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gm(1)                                                                    gm(1)





              NAME    gm - command-line utility to create, edit, compare, con-
              vert, or display images



SYNOPSIS

       gm animate [ options ... ] file [ [ options ... ] file ... ]

       gm batch [ options ... ] [ script ]

       gm benchmark [ options ... ] subcommand

       gm compare [ options ... ] reference-image [  options  ...  ]  compare-
       image [ options ... ]

       gm  composite  [  options  ... ] change-image base-image [ mask-image ]
       output-image

       gm conjure [ options ] script.msl [ [ options ] script.msl ]

       gm convert [ [ options ... ] [ input-file ...  ] [ options ... ] ] out-
       put-file

       gm display [ options ... ] file ...  [ [options ... ]file ... ]

       gm identify file [ file ... ]

       gm import [ options ... ] file

       gm mogrify [ options ... ] file ...

       gm  montage  [  options ... ] file [ [ options ... ] file ... ] output-
       file

       gm time subcommand

       gm version


DESCRIPTION

        GraphicsMagick's gm provides a suite of utilities for  creating,  com-
       paring,  converting, editing, and displaying images.  All of the utili-
       ties are provided as sub-commands of a single gm executable:

       animate displays an animation (e.g. a GIF file) on any workstation dis-
       play running an X server.

       batch  executes  an  arbitary number of the utility commands (e.g. con-
       vert) in the form of a simple linear batch script in order  to  improve
       execution  efficiency,  and/or to allow use as a subordinate co-process
       under the control of an arbitrary script or program.

       benchmark executes one of the other utility commands (e.g. convert) for
       a specified number of iterations, or execution time, and reports execu-
       tion time and other profiling  information  such  as  CPU  utilization.
       Benchmark provides various operating modes including executing the com-
       mand with a varying number of threads, and alternate reporting  formats
       such as comma-separated value (CSV).

       compare compares two images and reports difference statistics according
       to specified metrics and/or outputs an image with a visual  representa-
       tion  of  the  differences.   It may also be used to test if images are
       similar within a particular range and  specified  metric,  returning  a
       truth value to the executing environment.

       composite  composites images (blends or merges images together) to cre-
       ate new images.

       conjure interprets and executes scripts in the  Magick  Scripting  Lan-
       guage (MSL).

       convert converts an input file using one image format to an output file
       with the same or differing image format  while  applying  an  arbitrary
       number of image transformations.

       display is a machine architecture independent image processing and dis-
       play facility. It can display an image on any workstation display  run-
       ning an X server.

       identify  describes the format and characteristics of one or more image
       files. It will also report if an image is incomplete or corrupt.

       import reads an image from any visible window on an X server  and  out-
       puts  it  as an image file. You can capture a single window, the entire
       screen, or any rectangular portion of the screen.

       mogrify transforms an image or a sequence of images.  These  transforms
       include image scaling, image rotation, color reduction, and others. The
       transmogrified image overwrites the original image.

       montage creates a composite by combining several separate  images.  The
       images  are  tiled  on  the  composite image with the name of the image
       optionally appearing just below the individual tile.

       time executes a subcommand and reports the user, system, and total exe-
       cution time consumed.

       version  reports  the  GraphicsMagick  release version, maximum sample-
       depth, copyright notice, supported features, and the options used while
       building the software.

       The GraphicsMagick utilities recognize the following image formats:


       Name  Mode Description
        o  3FR       r-- Hasselblad Photo RAW
        o  8BIM      rw- Photoshop resource format
        o  8BIMTEXT  rw- Photoshop resource text format
        o  8BIMWTEXT rw- Photoshop resource wide text format
        o  APP1      rw- Raw application information
        o  APP1JPEG  rw- Raw JPEG binary data
        o  ART       r-- PF1: 1st Publisher
        o  ARW       r-- Sony Alpha DSLR RAW
        o  AVI       r-- Audio/Visual Interleaved
        o  AVS       rw+ AVS X image
        o  BIE       rw- Joint Bi-level Image experts Group
                         interchange format
        o  BMP       rw+ Microsoft Windows bitmap image
        o  BMP2      -w- Microsoft Windows bitmap image v2
        o  BMP3      -w- Microsoft Windows bitmap image v3
        o  CACHE     --- Magick Persistent Cache image format
        o  CALS      rw- Continuous Acquisition and Life-cycle
                         Support Type 1 image
        o  CAPTION   r-- Caption (requires separate size info)
        o  CIN       rw- Kodak Cineon Format
        o  CMYK      rw- Raw cyan, magenta, yellow, and black
                         samples (8 or 16 bits, depending on
                         the image depth)
        o  CMYKA     rw- Raw cyan, magenta, yellow, black, and
                         matte samples (8 or 16 bits, depending
                         on the image depth)
        o  CR2       r-- Canon Photo RAW
        o  CRW       r-- Canon Photo RAW
        o  CUR       r-- Microsoft Cursor Icon
        o  CUT       r-- DR Halo
        o  DCM       r-- Digital Imaging and Communications in
                         Medicine image
        o  DCR       r-- Kodak Photo RAW
        o  DCX       rw+ ZSoft IBM PC multi-page Paintbrush
        o  DNG       r-- Adobe Digital Negative
        o  DPS       r-- Display PostScript Interpreter
        o  DPX       rw- Digital Moving Picture Exchange
        o  EPDF      rw- Encapsulated Portable Document Format
        o  EPI       rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript
                         Interchange format
        o  EPS       rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript
        o  EPS2      -w- Adobe Level II Encapsulated PostScript
        o  EPS3      -w- Adobe Level III Encapsulated PostScript
        o  EPSF      rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript
        o  EPSI      rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript
                         Interchange format
        o  EPT       rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript with MS-DOS
                         TIFF preview
        o  EPT2      rw- Adobe Level II Encapsulated PostScript
                         with MS-DOS TIFF preview
        o  EPT3      rw- Adobe Level III Encapsulated PostScript
                         with MS-DOS TIFF preview
        o  EXIF      rw- Exif digital camera binary data
        o  FAX       rw+ Group 3 FAX (Not TIFF Group3 FAX!)
        o  FITS      rw- Flexible Image Transport System
        o  FRACTAL   r-- Plasma fractal image
        o  FPX       rw- FlashPix Format
        o  GIF       rw+ CompuServe graphics interchange format
        o  GIF87     rw- CompuServe graphics interchange format
                         (version 87a)
        o  GRADIENT  r-- Gradual passing from one shade to
                         another
        o  GRAY      rw+ Raw gray samples (8/16/32 bits,
                         depending on the image depth)
        o  HISTOGRAM -w- Histogram of the image
        o  HRZ       r-- HRZ: Slow scan TV
        o  HTML      -w- Hypertext Markup Language and a
                         client-side image map
        o  ICB       rw+ Truevision Targa image
        o  ICC       rw- ICC Color Profile
        o  ICM       rw- ICC Color Profile
        o  ICO       r-- Microsoft icon
        o  ICON      r-- Microsoft icon
        o  IDENTITY  r-- Hald CLUT identity image
        o  IMAGE     r-- GraphicsMagick Embedded Image
        o  INFO      -w+ Image descriptive information and
                          statistics
        o  IPTC      rw- IPTC Newsphoto
        o  IPTCTEXT  rw- IPTC Newsphoto text format
        o  IPTCWTEXT rw- IPTC Newsphoto wide text format
        o  JBG       rw+ Joint Bi-level Image experts Group
                         interchange format
        o  JBIG      rw+ Joint Bi-level Image experts Group
                         interchange format
        o  JNG       rw- JPEG Network Graphics
        o  JP2       rw- JPEG-2000 JP2 File Format Syntax
        o  JPC       rw- JPEG-2000 Code Stream Syntax
        o  JPEG      rw- Joint Photographic Experts Group
                         JFIF format
        o  JPG       rw- Joint Photographic Experts Group
                         JFIF format
        o  K25       r-- Kodak Photo RAW
        o  KDC       r-- Kodak Photo RAW
        o  LABEL     r-- Text image format
        o  M2V       rw+ MPEG-2 Video Stream
        o  MAP       rw- Colormap intensities and indices
        o  MAT       r-- MATLAB image format
        o  MATTE     -w+ MATTE format
        o  MIFF      rw+ Magick Image File Format
        o  MNG       rw+ Multiple-image Network Graphics
        o  MONO      rw- Bi-level bitmap in least-significant-
                         -byte-first order
        o  MPC       rw+ Magick Persistent Cache image format
        o  MPEG      rw+ MPEG-1 Video Stream
        o  MPG       rw+ MPEG-1 Video Stream
        o  MRW       r-- Minolta Photo Raw
        o  MSL       r-- Magick Scripting Language
        o  MTV       rw+ MTV Raytracing image format
        o  MVG       rw- Magick Vector Graphics
        o  NEF       r-- Nikon Electronic Format
        o  NULL      r-- Constant image of uniform color
        o  OTB       rw- On-the-air bitmap
        o  P7        rw+ Xv thumbnail format
        o  PAL       rw- 16bit/pixel interleaved YUV
        o  PALM      rw- Palm Pixmap
        o  PBM       rw+ Portable bitmap format (black and white)
        o  PCD       rw- Photo CD
        o  PCDS      rw- Photo CD
        o  PCL       -w- Page Control Language
        o  PCT       rw- Apple Macintosh QuickDraw/PICT
        o  PCX       rw- ZSoft IBM PC Paintbrush
        o  PDB       rw+ Palm Database ImageViewer Format
        o  PDF       rw+ Portable Document Format
        o  PEF       r-- Pentax Electronic File
        o  PFA       r-- TrueType font
        o  PFB       r-- TrueType font
        o  PGM       rw+ Portable graymap format (gray scale)
        o  PGX       r-- JPEG-2000 VM Format
        o  PICON     rw- Personal Icon
        o  PICT      rw- Apple Macintosh QuickDraw/PICT
        o  PIX       r-- Alias/Wavefront RLE image format
        o  PLASMA    r-- Plasma fractal image
        o  PNG       rw- Portable Network Graphics
        o  PNG24     rw- Portable Network Graphics, 24 bit RGB
                         opaque only
        o  PNG32     rw- Portable Network Graphics, 32 bit RGBA
                         semitransparency OK
        o  PNG8      rw- Portable Network Graphics, 8-bit
                         indexed, binary transparency only
        o  PNM       rw+ Portable anymap
        o  PPM       rw+ Portable pixmap format (color)
        o  PREVIEW   -w- Show a preview an image enhancement,
                         effect, or f/x
        o  PS        rw+ Adobe PostScript
        o  PS2       -w+ Adobe Level II PostScript
        o  PS3       -w+ Adobe Level III PostScript
        o  PSD       rw- Adobe Photoshop bitmap
        o  PTIF      rw- Pyramid encoded TIFF
        o  PWP       r-- Seattle Film Works
        o  RAF       r-- Fuji Photo RAW
        o  RAS       rw+ SUN Rasterfile
        o  RGB       rw+ Raw red, green, and blue samples
        o  RGBA      rw+ Raw red, green, blue, and matte samples
        o  RLA       r-- Alias/Wavefront image
        o  RLE       r-- Utah Run length encoded image
        o  SCT       r-- Scitex HandShake
        o  SFW       r-- Seattle Film Works
        o  SGI       rw+ Irix RGB image
        o  SHTML     -w- Hypertext Markup Language and a
                         client-side image map
        o  STEGANO   r-- Steganographic image
        o  SUN       rw+ SUN Rasterfile
        o  SVG       rw+ Scalable Vector Gaphics
        o  TEXT      rw+ Raw text
        o  TGA       rw+ Truevision Targa image
        o  TIFF      rw+ Tagged Image File Format
        o  TILE      r-- Tile image with a texture
        o  TIM       r-- PSX TIM
        o  TOPOL     r-- TOPOL X Image
        o  TTF       r-- TrueType font
        o  TXT       rw+ Raw text
        o  UIL       -w- X-Motif UIL table
        o  UYVY      rw- 16bit/pixel interleaved YUV
        o  VDA       rw+ Truevision Targa image
        o  VICAR     rw- VICAR rasterfile format
        o  VID       rw+ Visual Image Directory
        o  VIFF      rw+ Khoros Visualization image
        o  VST       rw+ Truevision Targa image
        o  WBMP      rw- Wireless Bitmap (level 0) image
        o  WMF       r-- Windows Metafile
        o  WPG       r-- Word Perfect Graphics
        o  X         rw- X Image
        o  X3F       r-- Foveon X3 (Sigma/Polaroid) RAW
        o  XBM       rw- X Windows system bitmap (black
                         and white)
        o  XC        r-- Constant image uniform color
        o  XCF       r-- GIMP image
        o  XMP       rw- Adobe XML metadata
        o  XPM       rw- X Windows system pixmap (color)
        o  XV        rw+ Khoros Visualization image
        o  XWD       rw- X Windows system window dump (color)
        o  YUV       rw- CCIR 601 4:1:1 or 4:2:2 (8-bit only)

