect only if the archive is
              open for reading (e.g. with --list or --extract options).

       --no-check-device
              Do not check device numbers when creating incremental ar-
              chives.

       --no-seek
              Assume the archive is not seekable.

       --occurrence[=N]
              Process only the Nth occurrence of each file in  the  ar-
              chive.   This  option is valid only when used with one of
              the following subcommands: --delete, --diff, --extract or
              --list  and  when  a list of files is given either on the
              command line or via the -T option.  The default N is 1.

       --restrict
              Disable the use of some potentially harmful options.

       --sparse-version=MAJOR[.MINOR]
              Set  version  of  the  sparse  format  to  use   (implies
              --sparse).  This option implies --sparse.  Valid argument
              values are 0.0, 0.1, and 1.0.  For a detailed  discussion
              of  sparse formats, refer to the GNU Tar Manual, appendix
              D, "Sparse  Formats".   Using  info  reader,  it  can  be
              accessed  running the following command: info tar 'Sparse
              Formats'.

       -S, --sparse
              Handle sparse files efficiently.  Some files in the  file
              system  may have segments which were actually never writ-
              ten (quite often these are database files created by such
              systems as DBM).  When given this option, tar attempts to
              determine if the file is sparse prior  to  archiving  it,
              and  if  so,  to reduce the resulting archive size by not
              dumping empty parts of the file.

   Overwrite control
       These options control tar actions when extracting a file over an
       existing copy on disk.

       -k, --keep-old-files
              Don't replace existing files when extracting.

       --keep-newer-files
              Don't  replace  existing  files that are newer than their
              archive copies.

       --keep-directory-symlink
              Don't  replace  existing  symlinks  to  directories  when
              extracting.

       --no-overwrite-dir
              Preserve metadata of existing directories.

       --one-top-level[=DIR]
              Extract all files into DIR, or, if used without argument,
              into a subdirectory named by the base name of the archive
              (minus  standard  compression  suffixes  recognizable  by
              --auto-compress).

       --overwrite
              Overwrite existing files when extracting.

       --overwrite-dir
              Overwrite metadata of existing directories when  extract-
              ing (default).

       --recursive-unlink
              Recursively  remove  all  files in the directory prior to
              extracting it.

       --remove-files
              Remove files from disk after adding them to the  archive.

       --skip-old-files
              Don't  replace  existing  files when extracting, silently
              skip over them.

       -U, --unlink-first
              Remove each file prior to extracting over it.

       -W, --verify
              Verify the archive after writing it.

   Output stream selection
       --ignore-command-error

       Ignore subprocess exit codes.

       --no-ignore-command-error
              Treat non-zero exit codes of children as error (default).

       -O, --to-stdout
              Extract files to standard output.

       --to-command=COMMAND
              Pipe  extracted  files  to  COMMAND.  The argument is the
              pathname of an external program, optionally with  command
              line arguments.  The program will be invoked and the con-
              tents of the file being extracted supplied to it  on  its
              standard input.  Additional data will be supplied via the
              following environment variables:

              TAR_FILETYPE
                     Type of the file. It is a single letter  with  the
                     following meaning:

                             f           Regular file
                             d           Directory
                             l           Symbolic link
                             h           Hard link
                             b           Block device
                             c           Character device

                     Currently only regular files are supported.

              TAR_MODE
                     File mode, an octal number.

              TAR_FILENAME
                     The name of the file.

              TAR_REALNAME
                     Name of the file as stored in the archive.

              TAR_UNAME
                     Name of the file owner.

              TAR_GNAME
                     Name of the file owner group.

              TAR_ATIME
                     Time  of last access. It is a decimal number, rep-
                     resenting seconds since the Epoch.  If the archive
                     provides  times  with  nanosecond  precision,  the
                     nanoseconds are appended to the timestamp after  a
                     decimal point.

              TAR_MTIME
                     Time of last modification.

              TAR_CTIME
                     Time of last status change.

              TAR_SIZE
                     Size of the file.

              TAR_UID
                     UID of the file owner.

              TAR_GID
                     GID of the file owner.

              Additionally, the following variables contain information
              about tar operation mode and the archive being processed:

              TAR_VERSION
                     GNU tar version number.

              TAR_ARCHIVE
                     The name of the archive tar is processing.

              TAR_BLOCKING_FACTOR
                     Current  blocking  factor, i.e. number of 512-byte
                     blocks in a record.

              TAR_VOLUME
                     Ordinal number of the  volume  tar  is  processing
                     (set if reading a multi-volume archive).

              TAR_FORMAT
                     Format  of  the  archive being processed.  One of:
                     gnu, oldgnu, posix, ustar, v7.

              TAR_SUBCOMMAND
                     A short option (with a  leading  dash)  describing
                     the operation tar is executing.

   Handling of file attributes
       --atime-preserve[=METHOD]
              Preserve  access times on dumped files, either by restor-
              ing the times after reading (METHOD=replace, this is  the
              default)  or  by not setting the times in the first place
              (METHOD=system)

       --delay-directory-restore
              Delay  setting  modification  times  and  permissions  of
              extracted  directories  until the end of extraction.  Use
              this option when extracting from  an  archive  which  has
              unusual member ordering.

       --group=NAME[:GID]
              Force  NAME as group for added files.  If GID is not sup-
              plied, NAME can be either a user name or numeric GID.  In
              this case the missing part (GID or name) will be inferred
              from the current host's group database.

              When used with --group-map=FILE, affects only those files
              whose owner group is not listed in FILE.

       --group-map=FILE
              Read  group  translation  map from FILE.  Empty lines are
              ignored.  Comments are introduced with # sign and  extend
              to  the end of line.  Each non-empty line in FILE defines
              translation for a single group.  It must consist  of  two
              fields, delimited by any amount of whitespace:

              OLDGRP NEWGRP[:NEWGID]

              OLDGRP  is  either  a  valid group name or a GID prefixed
              with +.  Unless NEWGID is supplied, NEWGRP must  also  be
              either  a  valid  group  name or a +GID.  Otherwise, both
              NEWGRP and NEWGID need not be listed in the system  group
              database.

              As a result, each input file with owner group OLDGRP will
              be stored in archive with  owner  group  NEWGRP  and  GID
              NEWGID.

       --mode=CHANGES
              Force symbolic mode CHANGES for added files.

       --mtime=DATE-OR-FILE
              Set  mtime  for  added  files.   DATE-OR-FILE is either a
              date/time in almost arbitrary format, or the name  of  an
              existing file.  In the latter case the mtime of that file
              will be used.

       -m, --touch
              Don't extract file modified time.

       --no-delay-directory-restore
              Cancel the effect of the prior  --delay-directory-restore
              option.

       --no-same-owner
              Extract files as yourself (default for ordinary users).

       --no-same-permissions
              Apply  the  user's umask when extracting permissions from
              the archive (default for ordinary users).

       --numeric-owner
              Always use numbers for user/group names.

       --owner=NAME[:UID]
              Force NAME as owner for added files.  If UID is not  sup-
              plied, NAME can be either a user name or numeric UID.  In
              this case the missing part (UID or name) will be inferred
              from the current host's user database.

              When used with --owner-map=FILE, affects only those files
              whose owner is not listed in FILE.

       --owner-map=FILE
              Read owner translation map from FILE.   Empty  lines  are
              ignored.   Comments are introduced with # sign and extend
              to the end of line.  Each non-empty line in FILE  defines
              translation  for  a  single  UID.  It must consist of two
              fields, delimited by any amount of whitespace:

              OLDUSR NEWUSR[:NEWUID]

              OLDUSR is either a valid user name or a UID prefixed with
              +.  Unless NEWUID is supplied, NEWUSR must also be either
              a valid user name or a +UID.  Otherwise, both NEWUSR  and
              NEWUID need not be listed in the system user database.

              As  a  result,  each  input  file owned by OLDUSR will be
              stored in archive with owner name NEWUSR and UID  NEWUID.