           Modes:
                     r   Read
                     w   Write
                     +   Multi-image


       Support  for  some  of  these  formats  require  additional programs or
       libraries.  See README in the source package for where to find optional
       additional software.

       Note,  a  format delineated with + means that if more than one image is
       specified, frames are combined into  a  single  multi-image  file.  Use
       +adjoin if you want a single image produced for each frame.

       Your installation might not support all of the formats in the list.  To
       get an accurate listing of the formats  supported  by  your  particular
       configuration, run "gm convert -list format".

       Raw  images  are  expected to have one byte per pixel unless gm is com-
       piled in 16-bit quantum mode or in 32-bit quantum mode. Here,  the  raw
       data  is  expected  to  be  stored two or four bytes per pixel, respec-
       tively, in most-significant-byte-first order.   For  example,  you  can
       tell  if  gm was compiled in 16-bit mode by typing "gm version" without
       any options, and looking for "Q:16" in the first line of output.


FILES AND FORMATS

       By default, the image format is determined by its magic  number,  i.e.,
       the  first few bytes of the file. To specify a particular image format,
       precede  the  filename  with  an  image  format  name   and   a   colon
       (i.e.ps:image)  or  specify  the  image  type  as  the  filename suffix
       (i.e.image.ps).  The magic number takes precedence  over  the  filename
       suffix  and  the  prefix takes precedence over the magic number and the
       suffix in input files.  When a file is read, its magic number is stored
       in  the  "image->magick"  string.   In  output  files, the prefix takes
       precedence over the filename suffix,  and  the  filename  suffix  takes
       precedence over the "image->magick" string.

       To read the "built-in" formats (GRANITE, H, LOGO, NETSCAPE, PLASMA, and
       ROSE) use a prefix (including the colon) without a filename or  suffix.
       To read the XC format, follow the colon with a color specification.  To
       read the CAPTION format, follow the colon with a text string or with  a
       filename prefixed with the at symbol (@).


       When  you  specify X as your image type, the filename has special mean-
       ing. It specifies an X window by id, name, or root. If no  filename  is
       specified,  the window is selected by clicking the mouse in the desired
       window.

       Specify input_file as - for standard input, output_file as - for  stan-
       dard  output.   If  input_file has the extension .Z or .gz, the file is
       uncompressed with uncompress or gunzip  respectively.   If  output_file
       has the extension .Z or .gz, the file is compressed using with compress
       or gzip respectively.

       Finally, when running on platforms that allow  it,  precede  the  image
       file  name  with | to pipe to or from a system command (this feature is
       not available on VMS, Win32 and Macintosh platforms). Use  a  backslash
       or quotation marks to prevent your shell from interpreting the |.

       Use  an optional index enclosed in brackets after an input file name to
       specify a desired subimage of  a  multi-resolution  image  format  like
       Photo  CD  (e.g.  "img0001.pcd[4]")  or  a  range for MPEG images (e.g.
       "video.mpg[50-75]"). A subimage specification  can  be  disjoint  (e.g.
       "image.tiff[2,7,4]").  For raw images, specify a subimage with a geome-
       try (e.g.  -size  640x512  "image.rgb[320x256+50+50]").   Surround  the
       image name with quotation marks to prevent your shell from interpreting
       the square brackets. Single images are written with  the  filename  you
       specify. However, multi-part images (e.g., a multi-page PostScript doc-
       ument with +adjoin specified) may be  written  with  the  scene  number
       included  as part of the filename. In order to include the scene number
       in the filename, it is necessary to include a  printf-style  %d  format
       specification in the file name and use the +adjoin option. For example,

           image%02d.miff


       writes files image00.miff, image01.miff, etc. Only a single  specifica-
       tion  is allowed within an output filename. If more than one specifica-
       tion is present, it will be ignored. It is best to embed the scene num-
       ber  in  the  base part of the file name, not in the extension, because
       the extension will not be a recognizeable image type.

       When running a commandline utility, you can prepend an at sign @  to  a
       filename to read a list of image filenames from that file. This is con-
       venient in the event you have too many image filenames to  fit  on  the
       command line.


OPTIONS

       Options  are processed in command line order. Any option you specify on
       the command line remains in effect for the set of images that  follows,
       until  the  set is terminated by the appearance of any option or -noop.
       Some options only affect the decoding of images  and  others  only  the
       encoding.  The latter can appear after the final group of input images.

       This is a combined list of the command-line options used by the  Graph-
       icsMagick  utilities  (animate,  compare,  composite, convert, display,
       identify, import, mogrify and montage).


       In this document, angle brackets ("<>")  enclose  variables  and  curly
       brackets  ("{}") enclose optional parameters. For example, "-fuzz <dis-
       tance>{%}" means you can use the option "-fuzz 10" or "-fuzz 2%".


       -adjoin
              join images into a single multi-image file

              By default, all images of an image sequence are  stored  in  the
              same  file.  However,  some  formats  (e.g. JPEG) do not support
              storing more than one image per file and only the first frame in
              an  image  sequence  will be saved unless the result is saved to
              separate files. Use +adjoin to force saving multiple  frames  to
              multiple  numbered  files.  If  +adjoin is used, then the output
              filename must include a printf  style  formatting  specification
              for the numeric part of the filename.  For example,

                  image%02d.miff


       -affine <matrix>
              drawing transform matrix

              This  option provides a transform matrix {sx,rx,ry,sy,tx,ty} for
              use by subsequent -draw or -transform options.

       -antialias
              remove pixel aliasing

              By default antialiasing algorithms are used when drawing objects
              (e.g.  lines)  or  rendering  vector formats (e.g. WMF and Post-
              script). Use +antialias to disable  use  of  antialiasing  algo-
              rithms.   Reasons   to  disable  antialiasing  include  avoiding
              increasing colors in the image, or improving rendering speed.

       -append
              append a set of images

              This option creates a single image where the images in the orig-
              inal set are stacked top-to-bottom.  If they are not of the same
              width, any narrow images will be expanded to fit using the back-
              ground  color.   Use +append to stack images left-to-right.  The
              set of images is terminated by the appearance of any option.  If
              the  -append  option  appears after all of the input images, all
              images are appended.

        -asc-cdl <spec>
              apply ASC CDL color transform

              Applies ("bakes in") the ASC CDL, which  is  a  format  for  the
              exchange  of  basic  primary  color  grading information between
              equipment and software from different manufacturers. The  format
              defines  the  math for three functions: slope, offset and power.
              Each function uses a number for the red, green, and  blue  color
              channels  for  a total of nine numbers comprising a single color
              decision. The tenth number (optional) is for chromiance (satura-
              tion) as specified by ASC CDL 1.2.

              The  argument  string is comma delimited and is in the following
              form (but without invervening spaces or line breaks)

                redslope,redoffset,redpower:
                greenslope,greenoffset,greenpower:
                blueslope,blueoffset,bluepower:
                saturation


              with   the    unity    (no    change)    specification    being:
              "1.0,0.0,1.0:1.0,0.0,1.0:1.0,0.0,1.0:1.0"

       -authenticate <string>
              decrypt image with this password

              Use  this option to supply a password for decrypting an image or
              an image sequence, if it is being read from a format such as PDF
              that  supports  encryption.   Encrypting images being written is
              not supported.

       -auto-orient
              orient (rotate) image so it is upright

              Adjusts the image orienation so that it is suitable for viewing.
              Uses the orientation tag obtained from the image file or as sup-
              plied by the -orient option.

       -average
              average a set of images

              The set of images is terminated by the appearance of any option.
              If  the  -average  option appears after all of the input images,
              all images are averaged.

       -backdrop
              display the image centered on a backdrop.

              This backdrop covers the entire workstation screen and is useful
              for  hiding other X window activity while viewing the image. The
              color of the backdrop is specified as the foreground color  (X11
              default  is black).  Refer to "X Resources", below, for details.

       -background <color>
              the background color

              The color is specified using  the  format  described  under  the
              -fill option.

       -black-threshold red[,green][,blue][,opacity]
              pixels below the threshold become black

              Use  -black-threshold to set pixels with values below the speci-
              fied threshold to minimum value (black). If only  one  value  is
              supplied, or the red, green, and blue values are identical, then
              intensity thresholding is used. If the  color  threshold  values
              are  not  identical then channel-based thresholding is used, and
              color distortion will occur. Specify a negative value (e.g.  -1)
              if you want a channel to be ignored but you do want to threshold
              a channel later  in  the  list.  If  a  percent  (%)  symbol  is
              appended, then the values are treated as a percentage of maximum
              range.