       -p, --preserve-permissions, --same-permissions
              extract  information  about file permissions (default for
              superuser)

       --same-owner
              Try extracting files with the same ownership as exists in
              the archive (default for superuser).

       -s, --preserve-order, --same-order
              Sort names to extract to match archive

       --sort=ORDER
              When  creating an archive, sort directory entries accord-
              ing to ORDER, which is one of none, name, or inode.

              The default is --sort=none, which stores archive  members
              in the same order as returned by the operating system.

              Using --sort=name ensures the member ordering in the cre-
              ated archive is uniform and reproducible.

              Using --sort=inode reduces the number of disk seeks  made
              when creating the archive and thus can considerably speed
              up archivation.  This sorting order is supported only  if
              the underlying system provides the necessary information.

   Extended file attributes
       --acls Enable POSIX ACLs support.

       --no-acls
              Disable POSIX ACLs support.

       --selinux
              Enable SELinux context support.

       --no-selinux
              Disable SELinux context support.

       --xattrs
              Enable extended attributes support.

       --no-xattrs
              Disable extended attributes support.

       --xattrs-exclude=PATTERN
              Specify the exclude pattern for xattr keys.  PATTERN is a
              POSIX regular expression, e.g. --xattrs-exclude='^user.',
              to exclude attributes from the user namespace.

       --xattrs-include=PATTERN
              Specify the include pattern for xattr keys.  PATTERN is a
              POSIX regular expression.

   Device selection and switching
       -f, --file=ARCHIVE
              Use  archive  file  or device ARCHIVE.  If this option is
              not given, tar will first examine the  environment  vari-
              able `TAPE'.  If it is set, its value will be used as the
              archive name.  Otherwise, tar will assume the compiled-in
              default.  The default value can be inspected either using
              the --show-defaults option, or at  the  end  of  the  tar
              --help output.

              An  archive  name that has a colon in it specifies a file
              or device on a remote machine.  The part before the colon
              is  taken as the machine name or IP address, and the part
              after it as the file or device pathname, e.g.:

              --file=remotehost:/dev/sr0

              An optional username can be  prefixed  to  the  hostname,
              placing a @ sign between them.

              By  default,  the  remote host is accessed via the rsh(1)
              command.  Nowadays it is common to  use  ssh(1)  instead.
              You  can  do  so  by  giving  the  following command line
              option:

              --rsh-command=/usr/bin/ssh

              The  remote  machine  should  have  the  rmt(8)   command
              installed.  If its pathname does not match tar's default,
              you can inform tar about the correct pathname  using  the
              --rmt-command option.

       --force-local
              Archive file is local even if it has a colon.

       -F, --info-script=COMMAND, --new-volume-script=COMMAND
              Run  COMMAND  at  the end of each tape (implies -M).  The
              command can include arguments.   When  started,  it  will
              inherit tar's environment plus the following variables:

              TAR_VERSION
                     GNU tar version number.

              TAR_ARCHIVE
                     The name of the archive tar is processing.

              TAR_BLOCKING_FACTOR
                     Current  blocking  factor, i.e. number of 512-byte
                     blocks in a record.

              TAR_VOLUME
                     Ordinal number of the  volume  tar  is  processing
                     (set if reading a multi-volume archive).

              TAR_FORMAT
                     Format  of  the  archive being processed.  One of:
                     gnu, oldgnu, posix, ustar, v7.

              TAR_SUBCOMMAND
                     A short option (with a  leading  dash)  describing
                     the operation tar is executing.

              TAR_FD File  descriptor  which can be used to communicate
                     the new volume name to tar.

              If the info script fails, tar exits; otherwise, it begins
              writing the next volume.

       -L, --tape-length=N
              Change tape after writing Nx1024 bytes.  If N is followed
              by a  size  suffix  (see  the  subsection  Size  suffixes
              below), the suffix specifies the multiplicative factor to
              be used instead of 1024.

              This option implies -M.

       -M, --multi-volume
              Create/list/extract multi-volume archive.

       --rmt-command=COMMAND
              Use COMMAND instead of  rmt  when  accessing  remote  ar-
              chives.  See the description of the -f option, above.

       --rsh-command=COMMAND
              Use  COMMAND  instead  of  rsh  when accessing remote ar-
              chives.  See the description of the -f option, above.

       --volno-file=FILE
              When this option is used in conjunction with --multi-vol-
              ume,  tar will keep track of which volume of a multi-vol-
              ume archive it is working in FILE.

   Device blocking
       -b, --blocking-factor=BLOCKS
              Set record size to BLOCKSx512 bytes.

       -B, --read-full-records
              When  listing  or  extracting,  accept  incomplete  input
              records after end-of-file marker.

       -i, --ignore-zeros
              Ignore  zeroed  blocks in archive.  Normally two consecu-
              tive 512-blocks filled with zeroes mean EOF and tar stops
              reading  after  encountering them.  This option instructs
              it to read further and is useful  when  reading  archives
              created with the -A option.

       --record-size=NUMBER
              Set  record  size.   NUMBER  is  the  number of bytes per
              record.  It must be multiple of 512.  It can can be  suf-
              fixed  with a size suffix, e.g. --record-size=10K, for 10
              Kilobytes.  See the subsection Size suffixes, for a  list
              of valid suffixes.

   Archive format selection
       -H, --format=FORMAT
              Create archive of the given format.  Valid formats are:

              gnu    GNU tar 1.13.x format

              oldgnu GNU format as per tar <= 1.12.

              pax, posix
                     POSIX 1003.1-2001 (pax) format.

              ustar  POSIX 1003.1-1988 (ustar) format.

              v7     Old V7 tar format.

       --old-archive, --portability
              Same as --format=v7.

       --pax-option=keyword[[:]=value][,keyword[[:]=value]]...
              Control pax keywords when creating PAX archives (-H pax).
              This option is equivalent to the -o option of the  pax(1)
              utility.

       --posix
              Same as --format=posix.

       -V, --label=TEXT
              Create  archive  with  volume  name  TEXT.  If listing or
              extracting, use TEXT as a  globbing  pattern  for  volume
              name.

   Compression options
       -a, --auto-compress
              Use  archive suffix to determine the compression program.

       -I, --use-compress-program=COMMAND
              Filter data through  COMMAND.   It  must  accept  the  -d
              option, for decompression.  The argument can contain com-
              mand line options.

       -j, --bzip2
              Filter the archive through bzip2(1).

       -J, --xz
              Filter the archive through xz(1).

       --lzip Filter the archive through lzip(1).

       --lzma Filter the archive through lzma(1).

       --lzop Filter the archive through lzop(1).

       --no-auto-compress
              Do not use archive suffix to  determine  the  compression
              program.

       -z, --gzip, --gunzip, --ungzip
              Filter the archive through gzip(1).

       -Z, --compress, --uncompress
              Filter the archive through compress(1).

       --zstd Filter the archive through zstd(1).

   Local file selection
       --add-file=FILE
              Add FILE to the archive (useful if its name starts with a
              dash).

       --backup[=CONTROL]
              Backup before removal.  The  CONTROL  argument,  if  sup-
              plied, controls the backup policy.  Its valid values are:

              none, off
                     Never make backups.

              t, numbered
                     Make numbered backups.

              nil, existing
                     Make numbered backups if numbered  backups  exist,
                     simple backups otherwise.

              never, simple
                     Always make simple backups

              If CONTROL is not given, the value is taken from the VER-
              SION_CONTROL environment variable.  If  it  is  not  set,
              existing is assumed.

       -C, --directory=DIR
              Change  to  DIR  before  performing any operations.  This
              option is order-sensitive, i.e. it  affects  all  options
              that follow.

       --exclude=PATTERN
              Exclude  files matching PATTERN, a glob(3)-style wildcard
              pattern.

       --exclude-backups
              Exclude backup and lock files.