       -blue-primary <x>,<y>
              blue chromaticity primary point

       -blur <radius>{x<sigma>}
              blur the image with a Gaussian operator

              Blur with the given radius and standard deviation (sigma).

       -border <width>x<height>
              surround the image with a border of color

              See -geometry for details about the geometry specification.

       -bordercolor <color>
              the border color

              The color is specified using  the  format  described  under  the
              -fill option.

       -borderwidth <geometry>
              the border width

       -box <color>
              set the color of the annotation bounding box

              The  color  is  specified  using  the format described under the
              -fill option.

              See -draw for further details.

       -channel <type>
              the type of channel

              Choose from: Red, Green, Blue, Opacity,  Matte,  Cyan,  Magenta,
              Yellow, Black, or Gray.

              Use  this option to extract a particular channel from the image.
              Opacity, for example, is useful for extracting the opacity  val-
              ues from an image.

       -charcoal <factor>
              simulate a charcoal drawing

       -chop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              remove pixels from the interior of an image

              Width  and height give the number of columns and rows to remove,
              and x and y are offsets that give the location of  the  leftmost
              column and topmost row to remove.

              The  x  offset normally specifies the leftmost column to remove.
              If the -gravity option  is  present  with  NorthEast,  East,  or
              SouthEast gravity, it gives the distance leftward from the right
              edge of the image to the rightmost column to remove.  Similarly,
              the  y  offset normally specifies the topmost row to remove, but
              if the -gravity option is  present  with  SouthWest,  South,  or
              SouthEast  gravity,  it  specifies  the distance upward from the
              bottom edge of the image to the bottom row to remove.

              The -chop option removes entire rows and columns, and moves  the
              remaining corner blocks leftward and upward to close the gaps.

       -clip  apply the clipping path, if one is present

              If  a clipping path is present, it will be applied to subsequent
              operations.

              For example, if you type the following command:

                  gm convert -clip -negate cockatoo.tif negated.tif


              only the pixels within the clipping path are negated.

              The -clip feature requires the XML library.  If the XML  library
              is not present, the option is ignored.

       -coalesce
              merge a sequence of images

              Each  image N in the sequence after Image 0 is replaced with the
              image created by flattening images 0 through N.

              The set of images is terminated by the appearance of any option.
              If  the  -coalesce option appears after all of the input images,
              all images are coalesced.

       -colorize <value>
              colorize the image with the pen color

              Specify the amount of colorization  as  a  percentage.  You  can
              apply  separate  colorization values to the red, green, and blue
              channels of the image with a colorization value  list  delimited
              with slashes (e.g. 0/0/50).

              The  -colorize  option may be used in conjunction with -modulate
              to produce a nice sepia toned image like:

                  gm convert input.ppm -modulate 115,0,100 \
                            -colorize 7,21,50 output.ppm.


       -colormap <type>
              define the colormap type

              Choose between shared or private.

              This option only applies when the default  X  server  visual  is
              PseudoColor  or GRAYScale. Refer to -visual for more details. By
              default, a shared colormap is allocated. The image shares colors
              with  other X clients.  Some image colors could be approximated,
              therefore your image may  look  very  different  than  intended.
              Choose  Private  and the image colors appear exactly as they are
              defined. However, other clients  may  go  technicolor  when  the
              image colormap is installed.

       -colors <value>
              preferred number of colors in the image

              The  actual  number of colors in the image may be less than your
              request, but never more. Note, this is a color reduction option.
              Images  with  less unique colors than specified with this option
              will have any duplicate or unused colors removed.  The  ordering
              of  an existing color palette may be altered. When converting an
              image from color to grayscale, convert the  image  to  the  gray
              colorspace  before  reducing the number of colors since doing so
              is most efficient. Refer to <a href="quantize.html">quantize for
              more details.

              Note,  options  -dither,  -colorspace, and -treedepth affect the
              color reduction algorithm.

       -colorspace <value>
              the type of colorspace

              Choices  are:  CineonLog,  CMYK,  GRAY,  HSL,  HWB,  OHTA,  RGB,
              Rec601Luma,  Rec709Luma,  Rec601YCbCr, Rec709YCbCr, Transparent,
              XYZ, YCbCr, YIQ, YPbPr, or YUV.

              Color reduction, by default, takes place in the RGB color space.
              Empirical  evidence suggests that distances in color spaces such
              as YUV or YIQ correspond to perceptual  color  differences  more
              closely  than do distances in RGB space.  These color spaces may
              give better results when color  reducing  an  image.   Refer  to
              quantize  for more details.  Two gray colorspaces are supported.
              The Rec601Luma space is based on the recommendations for  legacy
              NTSC television (ITU-R BT.601-5).  The Rec709Luma space is based
              on the recommendations for HDTV (Rec.  ITU-R  BT.709-5)  and  is
              suitable  for  use  with computer graphics, and for contemporary
              CRT  displays.  The  GRAY  colorspace  currently   selects   the
              Rec601Luma  colorspace  by default for backwards compatibly rea-
              sons. This default may be re-considered in the future.

              Two YCbCr colorspaces are supported. The  Rec601YCbCr  space  is
              based  on  the recommendations for legacy NTSC television (ITU-R
              BT.601-5). The Rec709CbCr space is based on the  recommendations
              for HDTV (Rec.  ITU-R BT.709-5) and is suitable for suitable for
              use with computer graphics, and for contemporary  CRT  displays.
              The  YCbCr colorspace specification is equivalent toRec601YCbCr.


              The Transparent color space behaves uniquely  in  that  it  pre-
              serves the matte channel of the image if it exists.

              The  -colors  or  -monochrome option, or saving to a file format
              which requires color reduction, is required for this  option  to
              take effect.

       -comment <string>
              annotate an image with a comment

              Use  this option to assign a specific comment to the image, when
              writing to an image  format  that  supports  comments.  You  can
              include  the image filename, type, width, height, or other image
              attribute by embedding special format  characters  listed  under
              the  -format option.  The comment is not drawn on the image, but
              is embedded in the image datastream via a "Comment" tag or simi-
              lar  mechanism.   If  you  want the comment to be visible on the
              image itself, use the -draw option.

              For example,

                   -comment "%m:%f %wx%h"


              produces an image comment of MIFF:bird.miff 512x480 for an image
              titled bird.miff and whose width is 512 and height is 480.

              If the first character of string is @, the image comment is read
              from a file titled by the remaining characters in the string.

       -compose <operator>
              the type of image composition

              The description of  composition  uses  abstract  terminology  in
              order  to  allow  the  the  description  to be more clear, while
              avoiding constant values which  are  specific  to  a  particular
              build  configuration.  Each  image  pixel is represented by red,
              green, and blue levels (which  are  equal  for  a  gray  pixel).
              MaxRGB  is the maximum integral value which may be stored in the
              red, green, or blue channels of the image. Each image pixel  may
              also  optionally (if the image matte channel is enabled) have an
              associated level of opacity (ranging from  opaque  to  transpar-
              ent),  which may be used to determine the influence of the pixel
              color when compositing the pixel with another  image  pixel.  If
              the  image  matte  channel  is  disabled, then all pixels in the
              image are treated as opaque.  The color of an  opaque  pixel  is
              fully  visible  while  the color of a transparent pixel color is
              entirely absent (pixel color is ignored).

              By definition, raster images have a rectangular shape. All image
              rows  are  of  equal length, and all image columns have the same
              number of rows. By treating the  opacity  channel  as  a  visual
              "mask"  the rectangular image may be given a "shape" by treating
              the opacity channel as a cookie-cutter  for  the  image.  Pixels
              within  the shape are opaque, while pixels outside the shape are
              transparent. Pixels on the boundary of the shape may be  between
              opaque  and  transparent in order to provide antialiasing (visu-
              ally smooth edges). The description of the composition operators
              use  this concept of image "shape" in order to make the descrip-
              tion of the operators easier to understand. While it  is  conve-
              nient to describe the operators in terms of "shapes" they are by
              no means limited to mask-style operations since they  are  based
              on  continuous  floating-point  mathematics  rather  than simple
              boolean operations.

              By default, the Over composite operator is used.  The  following
              composite operators are available:

                   Over
                   In
                   Out
                   Atop
                   Xor
                   Plus
                   Minus
                   Add
                   Subtract
                   Difference
                   Divide
                   Multiply
                   Bumpmap
                   Copy
                   CopyRed
                   CopyGreen
                   CopyBlue
                   CopyOpacity
                   CopyCyan
                   CopyMagenta
                   CopyYellow
                   CopyBlack


              The behavior of each operator is described below.

               Over

                    The result will be the union of the two image shapes, with
                    opaque areas of change-image obscuring base-image  in  the
                    region of overlap.

               In

                    The  result  is  simply  change-image  cut by the shape of
                    base-image. None of the image data of base-image  will  be
                    in the result.

               Out

                    The  resulting  image  is  change-image  with the shape of
                    base-image cut out.

               Atop

                    The result is the same shape as base-image,  with  change-
                    image obscuring base-image where the image shapes overlap.
                    Note this differs from over because the portion of change-
                    image  outside  base-image's  shape does not appear in the
                    result.

               Xor

                    The result is the image data from  both  change-image  and
                    base-image that is outside the overlap region. The overlap
                    region will be blank.

               Plus

                    The result is just the sum of the image data. Output  val-
                    ues are cropped to MaxRGB (no overflow). This operation is
                    independent of the matte channels.

               Minus

                    The result of change-image -  base-image,  with  underflow
                    cropped  to  zero.  The  matte  channel is ignored (set to
                    opaque, full coverage).

               Add

                    The result of change-image  +  base-image,  with  overflow
                    wrapping around (mod MaxRGB+1).

               Subtract

                    The  result  of  change-image - base-image, with underflow
                    wrapping around (mod MaxRGB+1). The add and subtract oper-
                    ators can be used to perform reversible transformations.

               Difference

                    The result of abs(change-image - base-image). This is use-
                    ful for comparing two very similar images.

               Divide

                    The result of change-image / base-image.  This  is  useful
                    for  improving the readability of text on unevenly illumi-
                    nated photos (by using a gaussian blurred copy of  change-
                    image as base-image).

               Multiply

                    The  result  of  change-image * base-image. This is useful
                    for the creation of drop-shadows.

               Bumpmap

                    The result base-image shaded by change-image.

               Copy

                    The resulting image is base-image  replaced  with  change-
                    image. Here the matte information is ignored.

               CopyRed

                    The  resulting  image  is  the  red  channel in base-image
                    replaced with the red channel in change-image.  The  other
                    channels are copied untouched.

               CopyGreen

                    The  resulting  image  is  the green channel in base-image
                    replaced with the green channel in change-image. The other
                    channels are copied untouched.

               CopyBlue

                    The  resulting  image  is  the  blue channel in base-image
                    replaced with the blue channel in change-image. The  other
                    channels are copied untouched.

               CopyOpacity

                    The  resulting  image is the opacity channel in base-image
                    replaced with the opacity  channel  in  change-image.  The
                    other channels are copied untouched.

               CopyCyan

                    The  resulting  image  is  the  cyan channel in base-image
                    replaced with the cyan channel in change-image. The  other
                    channels  are  copied  untouched.  Use  of  this  operator
                    requires that base-image be in CMYK(A) colorspace.

               CopyMagenta

                    The resulting image is the magenta channel  in  base-image
                    replaced  with  the  magenta  channel in change-image. The
                    other channels are copied untouched. Use of this  operator
                    requires that base-image be in CMYK(A) colorspace.

               CopyYellow

                    The  resulting  image  is the yellow channel in base-image
                    replaced with the  yellow  channel  in  change-image.  The
                    other  channels are copied untouched. Use of this operator
                    requires that base-image be in CMYK(A) colorspace.

               CopyBlack

                    The resulting image is the  black  channel  in  base-image
                    replaced with the black channel in change-image. The other
                    channels  are  copied  untouched.  Use  of  this  operator
                    requires  that  base-image  be  in  CMYK(A) colorspace. If
                    change-image is not in CMYK space, then  the  change-image
                    pixel intensities are used.



       -compress <type>
              the type of image compression

              Choices  are: None, BZip, Fax, Group4, JPEG, Lossless, LZW, RLE,
              Zip, or LZMA.


              Specify +compress to store the binary image in  an  uncompressed
              format.   The  default  is the compression type of the specified
              image file.

              "Lossless" refers to lossless JPEG, which is only  available  if
              the JPEG library has been patched to support it. Use of lossless
              JPEG is generally not recommended.

              Use the -quality option to set the compression level to be  used
              by  JPEG, PNG, MIFF, and MPEG encoders. Use the -sampling-factor
              option to set the sampling factor to be used by the  DPX,  JPEG,
              MPEG, and YUV encoders for downsampling the chroma channels.

       -contrast
              enhance or reduce the image contrast

              This  option  enhances  the  intensity  differences  between the
              lighter and darker elements  of  the  image.  Use  -contrast  to
              enhance the image or +contrast to reduce the image contrast.


              For a more pronounced effect you can repeat the option:

                  gm convert rose: -contrast -contrast rose_c2.png


       -convolve <kernel>
              convolve image with the specified convolution kernel

              The  kernel  is  specified as a comma-separated list of floating
              point values, ordered left-to right, starting with the top  row.
              The  order of the kernel is determined by the square root of the
              number of entries.  Presently only square kernels are supported.

       -create-directories
              create output directory if required

              Use  this  option with -output-directory if the input paths con-
              tain subdirectories and it is desired to create  similar  subdi-
              rectories in the output directory.  Without this option, mogrify
              will fail if the required output directory does not exist.

       -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              preferred size and location of the cropped image

              See -geometry for details about the geometry specification.

              The width and height give the size of  the  image  that  remains
              after  cropping,  and x and y are offsets that give the location
              of the top left corner of the cropped image with respect to  the
              original image.  To specify the amount to be removed, use -shave
              instead.

              If the x and y offsets are present, a single image is generated,
              consisting  of the pixels from the cropping region.  The offsets
              specify the location of the upper left corner  of  the  cropping
              region measured downward and rightward with respect to the upper
              left corner of the image.  If the  -gravity  option  is  present
              with  NorthEast,  East,  or SouthEast gravity, it gives the dis-
              tance leftward from the right edge of the  image  to  the  right
              edge  of the cropping region.  Similarly, if the -gravity option
              is present with SouthWest, South, or SouthEast gravity, the dis-
              tance is measured upward between the bottom edges.

              If the x and y offsets are omitted, a set of tiles of the speci-
              fied geometry, covering the entire input  image,  is  generated.
              The  rightmost  tiles  and  the  bottom tiles are smaller if the
              specified geometry extends beyond the dimensions  of  the  input
              image.

       -cycle <amount>
              displace image colormap by amount

              Amount  defines  the  number  of  positions  each colormap entry
              isshifted.


       -debug <events>
              enable debug printout

              The events parameter specifies which events are  to  be  logged.
              It can be either None, All, or a comma-separated list consisting
              of one or more of the following domains: Annotate, Blob,  Cache,
              Coder,  Configure,  Deprecate,  Error,  Exception,  Locale, Ren-
              der,Resource, TemporaryFile, Transform, Warning, X11,  or  User.
              For example, to log cache and blob events, use

                  gm convert -debug "Cache,Blob" rose: rose.png


              The  "User"  domain  is  normally  empty, but developers can log
              "User" events in their private copy of GraphicsMagick.

              Use the -log option to specify the format for debugging  output.

              Use +debug to turn off all logging.

              An  alternative to using -debug is to use the MAGICK_DEBUG envi-
              ronment variable. The allowed values for the MAGICK_DEBUG  envi-
              ronment variable are the same as for the -debug option.

       -deconstruct
              break down an image sequence into constituent parts

              This  option compares each image with the next in a sequence and
              returns the maximum bounding region of any pixel differences  it
              discovers.   This  method can undo a coalesced sequence returned
              by the -coalesce option, and is useful  for  removing  redundant
              information from a GIF or MNG animation.

              The  sequence  of  images is terminated by the appearance of any
              option.  If the -deconstruct option appears  after  all  of  the
              input images, all images are deconstructed.

       -define <key>{=<value>},...
              add  coder/decoder  specific  options This option creates one or
              more definitions for coders and decoders to  use  while  reading
              and  writing image data. Definitions may be passed to coders and
              decoders to control options that are specific to  certain  image
              formats.  If  value is missing for a definition, an empty-valued
              definition of a flag will be created with  that  name.  This  is
              used  to control on/off options. Use +define <key>,... to remove
              definitions previously created. Use +define "*"  to  remove  all
              existing definitions.

              The following definitions may be created:

               cineon:colorspace={rgb|cineonlog}

                    Use  the  cineon:colorspace  option  when reading a Cineon
                    file to specify the colorspace the Cineon file uses.  This
                    overrides  the  colorspace  type implied by the DPX header
                    (if any).

               dpx:bits-per-sample=<value>

                    If the dpx:bits-per-sample key is defined,  GraphicsMagick
                    will  write DPX images with the specified bits per sample,
                    overriding any existing depth value. If this option is not
                    specified,  then  the value is based on the existing image
                    depth value from the original image file. The DPX standard
                    supports  bits  per sample values of 1, 8, 10, 12, and 16.
                    Many DPX readers demand a sample size of 10 bits with type
                    A padding (see below).

               dpx:colorspace={rgb|cineonlog}

                    Use  the  dpx:colorspace option when reading a DPX file to
                    specify the colorspace the DPX file uses.  This  overrides
                    the colorspace type implied by the DPX header (if any).

               dpx:packing-method={packed|a|b|lsbpad|msbpad}

                    DPX  samples  are  output within 32-bit words. They may be
                    tightly packed end-to-end  within  the  words  ("packed"),
                    padded  with  null bits to the right of the sample ("a" or
                    "lsbpad), or padded with null bits to the left of the sam-
                    ple  ("b" or "msbpad"). This option only has an effect for
                    sample sizes of 10 or 12 bits. If samples are not  packed,
                    the DPX standard recommends type A padding. Many DPX read-
                    ers demand a sample size of 10 bits with type A padding.

               dpx:pixel-endian={lsb|msb}

                    Allows the user to specify the endian order of the  pixels
                    when  reading  or writing the DPX files. Sometimes this is
                    useful if the file is (or must be) written incorrectly  so
                    that  the file header and the pixels use different endian-
                    ness.

               dpx:swap-samples={true|false}

                    GraphicsMagick strives to adhere to the DPX  standard  but
                    certain aspects of the standard can be quite confusing. As
                    a result, some 10-bit DPX files have Red and  Blue  inter-
                    changed,  or  Cb  and  Cr interchanged due to an different
                    interpretation of  the  standard,  or  getting  the  wires
                    crossed.  The  swap-samples  option  may  be supplied when
                    reading or writing in order to read  or  write  using  the
                    necessary sample order.

               jp2:rate=<value>

                    Specify  the  compression  factor  to  use  while  writing
                    JPEG-2000 files. The compression factor is the  reciprocal
                    of  the  compression ratio. The valid range is 0.0 to 1.0,
                    with 1.0 indicating lossless compression. If defined, this
                    value  overrides the -quality setting. The default quality
                    setting of 75 results in a rate value of 0.06641.

               jpeg:block-smoothing={true|false}

                    Enables or disables block smoothing when  reading  a  JPEG
                    file (default enabled).

               jpeg:dct-method=<value>

                    Selects  the  IJG  JPEG library DCT implementation to use.
                    The encoding implementations vary in  speed  and  encoding
                    error.  The  available choices for value are islow, ifast,
                    float, default and fastest. Note that  fastest  might  not
                    necessarily  be  fastest  on  your  CPU,  depending on the
                    choices made when the JPEG library was built and how  your
                    CPU behaves.

               jpeg:fancy-upsampling={true|false}

                    Enables  or  disables fancy upsampling when reading a JPEG
                    file (default enabled).

               jpeg:optimize-coding={true|false}


                    Selects if huffman encoding should be used. Huffman encod-
                    ing  is  enabled  by default, but may be disabled for very
                    large images since it encoding requires  that  the  entire
                    image  be  buffered  in  memory. Huffman encoding produces
                    smaller JPEG files at the  expense  of  added  compression
                    time and memory consumption.

               jpeg:preserve-settings

                    If  the  jpeg:preserve-settings  flag is defined, the JPEG
                    encoder will use the same "quality" and  "sampling-factor"
                    settings  that  were found in the input file, if the input
                    was in JPEG format. These settings are also  preserved  if
                    the input is a JPEG file and the output is a JNG file.  If
                    the colorspace of the output file differs from that of the
                    input  file, the quality setting is preserved but the sam-
                    pling-factors are not.

               pcl:fit-to-page

                    If the pcl:fit-to-page flag is defined, then  the  printer
                    is  requested  to  scale  the  image  to fit the page size
                    (width and/or height).
               pdf:use-cropbox