       --exclude-caches
              Exclude   contents   of   directories   containing   file
              CACHEDIR.TAG, except for the tag file itself.

       --exclude-caches-all
              Exclude  directories containing file CACHEDIR.TAG and the
              file itself.

       --exclude-caches-under
              Exclude   everything   under    directories    containing
              CACHEDIR.TAG

       --exclude-ignore=FILE
              Before  dumping a directory, see if it contains FILE.  If
              so, read exclusion patterns from this file.  The patterns
              affect only the directory itself.

       --exclude-ignore-recursive=FILE
              Same  as --exclude-ignore, except that patterns from FILE
              affect both the directory and all its subdirectories.

       --exclude-tag=FILE
              Exclude contents of directories containing  FILE,  except
              for FILE itself.

       --exclude-tag-all=FILE
              Exclude directories containing FILE.

       --exclude-tag-under=FILE
              Exclude everything under directories containing FILE.

       --exclude-vcs
              Exclude version control system directories.

       --exclude-vcs-ignores
              Exclude  files that match patterns read from VCS-specific
              ignore files.  Supported files are:  .cvsignore,  .gitig-
              nore, .bzrignore, and .hgignore.

       -h, --dereference
              Follow  symlinks;  archive  and dump the files they point
              to.

       --hard-dereference
              Follow hard links; archive and dump the files they  refer
              to.

       -K, --starting-file=MEMBER
              Begin at the given member in the archive.

       --newer-mtime=DATE
              Work on files whose data changed after the DATE.  If DATE
              starts with / or . it is taken to be  a  file  name;  the
              mtime of that file is used as the date.

       --no-null
              Disable the effect of the previous --null option.

       --no-recursion
              Avoid descending automatically in directories.

       --no-unquote
              Do not unquote input file or member names.

       --no-verbatim-files-from
              Treat  each line read from a file list as if it were sup-
              plied in the command line.  I.e.,  leading  and  trailing
              whitespace is removed and, if the resulting string begins
              with a dash, it is treated as tar command line option.

              This  is   the   default   behavior.    The   --no-verba-
              tim-files-from  option is provided as a way to restore it
              after --verbatim-files-from option.

              This option is positional: it  affects  all  --files-from
              options   that   occur   after   it  in,  until  --verba-
              tim-files-from option or end of  line,  whichever  occurs
              first.

              It is implied by the --no-null option.

       --null Instruct  subsequent  -T  options to read null-terminated
              names verbatim (disables special handling of  names  that
              start with a dash).

              See also --verbatim-files-from.

       -N, --newer=DATE, --after-date=DATE
              Only  store files newer than DATE.  If DATE starts with /
              or . it is taken to be a file name;  the  mtime  of  that
              file is used as the date.

       --one-file-system
              Stay in local file system when creating archive.

       -P, --absolute-names
              Don't strip leading slashes from file names when creating
              archives.

       --recursion
              Recurse into directories (default).

       --suffix=STRING
              Backup before removal, override  usual  suffix.   Default
              suffix  is  ~,  unless overridden by environment variable
              SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX.

       -T, --files-from=FILE
              Get names to extract or create from FILE.

              Unless specified otherwise, the FILE must contain a  list
              of  names separated by ASCII LF (i.e. one name per line).
              The names read are handled the same way as  command  line
              arguments.   They  undergo  quote removal and word split-
              ting, and any string that starts with a - is  handled  as
              tar command line option.

              If  this  behavior  is  undesirable, it can be turned off
              using the --verbatim-files-from option.

              The --null option instructs tar that the  names  in  FILE
              are  separated by ASCII NUL character, instead of LF.  It
              is useful if the list is  generated  by  find(1)  -print0
              predicate.

       --unquote
              Unquote file or member names (default).

       --verbatim-files-from
              Treat each line obtained from a file list as a file name,
              even if it starts with a dash.  File lists  are  supplied
              with  the --files-from (-T) option.  The default behavior
              is to handle names supplied in file lists as if they were
              typed in the command line, i.e. any names starting with a
              dash  are  treated  as   tar   options.    The   --verba-
              tim-files-from option disables this behavior.