                    If the pdf:use-cropbox flag is defined,  then  Ghostscript
                    is requested to apply the PDF crop box.

               ps:imagemask

                    If  the  ps:imagemask  flag  is  defined, the PS3 and EPS3
                    coders will create Postscript files  that  render  bilevel
                    images  with  the Postscript imagemask operator instead of
                    the image operator.

               tiff:alpha={unspecified|associated|unassociated}

                    Specify the TIFF alpha channel type when reading or  writ-
                    ing  TIFF  files, overriding the normal value. The default
                    alpha channel type for  new  files  is  associated  alpha.
                    Existing alpha settings are preserved when converting from
                    one TIFF file to another. When a TIFF file uses associated
                    alpha,  the image pixels are pre-multiplied (i.e. altered)
                    with the alpha  channel.  Files  with  "associated"  alpha
                    appear  as  if they were alpha composited on a black back-
                    ground when the matte channel is disabled. If the  unasso-
                    ciated  alpha  type is selected, then the alpha channel is
                    saved without altering the  pixels.  Photoshop  recognizes
                    associated  alpha as transparency information, if the file
                    is saved with unassociated alpha, the alpha information is
                    loaded  as  an  independent  channel.   Note that for many
                    years, ImageMagick and GraphicsMagick marked TIFF files as
                    using  associated  alpha, without properly pre-multiplying
                    the pixels.

               tiff:fill-order={msb2lsb|lsb2msb}

                    If the tiff:fill-order key is defined, GraphicsMagick will
                    use  it to determine the bit fill order used while writing
                    TIFF files. The normal default is "msb2lsb", which matches
                    the  native  bit order of all modern CPUs. The only excep-
                    tion to this is when Group3 or Group4 FAX  compression  is
                    requested  since  FAX  machines  send data in bit-reversed
                    order and therefore  RFC  2301  recommends  using  reverse
                    order.

               tiff:group-three-options=<value>

                    If  the tiff:group-three-options key is defined, Graphics-
                    Magick will use it to set  the  group3  options  tag  when
                    writing group3-compressed TIFF.  Please see the TIFF spec-
                    ification for the usage of this tag.  The default value is
                    4.

               tiff:sample-format={unsigned|ieeefp}

                    If  the  tiff:sample-format key is defined, GraphicsMagick
                    will use it to determine  the  sample  format  used  while
                    writing  TIFF  files.  The  default is "unsigned". Specify
                    "ieeefp" in order to write floating-point TIFF files  with
                    float   (32-bit)   or  double  (64-bit)  values.  Use  the
                    tiff:bits-per-sample  define  to  determine  the  type  of
                    floating-point value to use.

               tiff:max-sample-value=<value>

                    If  the tiff:max-sample-value key is defined, GraphicsMag-
                    ick will use the assigned value as  the  maximum  floating
                    point  value  while reading or writing IEEE floating point
                    TIFFs. Otherwise the maximum value is  1.0  or  the  value
                    obtained from the file's SMaxSampleValue tag (if present).
                    The floating  point  data  is  currently  not  scanned  in
                    advance to determine a best maximum sample value so if the
                    range is not  1.0,  or  the  SMaxSampleValue  tag  is  not
                    present,  it  may be necessary to (intelligently) use this
                    parameter to properly read a file.

               tiff:min-sample-value=<value>

                    If the tiff:min-sample-value key is defined,  GraphicsMag-
                    ick  will  use  the assigned value as the minimum floating
                    point value while reading or writing IEEE  floating  point
                    TIFFs.  Otherwise  the  minimum  value is 0.0 or the value
                    obtained from the file's SMinSampleValue tag (if present).

               tiff:bits-per-sample=<value>

                    If the tiff:bits-per-sample key is defined, GraphicsMagick
                    will write images with  the  specified  bits  per  sample,
                    overriding  any  existing depth value. Value may be any in
                    the range of 1 to 32, or 64 when  the  default  'unsigned'
                    format  is  written,  or  16/32/24/64  if IEEEFP format is
                    written.  Please note that the baseline TIFF 6.0  specifi-
                    cation  only  requires readers to handle certain powers of
                    two, and the values to be handled depend on the nature  of
                    the image (e.g. colormapped, grayscale, RGB, CMYK).

               tiff:samples-per-pixel=<value>

                    If  the  tiff:samples-per-pixel key is defined to a value,
                    the TIFF coder will write TIFF  images  with  the  defined
                    samples  per  pixel,  overriding  any  value stored in the
                    image. This option should not normally be used.

               tiff:rows-per-strip=<value>

                    Allows the user to specify the number  of  rows  per  TIFF
                    strip.   Rounded  up  to  a multiple of 16 when using JPEG
                    compression. Ignored when using tiles.

               tiff:strip-per-page=true

                    Requests that the image is written in a single TIFF strip.
                    This  is  normally  the default when group3 or group4 com-
                    pression is requested within reasonable limits. Requesting
                    a  single strip for large images may result in failure due
                    to resource consumption in the writer or reader.

               tiff:tile

                    Enable writing tiled TIFF (rather than stripped) using the
                    default  tile  size.  Tiled TIFF organizes the image as an
                    array of smaller images (tiles) in order to enable  random
                    access.

               tiff:tile-geometry=<width>x<height>

                    Specify  the  tile  size  to use while writing tiled TIFF.
                    Width and height should be a multiple of 16. If the  value
                    is  not  a  multiple  of 16, then it will be rounded down.
                    Enables tiled TIFF if it has  not  already  been  enabled.
                    GraphicsMagick  does  not  use tiled storage internally so
                    tiles need to be converted back and forth from the  inter-
                    nal  scanline-oriented  storage  to tile-oriented storage.
                    Testing with typical RGB images shows that  useful  square
                    tile  size  values  range from 128x128 to 1024x1024. Large
                    images which require using a disk-based pixel cache  bene-
                    fit from large tile sizes while images which fit in memory
                    work well with smaller tile sizes.

               tiff:tile-width=<width>

                    Specify the tile width to use while  writing  tiled  TIFF.
                    The  tile height is then defaulted to an appropriate size.
                    Width should be a multiple of 16. If the value  is  not  a
                    multiple  of  16,  then  it will be rounded down.  Enables
                    tiled TIFF if it has not already been enabled.

               tiff:tile-height=<height>

                    Specify the tile height to use while writing  tiled  TIFF.
                    The  tile  width is then defaulted to an appropriate size.
                    Height should be a multiple of 16. If the value is  not  a
                    multiple  of  16,  then  it will be rounded down.  Enables
                    tiled TIFF if it has not already been enabled.



               For example, to create a postscript file that will render  only
               the black pixels of a bilevel image, use:

                   gm convert bilevel.tif -define ps:imagemask eps3:stencil.ps


       -delay <1/100ths of a second>
              display the next image after pausing

              This option is useful for  regulating  the  animation  of  image
              sequences  Delay/100  seconds  must expire before the display of
              the next image. The default is no delay between each showing  of
              the image sequence. The maximum delay is 65535.

              You  can  specify  a delay range (e.g. -delay 10-500) which sets
              the minimum and maximum delay.

       -density <width>x<height>
              horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the  image  This
              option  specifies the image resolution to store while encoding a
              raster image or the canvas resolution while rendering  (reading)
              vector  formats  such  as  Postscript,  PDF, WMF, and SVG into a
              raster image. Image resolution provides the unit of  measure  to
              apply  when  rendering  to an output device or raster image. The
              default unit of measure is in dots per inch  (DPI).  The  -units
              option may be used to select dots per centimeter instead.
               The default resolution is 72 dots per inch, which is equivalent
              to one point per pixel (Macintosh and Postscript standard). Com-
              puter screens are normally 72 or 96 dots per inch while printers
              typically support 150, 300, 600,  or  1200  dots  per  inch.  To
              determine the resolution of your display, use a ruler to measure
              the width of your screen in inches, and divide by the number  of
              horizontal  pixels  (1024  on  a 1024x768 display).  If the file
              format supports it, this option may be used to update the stored
              image  resolution.  Note that Photoshop stores and obtains image
              resolution from a proprietary embedded profile. If this  profile
              is  not stripped from the image, then Photoshop will continue to
              treat the image using its former resolution, ignoring the  image
              resolution  specified  in the standard file header.  The density
              option is an attribute and does not alter the underlying  raster
              image.  It  may  be used to adjust the rendered size for desktop
              publishing purposes by adjusting the scale applied to  the  pix-
              els.  To  resize the image so that it is the same size at a dif-
              ferent resolution, use the -resample option.

       -depth <value>
              depth of the image

              This is the number of bits of color to preserve  in  the  image.
              Any value between 1 and QuantumDepth (build option) may be spec-
              ified, although 8 or 16 are the most  common  values.  Use  this
              option to specify the depth of raw images whose depth is unknown
              such as GRAY, RGB, or CMYK, or to change the depth of any  image
              after it has been read.  The depth option is applied to the pix-
              els immediately so it may be used as a form of  simple  compres-
              sion  by  discarding  the  least  significant bits. Reducing the
              depth in advance may speed up color quantization, and help  cre-
              ate  smaller  file sizes when using a compression algorithm like
              LZW or ZIP.

       -descend
              obtain image by descending window hierarchy

       -despeckle
              reduce the speckles within an image

       -displace <horizontal scale>x<vertical scale>
              shift image pixels as defined by a displacement map

              With this option, composite image is used as a displacement map.
              Black,  within  the displacement map, is a maximum positive dis-
              placement.  White is a maximum negative displacement and  middle
              gray  is  neutral.   The displacement is scaled to determine the
              pixel shift.  By default, the displacement applies in  both  the
              horizontal  and  vertical  directions.   However, if you specify
              mask, composite image is the horizontal X displacement and  mask
              the vertical Y displacement.

       -display <host:display[.screen]>
              specifies the X server to contact

              This  option  is  used  with convert for obtaining image or font
              from this X server.  See X(1).

       -dispose <method>
              GIF disposal method

              The Disposal Method indicates the way in which the graphic is to
              be treated after being displayed.

              Here are the valid methods:

                  Undefined       No disposal specified.
                  None            Do not dispose between frames.
                  Background      Overwrite the image area with
                                  the background color.
                  Previous        Overwrite the image area with
                                  what was there prior to rendering
                                  the image.


       -dissolve <percent>
              dissolve an image into another by the given percent

              The  opacity  of  the composite image is multiplied by the given
              percent, then it is composited over the main image.

       -dither
              apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

              The basic strategy of dithering is to trade intensity resolution
              for  spatial  resolution by averaging the intensities of several
              neighboring pixels.  Images which suffer from severe  contouring
              when reducing colors can be improved with this option.

              The -colors or -monochrome option is required for this option to
              take effect.

              Use +dither to turn off dithering and to render PostScript with-
              out text or graphic aliasing. Disabling dithering often (but not
              always) leads to decreased processing time.

       -draw <string>
              annotate an image with one or more graphic primitives

              Use this option to annotate an image with one  or  more  graphic
              primitives.   The  primitives  include shapes, text, transforma-
              tions, and pixel operations.  The shape primitives are

                   point           x,y
                   line            x0,y0 x1,y1
                   rectangle       x0,y0 x1,y1
                   roundRectangle  x0,y0 x1,y1 wc,hc
                   arc             x0,y0 x1,y1 a0,a1
                   ellipse         x0,y0 rx,ry a0,a1
                   circle          x0,y0 x1,y1
                   polyline        x0,y0  ...  xn,yn
                   polygon         x0,y0  ...  xn,yn
                   Bezier          x0,y0  ...  xn,yn
                   path            path specification
                   image           operator x0,y0 w,h filename


              The text primitive is

                   text            x0,y0 string


              The text gravity primitive is

                   gravity         NorthWest, North, NorthEast, West, Center,
                                   East, SouthWest, South, or SouthEast


              The text gravity primitive only affects the  placement  of  text
              and  does not interact with the other primitives.  It is equiva-
              lent to using the -gravity commandline option, except that it is
              limited in scope to the -draw option in which it appears.

              The transformation primitives are

                   rotate          degrees
                   translate       dx,dy
                   scale           sx,sy
                   skewX           degrees
                   skewY           degrees


              The pixel operation primitives are

                   color           x0,y0 method
                   matte           x0,y0 method


              The  shape  primitives  are  drawn in the color specified in the
              preceding -stroke option. Except for the line and  point  primi-
              tives, they are filled with the color specified in the preceding
              -fill option.  For unfilled shapes, use -fill none.

              Point requires a single coordinate.

              Line requires a start and end coordinate.

              Rectangle expects an upper left and lower right coordinate.

              RoundRectangle has the upper left and  lower  right  coordinates
              and the width and height of the corners.

              Circle  has  a  center coordinate and a coordinate for the outer
              edge.

              Use Arc to inscribe an elliptical arc within a rectangle.   Arcs
              require  a start and end point as well as the degree of rotation
              (e.g. 130,30 200,100 45,90).

              Use Ellipse to draw a partial  ellipse  centered  at  the  given
              point with the x-axis and y-axis radius and start and end of arc
              in degrees (e.g. 100,100 100,150 0,360).

              Finally, polyline and polygon require three or more  coordinates
              to define its boundaries.  Coordinates are integers separated by
              an optional comma.  For example, to define a circle centered  at
              100,100 that extends to 150,150 use:

                   -draw 'circle 100,100 150,150'


              Paths  (See  Paths)  represent  an outline of an object which is
              defined in terms of moveto (set a  new  current  point),  lineto
              (draw  a  straight  line),  curveto  (draw a curve using a cubic
              Bezier), arc (elliptical or circular arc) and  closepath  (close
              the  current  shape  by  drawing a line to the last moveto) ele-
              ments. Compound paths (i.e., a path with subpaths, each consist-
              ing  of  a  single  moveto followed by one or more line or curve
              operations) are possible to allow effects such as "donut  holes"
              in objects.

              Use  image  to composite an image with another image. Follow the
              image keyword with the composite operator, image location, image
              size, and filename:

                   -draw 'image Over 100,100 225,225 image.jpg'


              You  can  use  0,0  for  the  image size, which means to use the
              actual dimensions found in the image header. Otherwise, it  will
              be  scaled to the given dimensions.  See -compose for a descrip-
              tion of the composite operators.

              Use text to annotate an image with text. Follow the text coordi-
              nates  with a string. If the string has embedded spaces, enclose
              it in single or double quotes. Optionally you  can  include  the
              image filename, type, width, height, or other image attribute by
              embedding special format character. See -comment for details.

              For example,


                   -draw 'text 100,100 "%m:%f %wx%h"'


              annotates the image with MIFF:bird.miff  512x480  for  an  image
              titled bird.miff and whose width is 512 and height is 480.

              If  the  first character of string is @, the text is read from a
              file titled by the remaining characters in the string.

              Rotate rotates subsequent shape primitives and  text  primitives
              about  the  origin of the main image. If the -region option pre-
              cedes the -draw option, the origin for  transformations  is  the
              upper left corner of the region.

              Translate translates them.

              Scale scales them.

              SkewX and SkewY skew them with respect to the origin of the main
              image or the region.

              The transformations modify the current affine matrix,  which  is
              initialized  from  the  initial  affine  matrix  defined  by the
              -affine option.  Transformations are cumulative within the -draw
              option.   The initial affine matrix is not affected; that matrix
              is only changed by the appearance of another -affine option.  If
              another  -draw  option  appears,  the  current  affine matrix is
              reinitialized from the initial affine matrix.

              Use color to change the color of a pixel to the fill color  (see
              -fill). Follow the pixel coordinate with a method:

                   point
                   replace
                   floodfill
                   filltoborder
                   reset


              Consider  the target pixel as that specified by your coordinate.
              The point method recolors the target pixel. The  replace  method
              recolors  any  pixel that matches the color of the target pixel.
              Floodfill recolors any pixel that matches the color of the  tar-
              get  pixel  and is a neighbor, whereas filltoborder recolors any
              neighbor pixel that is not  the  border  color.  Finally,  reset
              recolors all pixels.

              Use  matte  to  the change the pixel matte value to transparent.
              Follow the pixel coordinate with a method (see the color  primi-
              tive for a description of methods). The point method changes the
              matte value of the target pixel. The replace method changes  the
              matte  value  of  any pixel that matches the color of the target
              pixel. Floodfill changes the  matte  value  of  any  pixel  that
              matches the color of the target pixel and is a neighbor, whereas
              filltoborder changes the matte value of any neighbor pixel  that
              is  not  the border color (-bordercolor).  Finally reset changes
              the matte value of all pixels.

              You can set the primitive color, font,  and  font  bounding  box
              color with -fill, -font, and -box respectively. Options are pro-
              cessed in command line order so be sure  to  use  these  options
              before the -draw option.

       -edge <radius>
              detect edges within an image

       -emboss <radius>
              emboss an image

       -encoding <type>
              specify the text encoding

              Choose from AdobeCustom, AdobeExpert, AdobeStandard, AppleRoman,
              BIG5, GB2312, Latin 2, None, SJIScode, Symbol, Unicode, Wansung.

       -endian <type>
              specify endianness (MSB, LSB, or Native) of image

              MSB  indicates  big-endian  (e.g. SPARC, Motorola 68K) while LSB
              indicates little-endian (e.g. Intel 'x86,  VAX)  byte  ordering.
              Native indicates to use the normal ordering for the current CPU.
              This option currently only influences the CMYK, DPX, GRAY,  RGB,
              and TIFF, formats.

              Use +endian to revert to unspecified endianness.

       -enhance
              apply a digital filter to enhance a noisy image

       -equalize
              perform histogram equalization to the image

       -extent <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>
              composite image on background color canvas image

              This  option  composites  the  image  on  a new background color
              (-background) canvas image of size <width>x<height>. The  exist-
              ing  image  content  is  composited at the position specified by
              geometry x and y offset and/or desired gravity (-gravity)  using
              the  current  image  compose  (-compose)  method.  Image content
              which falls outside the bounds of the new  image  dimensions  is
              discarded.

              For  example,  this command creates a thumbnail of an image, and
              centers it on a red color backdrop image:

                  gm convert  infile.jpg  -thumbnail  120x80  -background  red
              -gravity center \
                            -extent 140x100 outfile.jpg


              This  command  reduces  or  expands  a  JPEG  image to fit on an
              800x600 display:


                  gm convert -size 800x600 input.jpg \
                            -resize 800x600 -background black \
                            -compose Copy -gravity center \
                            -extent 800x600 \
                            -quality 92 output.jpg


              If the aspect ratio of the input image isn't exactly  4:3,  then
              the image is centered on an 800x600 black canvas.



       -file <filename>
              write annotated difference image to file

              If  -file  is  specified,  then an annotated difference image is
              generated and written to the specified file. Pixels which differ
              between the reference and compare images are modified from those
              in the compare image so that  the  changed  pixels  become  more
              obvious.   Some  images  may require use of an alternative high-
              light style  (see  -highlight-style)  or  highlight  color  (see
              -highlight-color) before the changes are obvious.

       -fill <color>
              color to use when filling a graphic primitive

              Colors  are  represented in GraphicsMagick in the same form used
              by SVG. Use "gm convert -list color" to list named colors:

                  name               (named color)
                  #RGB               (hex numbers, 4 bits each)
                  #RRGGBB            (8 bits each)
                  #RRRGGGBBB         (12 bits each)
                  #RRRRGGGGBBBB      (16 bits each)
                  #RGBA              (4 bits each)
                  #RRGGBBAA          (8 bits each)
                  #RRRGGGBBBAAA      (12 bits each)
                  #RRRRGGGGBBBBAAAA  (16 bits each)
                  rgb(r,g,b)         (r,g,b are decimal numbers)
                  rgba(r,g,b,a)      (r,g,b,a are decimal numbers)


              Enclose the color specification in quotation  marks  to  prevent
              the "#" or the parentheses from being interpreted by your shell.

              For example,

                  gm convert -fill blue ...
                  gm convert -fill "#ddddff" ...
                  gm convert -fill "rgb(65000,65000,65535)" ...


              The shorter forms are scaled up, if  necessary  by  replication.
              For  example,  #3af,  #33aaff, and #3333aaaaffff are all equiva-
              lent.

              See -draw for further details.

       -filter <type>
              use this type of filter when resizing an image

              Use this option to affect the resizing  operation  of  an  image
              (see -geometry).  Choose from these filters (ordered by approxi-
              mate increasing CPU time):

                   Point
                   Box
                   Triangle
                   Hermite
                   Hanning
                   Hamming
                   Blackman
                   Gaussian
                   Quadratic
                   Cubic
                   Catrom
                   Mitchell
                   Lanczos
                   Bessel
                   Sinc


              The default filter is automatically selected to provide the best
              quality  while  consuming  a  reasonable  amount  of  time.  The
              Mitchell filter is used if the image supports  a  palette,  sup-
              ports a matte channel, or is being enlarged, otherwise the Lanc-
              zos filter is used.