              This  option  affects all --files-from options that occur
              after it in the command line.  Its effect is reverted  by
              the --no-verbatim-files-from} option.

              This option is implied by the --null option.

              See also --add-file.

       -X, --exclude-from=FILE
              Exclude files matching patterns listed in FILE.

   File name transformations
       --strip-components=NUMBER
              Strip  NUMBER  leading  components  from  file  names  on
              extraction.

       --transform=EXPRESSION, --xform=EXPRESSION
              Use sed replace EXPRESSION to transform file names.

   File name matching options
       These options affect both exclude and include patterns.

       --anchored
              Patterns match file name start.

       --ignore-case
              Ignore case.

       --no-anchored
              Patterns match after any / (default for exclusion).

       --no-ignore-case
              Case sensitive matching (default).

       --no-wildcards
              Verbatim string matching.

       --no-wildcards-match-slash
              Wildcards do not match /.

       --wildcards
              Use wildcards (default for exclusion).

       --wildcards-match-slash
              Wildcards match / (default for exclusion).

   Informative output
       --checkpoint[=N]
              Display progress messages every Nth record (default  10).

       --checkpoint-action=ACTION
              Run ACTION on each checkpoint.

       --clamp-mtime
              Only  set time when the file is more recent than what was
              given with --mtime.

       --full-time
              Print file time to its full resolution.

       --index-file=FILE
              Send verbose output to FILE.

       -l, --check-links
              Print a message if not all links are dumped.

       --no-quote-chars=STRING
              Disable quoting for characters from STRING.

       --quote-chars=STRING
              Additionally quote characters from STRING.

       --quoting-style=STYLE
              Set quoting style for file and member names.  Valid  val-
              ues  for  STYLE  are  literal, shell, shell-always, c, c-
              maybe, escape, locale, clocale.

       -R, --block-number
              Show block number within archive with each message.

       --show-omitted-dirs
              When listing or extracting, list each directory that does
              not match search criteria.

       --show-transformed-names, --show-stored-names
              Show  file  or  archive  names  after  transformation  by
              --strip and --transform options.

       --totals[=SIGNAL]
              Print total bytes after processing the archive.  If  SIG-
              NAL  is  given,  print  total  bytes  when this signal is
              delivered.  Allowed signals are: SIGHUP, SIGQUIT, SIGINT,
              SIGUSR1, and SIGUSR2.  The SIG prefix can be omitted.

       --utc  Print file modification times in UTC.

       -v, --verbose
              Verbosely  list  files  processed.  Each instance of this
              option on the command line increases the verbosity  level
              by  one.   The  maximum  verbosity  level  is  3.   For a
              detailed  discussion  of  how  various  verbosity  levels
              affect tar's output, please refer to GNU Tar Manual, sub-
              section 2.5.1 "The --verbose Option".

       --warning=KEYWORD
              Enable or disable warning messages identified by KEYWORD.
              The  messages  are suppressed if KEYWORD is prefixed with
              no- and enabled otherwise.

              Multiple --warning messages accumulate.

              Keywords controlling general tar operation:

              all    Enable all warning messages.  This is the default.

              none   Disable all warning messages.

              filename-with-nuls
                     "%s: file name read contains nul character"

              alone-zero-block
                     "A lone zero block at %s"

              Keywords applicable for tar --create:

              cachedir
                     "%s: contains a cache directory tag %s; %s"

              file-shrank
                     "%s: File shrank by %s bytes; padding with zeros"

              xdev   "%s:  file  is  on  a  different  filesystem;  not
                     dumped"

              file-ignored
                     "%s: Unknown file type; file ignored"
                     "%s: socket ignored"
                     "%s: door ignored"

              file-unchanged
                     "%s: file is unchanged; not dumped"

              ignore-archive
                     "%s: file is the archive; not dumped"

              file-removed
                     "%s: File removed before we read it"

              file-changed
                     "%s: file changed as we read it"

              failed-read
                     Suppresses  warnings  about  unreadable  files  or
                     directories.  This  keyword  applies  only if used
                     together with the --ignore-failed-read option.