       -flatten
              flatten a sequence of images

              In some file formats (e.g. Photoshop's PSD) complex  images  may
              be  represented  by  "layers" (independent images) which must be
              composited in order to obtain the final rendition.  The -flatten
              option accomplishes this composition.  The sequence of images is
              replaced by a single image created by compositing each image  in
              turn,  while  respecting composition operators and page offsets.
              While -flatten is immediately useful for eliminating layers,  it
              is also useful as a general-purpose composition tool.

              The  sequence  of  images is terminated by the appearance of any
              option.  If the -flatten option appears after all of  the  input
              images,  all  images  are  flattened.  Also see -mosaic which is
              similar to -flatten except that it adds a suitably-sized  canvas
              base image.

              For example, this composites an image on top of a 640x400 trans-
              parent black canvas image:

                  gm convert -size 640x300 xc:transparent \
                            -compose over -page +0-100 \
                            frame.png -flatten output.png


              and this flattens a Photoshop PSD file:

                  gm convert input.psd -flatten output.png




       -flip  create a "mirror image"

              reflect the scanlines in the vertical direction.

       -flop  create a "mirror image"

              reflect the scanlines in the horizontal direction.

       -font <name>
              use this font when annotating the image with text

              You can tag a font to specify whether it is a PostScript,  True-
              Type,  or  X11 font.  For example, Arial.ttf is a TrueType font,
              ps:helvetica is PostScript, and x:fixed is X11.

       -foreground <color>
              define the foreground color

              The color is specified using  the  format  described  under  the
              -fill option.

       -format <type>
              the image format type

              When used with the mogrify utility, this option will convert any
              image to the image format you  specify.   See  GraphicsMagick(1)
              for a list of image format types supported by GraphicsMagick, or
              see the output of 'gm -list format'.

              By default the file is written to its original  name.   However,
              if the filename extension matches a supported format, the exten-
              sion is replaced with the image format type specified with -for-
              mat.   For  example,  if you specify tiff as the format type and
              the input image filename is image.gif, the output image filename
              becomes image.tiff.

       -format <string>
              output formatted image characteristics

              When used with the identify utility, or the convert utility with
              output written to the  'info:-'  file  specification,  use  this
              option  to print information about the image in a format of your
              choosing.  You can include  the  image  filename,  type,  width,
              height,  Exif  data, or other image attributes by embedding spe-
              cial format characters:

                   %b   file size
                   %c   comment
                   %d   directory
                   %e   filename extension
                   %f   filename
                   %h   height
                   %i   input filename
                   %k   number of unique colors
                   %l   label
                   %m   magick
                   %n   number of scenes
                   %o   output filename
                   %p   page number
                   %q   image minimum bit depth
                   %r   image type description
                   %s   scene number
                   %t   top of filename
                   %u   unique temporary filename
                   %w   width
                   %x   x resolution
                   %y   y resolution
                   %#   signature
                   \n   newline
                   \r   carriage return


              For example,

                   -format "%m:%f %wx%h"


              displays MIFF:bird.miff 512x480 for an  image  titled  bird.miff
              and whose width is 512 and height is 480.

              If the first character of string is @, the format is read from a
              file titled by the remaining characters in the string.

              The values of image type (%p) which may be returned include:

                   Bilevel
                   Grayscale
                   GrayscaleMatte
                   Palette
                   PaletteMatte
                   TrueColor
                   TrueColorMatte
                   ColorSeparation
                   ColorSeparationMatte
                   Optimize


              You can also use the  following  special  formatting  syntax  to
              print Exif information contained in the file:

                   %[EXIF:<tag>]


              Where "<tag>" can be one of the following:

                   *  (print all Exif tags, in keyword=data format)
                   !  (print all Exif tags, in tag_number data format)
                   #hhhh (print data for Exif tag #hhhh)
                   ImageWidth
                   ImageLength
                   BitsPerSample
                   Compression
                   PhotometricInterpretation
                   FillOrder
                   DocumentName
                   ImageDescription
                   Make
                   Model
                   StripOffsets
                   Orientation
                   SamplesPerPixel
                   RowsPerStrip
                   StripByteCounts
                   XResolution
                   YResolution
                   PlanarConfiguration
                   ResolutionUnit
                   TransferFunction
                   Software
                   DateTime
                   Artist
                   WhitePoint
                   PrimaryChromaticities
                   TransferRange
                   JPEGProc
                   JPEGInterchangeFormat
                   JPEGInterchangeFormatLength
                   YCbCrCoefficients
                   YCbCrSubSampling
                   YCbCrPositioning
                   ReferenceBlackWhite
                   CFARepeatPatternDim
                   CFAPattern
                   BatteryLevel
                   Copyright
                   ExposureTime
                   FNumber
                   IPTC/NAA
                   ExifOffset
                   InterColorProfile
                   ExposureProgram
                   SpectralSensitivity
                   GPSInfo
                   ISOSpeedRatings
                   OECF
                   ExifVersion
                   DateTimeOriginal
                   DateTimeDigitized
                   ComponentsConfiguration
                   CompressedBitsPerPixel
                   ShutterSpeedValue
                   ApertureValue
                   BrightnessValue
                   ExposureBiasValue
                   MaxApertureValue
                   SubjectDistance
                   MeteringMode
                   LightSource
                   Flash
                   FocalLength
                   MakerNote
                   UserComment
                   SubSecTime
                   SubSecTimeOriginal
                   SubSecTimeDigitized
                   FlashPixVersion
                   ColorSpace
                   ExifImageWidth
                   ExifImageLength
                   InteroperabilityOffset
                   FlashEnergy
                   SpatialFrequencyResponse
                   FocalPlaneXResolution
                   FocalPlaneYResolution
                   FocalPlaneResolutionUnit
                   SubjectLocation
                   ExposureIndex
                   SensingMethod
                   FileSource
                   SceneType


              Surround  the  format specification with quotation marks to pre-
              vent your shell  from  misinterpreting  any  spaces  and  square
              brackets.

       -frame <width>x<height>+<outer bevel width>+<inner bevel width>
              surround the image with an ornamental border

              See -geometry for details about the geometry specification.  The
              -frame option is not affected by the -gravity option.

              The color of the border is specified with the  -mattecolor  com-
              mand line option.

       -frame include the X window frame in the imported image

       -fuzz <distance>{%}
              colors within this Euclidean distance are considered equal

              A number of algorithms search for a target color. By default the
              color must be exact. Use this option to match  colors  that  are
              close  (in  Euclidean  distance)  to  the target color in RGB 3D
              space. For example, if you want to automatically trim the  edges
              of  an image with -trim but the image was scanned and the target
              background color may differ by a small amount. This  option  can
              account for these differences.

              The distance can be in absolute intensity units or, by appending
              "%", as a percentage of the  maximum  possible  intensity  (255,
              65535, or 4294967295).

       -gamma <value>
              level of gamma correction

              The same color image displayed on two different workstations may
              look different due to differences in the  display  monitor.  Use
              gamma correction to adjust for this color difference. Reasonable
              values extend from 0.8 to 2.3. Gamma less than 1.0  darkens  the
              image  and gamma greater than 1.0 lightens it. Large adjustments
              to image gamma may result in the loss of some image  information
              if the pixel quantum size is only eight bits (quantum range 0 to
              255).

              You can apply separate gamma values to the red, green, and  blue
              channels  of  the  image  with a gamma value list delimited with
              slashes (e.g., 1.7/2.3/1.2).

              Use +gamma value to set the image gamma level  without  actually
              adjusting  the  image pixels. This option is useful if the image
              is of a known gamma but not set as an image attribute (e.g.  PNG
              images).

       -gaussian <radius>{x<sigma>}
              blur the image with a Gaussian operator

              Use the given radius and standard deviation (sigma).

       -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@}{!}{^}{<}{>}
              preferred size and location of the Image window.

              By  default,  the window size is the image size and the location
              is chosen by you when it is mapped.

              By default, the width and height are maximum  values.  That  is,
              the  image is expanded or contracted to fit the width and height
              value while maintaining the aspect ratio of the image.

              Append a ^ to the geometry so that the image  is  resized  while
              maintaining  the  aspect  ratio  of the image, but the resulting
              width or height are treated as minimum values rather than  maxi-
              mum values.

              Append  an  exclamation point to the geometry to force the image
              size to exactly the size you specify. For example, if you  spec-
              ify  640x480! the image width is set to 640 pixels and height to
              480.

              If only the width is specified, the width assumes the value  and
              the  height is chosen to maintain the aspect ratio of the image.
              Similarly, if only the  height  is  specified  (e.g.,  -geometry
              x256), the width is chosen to maintain the aspect ratio.

              To  specify  a percentage width or height instead, append %. The
              image size is multiplied by the width and height percentages  to
              obtain  the  final  image dimensions. To increase the size of an
              image, use a value greater than 100 (e.g. 125%). To decrease  an
              image's size, use a percentage less than 100.

              Use @ to specify the maximum area in pixels of an image.

              Use > to change the dimensions of the image only if its width or
              height exceeds the geometry specification. < resizes  the  image
              only if both of its dimensions are less than the geometry speci-
              fication. For example, if you specify '640x480>' and  the  image
              size is 256x256, the image size does not change. However, if the
              image is  512x512  or  1024x1024,  it  is  resized  to  480x480.
              Enclose the geometry specification in quotation marks to prevent
              the < or > from being interpreted by your shell as a file  redi-
              rection.

              When  used  with animate and display, offsets are handled in the
              same manner as in X(1) and the -gravity option is not used.   If
              the  x  is  negative,  the  offset is measured leftward from the
              right edge of the screen to the right edge of  the  image  being
              displayed.  Similarly, negative y is measured between the bottom
              edges.  The offsets are not affected by  "%";  they  are  always
              measured in pixels.

              When  used as a composite option, -geometry gives the dimensions
              of the image and its location  with  respect  to  the  composite
              image.   If the -gravity option is present with NorthEast, East,
              or SouthEast gravity, the x represents  the  distance  from  the
              right  edge  of  the  image  to  the right edge of the composite
              image.  Similarly, if the -gravity option is present with South-
              West,  South,  or  SouthEast  gravity, y is measured between the
              bottom edges. Accordingly, a positive offset will never point in
              the  direction  outside  of  the  image.   The  offsets  are not
              affected by "%"; they are always measured in pixels.  To specify
              the dimensions of the composite image, use the -resize option.

              When  used  as a convert, import or mogrify option, -geometry is
              synonymous with -resize and specifies the  size  of  the  output
              image.  The offsets, if present, are ignored.