              Keywords applicable for tar --extract:

              existing-file
                     "%s: skipping existing file"

              timestamp
                     "%s: implausibly old time stamp %s"
                     "%s: time stamp %s is %s s in the future"

              contiguous-cast
                     "Extracting contiguous files as regular files"

              symlink-cast
                     "Attempting extraction of symbolic links  as  hard
                     links"

              unknown-cast
                     "%s:  Unknown  file type '%c', extracted as normal
                     file"

              ignore-newer
                     "Current %s is newer or same age"

              unknown-keyword
                     "Ignoring unknown extended header keyword '%s'"

              decompress-program
                     Controls verbose description of failures occurring
                     when  trying  to run alternative decompressor pro-
                     grams.   This  warning  is  disabled  by   default
                     (unless  --verbose  is used).  A common example of
                     what you can get when using this warning is:

                     $ tar --warning=decompress-program -x -f archive.Z
                     tar  (child): cannot run compress: No such file or
                     directory tar (child): trying gzip

                     This means that tar first tried to decompress  ar-
                     chive.Z  using  compress,  and,  when that failed,
                     switched to gzip.

              record-size
                     "Record size = %lu blocks"

              Keywords controlling incremental extraction:

              rename-directory
                     "%s: Directory has been renamed from %s"
                     "%s: Directory has been renamed"

              new-directory
                     "%s: Directory is new"

              xdev   "%s: directory is on a different device: not purg-
                     ing"

              bad-dumpdir
                     "Malformed dumpdir: 'X' never used"

       -w, --interactive, --confirmation
              Ask for confirmation for every action.

   Compatibility options
       -o     When  creating,  same as --old-archive.  When extracting,
              same as --no-same-owner.

   Size suffixes
               Suffix    Units                   Byte Equivalent
               b         Blocks                  SIZE x 512
               B         Kilobytes               SIZE x 1024
               c         Bytes                   SIZE
               G         Gigabytes               SIZE x 1024^3
               K         Kilobytes               SIZE x 1024
               k         Kilobytes               SIZE x 1024
               M         Megabytes               SIZE x 1024^2
               P         Petabytes               SIZE x 1024^5
               T         Terabytes               SIZE x 1024^4
               w         Words                   SIZE x 2



RETURN VALUE

       Tar exit code indicates whether it was able to successfully per-
       form  the  requested  operation,  and if not, what kind of error
       occurred.

       0      Successful termination.

       1      Some files differ.  If tar was invoked with the --compare
              (--diff,  -d)  command  line option, this means that some
              files in the archive differ from their disk counterparts.
              If  tar  was  given  one  of  the  --create,  --append or
              --update options, this exit code means  that  some  files
              were  changed  while  being archived and so the resulting
              archive does not contain the exact copy of the file  set.

       2      Fatal  error.   This means that some fatal, unrecoverable
              error occurred.

       If a subprocess that had been  invoked  by  tar  exited  with  a
       nonzero  exit  code,  tar  itself  exits with that code as well.
       This can happen, for example, if a compression option (e.g.  -z)
       was  used  and  the external compressor program failed.  Another
       example is rmt failure during backup to a remote device.


SEE ALSO

       bzip2(1), compress(1), gzip(1), lzma(1), lzop(1),  rmt(8),  sym-
       link(7), xz(1), zstd(1).

       Complete  tar  manual: run info tar or use emacs(1) info mode to
       read it.

       Online copies of GNU tar documentation in various formats can be
       found at:

           http://www.gnu.org/software/tar/manual


BUG REPORTS

       Report bugs to <bug-tar@gnu.org>.


COPYRIGHT

       Copyright (C) 2013-2019 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
       License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later
       <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>
       This is free software: you are free to change  and  redistribute
       it.  There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.



TAR                              July 13, 2020                          TAR(1)

gnutar 1.33 - Generated Mon Jan 11 16:36:15 CST 2021
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