              When  used  as  a  montage option, -geometry specifies the image
              size and border size for  each  tile;  default  is  256x256+0+0.
              Negative  offsets  (border  dimensions)  are  meaningless.   The
              -gravity option affects the placement of the  image  within  the
              tile;  the  default  gravity for this purpose is Center.  If the
              "%" sign appears in the geometry specification, the tile size is
              the specified percentage of the original dimensions of the first
              tile.  To specify the dimensions of the montage, use the -resize
              option.

       -gravity <type>
              direction primitive  gravitates to when annotating the image.

              Choices  are:  NorthWest,  North, NorthEast, West, Center, East,
              SouthWest, South, SouthEast.

              The direction you choose specifies where to  position  the  text
              when annotating the image. For example Center gravity forces the
              text to be centered within the  image.  By  default,  the  image
              gravity  is NorthWest.  See -draw for more details about graphic
              primitives.  Only the text primitive is affected by the -gravity
              option.

              The  -gravity  option is also used in concert with the -geometry
              option and other options that take <geometry>  as  a  parameter,
              such  as the -crop option.  See -geometry for details of how the
              -gravity option interacts with the <x> and <y> parameters  of  a
              geometry specification.

              When  used  as an option to composite, -gravity gives the direc-
              tion that the image gravitates within the composite.

              When used as an option to montage, -gravity gives the  direction
              that  an image gravitates within a tile.  The default gravity is
              Center for this purpose.

       -green-primary <x>,<y>
              green chromaticity primary point

       -hald-clut <clut>
              apply a Hald CLUT to the image

              A Hald CLUT ("Color Look-Up Table") is a  special  square  color
              image  which  contains a look-up table for red, green, and blue.
              The size of the Hald CLUT image is determined by its order.  The
              width (and height) of a Hald CLUT is the cube of the order.  For
              example, a Hald CLUT of order 8 is 512x512 pixels (262,144  col-
              ors)  and  of order 16 is 4096x4096 (16,777,216 colors).  A spe-
              cial CLUT is the identity CLUT which which causes no  change  to
              the  input  image.   In order to use the Hald CLUT, one takes an
              identity CLUT and adjusts its colors in some way.  The  modified
              CLUT  can  then  be used to transform any number of images in an
              identical way.

              GraphicsMagick contains a built-in identity CLUT  generator  via
              the  IDENTITY  coder.   For  example  reading from the file name
              IDENTITY:8 returns an identity CLUT of order  8.   Typical  Hald
              CLUT  identity  images  have  an order of between 8 and 16.  The
              default order for the IDENTITY CLUT generator is 8.   Interpola-
              tion  is  used so it is not usually necessary for CLUT images to
              be very large.  The PNG file format is ideal  for  storing  Hald
              CLUT images because it compresses them very well.



       -help  print usage instructions

       -highlight-color <color>
              pixel annotation color

              Specifies the color to use when annotating difference pixels.



       -highlight-style <style>
              pixel annotation style

              Specifies  the  pixel  difference  annotation style used to draw
              attention to changed pixels. May be one  of  Assign,  Threshold,
              Tint, or XOR; where Assign replaces the pixel with the highlight
              color (see -highlight-color), Threshold replaces the pixel  with
              black  or white based on the difference in intensity, Tint alpha
              tints the pixel with the highlight color, and XOR  does  an  XOR
              between the pixel and the highlight color.

       -iconGeometry <geometry>
              specify the icon geometry

              Offsets,  if  present in the geometry specification, are handled
              in the same manner as the -geometry option, using X11  style  to
              handle negative offsets.



       -iconic
              iconic animation

       -immutable
              make image immutable

       -implode <factor>
              implode image pixels about the center

       -intent <type>
              use this type of rendering intent when managing the image color

              Use  this option to affect the the color management operation of
              an image (see -profile).  Choose from these  intents:  Absolute,
              Perceptual, Relative, Saturation.

              The default intent is undefined.



       -interlace <type>
              the type of interlacing scheme

              Choices  are:  None,  Line,  Plane, or Partition. The default is
              None.

              This option is used to specify the type  of  interlacing  scheme
              for  raw  image  formats  such as RGB or YUV.  None means do not
              interlace (RGBRGBRGBRGBRGBRGB...),

              Line            uses            scanline             interlacing
              (RRR...GGG...BBB...RRR...GGG...BBB...),  and  Plane  uses  plane
              interlacing (RRRRRR...GGGGGG...BBBBBB...).

              Partition is like plane except the different planes are saved to
              individual files (e.g. image.R, image.G, and image.B).

              Use Line to create an interlaced PNG or  GIF or progressive JPEG
              image.



       -label <name>
              assign a label to an image

              Use this option to assign a specific label to  the  image,  when
              writing  to  an image format that supports labels, such as TIFF,
              PNG, MIFF, or PostScript. You can include the  the  image  file-
              name, type, width, height, or other image attribute by embedding
              special format character.  A label is not drawn  on  the  image,
              but  is  embedded  in  the image datastream via a "Label" tag or
              similar mechanism.  If you want the label to be visible  on  the
              image itself, use the -draw option.  See -comment for details.

              For example,

                   -label "%m:%f %wx%h"


              produces  an  image label of MIFF:bird.miff 512x480 for an image
              titled bird.miff and whose width is 512 and height is 480.

              If the first character of string is @, the image label  is  read
              from a file titled by the remaining characters in the string.

              When  converting  to  PostScript,  use  this option to specify a
              header string to print above the image. Specify the  label  font
              with -font.

              When creating a montage, by default the label associated with an
              image is displayed with the corresponding tile in  the  montage.
              Use the +label option to suppress this behavior.



       -lat <width>x<height>{+-}<offset>{%}
              perform local adaptive thresholding

              Perform  local  adaptive thresholding using the specified width,
              height, and offset.  The offset is a distance  in  sample  space
              from the mean, as an absolute integer ranging from 0 to the max-
              imum sample value or as a percentage.  If the percent option  is
              supplied,  then  the  offset  is computed as a percentage of the
              quantum range.  It is strongly recommended to  use  the  percent
              option so that results are not sensitive to pixel quantum depth.

              For example,

                   -colorspace gray -lat "10x10-5%"


              will help clarify a scanned grayscale or color document, produc-
              ing a bi-level equivalent.



       -level <black_point>{,<gamma>}{,<white_point>}{%}
              adjust the level of image contrast

              Give  one,  two  or  three  values delimited with commas: black-
              point, gamma, white-point (e.g. 10,1.0,250 or  2%,0.5,98%).  The
              black and white points range from 0 to MaxRGB or from 0 to 100%;
              if the white point is omitted it is set  to  MaxRGB-black_point.
              If  a  "%" sign is present anywhere in the string, the black and
              white points are percentages of MaxRGB.  Gamma  is  an  exponent
              that  ranges  from  0.1 to 10.; if it is omitted, the default of
              1.0 (no gamma correction) is assumed. This interface works simi-
              lar  to Photoshop's "Image->Adjustments->Levels..."  "Input Lev-
              els" interface.

       -limit <type> <value>
              Disk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, or Threads resource limit

              By default, resource limits are estimated based on the available
              resources  of  the system. The resource limits are Disk, maximum
              total disk space consumed; File, maximum number of file descrip-
              tors  allowed  to  be open at once; Map, maximum total number of
              file bytes which may be memory  mapped;  Memory,  maximum  total
              number  of  bytes of heap memory used for image storage; Pixels,
              maximum absolute image size (per image); and Threads, the  maxi-
              mum number of worker threads to use per OpenMP thread team.

              These  resource limits are used to decide if (for a given image)
              the decoded image ("pixel cache") should be stored in heap  mem-
              ory  (RAM),  in  a  memory-mapped  disk  file, or in a disk file
              accessed via read/write I/O.  The number of total pixels in  one
              image may also be limited in order to force the reading, or cre-
              ation of images larger than the limit (in pixels) to  intention-
              ally  fail.  The  disk  limit establishes an overall limit since
              using the disk is the means of last resort. When the disk  limit
              has been reached, no more images may be read.

              The  value  argument is an absolute value, but may have standard
              binary suffix characters applied ('K', 'M', 'G', 'T', 'P',  'E')
              to apply a scaling to the value (based on a multiplier of 1024).
              Any additional characters are ignored. For example, '-limit Pix-
              els  10MP'  limits  the  maximum image size to 10 megapixels and
              '-limit memory 32MB -limit map 64MB' limits  memory  and  memory
              mapped files to 32 megabytes and 64 megabytes respectively.

              Resource limits may also be set using environment variables. The
              environment  variables  MAGICK_LIMIT_DISK,   MAGICK_LIMIT_FILES,
              MAGICK_LIMIT_MAP,  MAGICK_LIMIT_MEMORY, MAGICK_LIMIT_PIXELS, and
              OMP_NUM_THREADS may be used to set the limits  for  disk  space,
              open  files,  memory mapped size, heap memory, per-image pixels,
              and threads respectively.

              Use the option -list resource list the current limits.

       -linewidth
              the line width for subsequent draw operations

       -list <type>
              the type of list

              Choices are: Color, Delegate, Format, Magic,  Module,  Resource,
              or  Type.  The Module option is only available if GraphicsMagick
              was built to support loadable modules.

              This option lists information about the GraphicsMagick  configu-
              ration.

       -log <string>
              Specify format for debug log

              This  option  specifies  the format for the log printed when the
              -debug option is active.

              You can display the following components  by  embedding  special
              format characters:

                   %d   domain
                   %e   event
                   %f   function
                   %l   line
                   %m   module
                   %p   process ID
                   %r   real CPU time
                   %t   wall clock time
                   %u   user CPU time
                   %%   percent sign
                   \n   newline
                   \r   carriage return


              For example:

                  gm convert -debug coders -log "%u %m:%l %e" in.gif out.png


              The default behavior is to print all of the components.

       -loop <iterations>
              add Netscape loop extension to your GIF animation

              A value other than zero forces the animation to repeat itself up
              to iterations times.

       -magnify
              magnify the image

              The image size is doubled using linear interpolation.

       -magnify <factor>
              magnify the image

              The displayed image is magnified by factor.

       -map <filename>
              choose a particular set of colors from this image

              [convert or mogrify]

              By default, color reduction chooses an  optimal  set  of  colors
              that  best  represent the original image. Alternatively, you can
              choose a particular set of colors from an image file  with  this
              option.

              Use +map to reduce all images in the image sequence that follows
              to a single optimal set of colors that best  represent  all  the
              images.   The sequence of images is terminated by the appearance
              of any option.  If the +map option  appears  after  all  of  the
              input images, all images are mapped.

       -map <type>
              display image using this type.

              [animate or display]

              Choose from these Standard Colormap types:

                   best
                   default
                   gray
                   red
                   green
                   blue


              The X server must support the Standard Colormap you choose, oth-
              erwise an error  occurs.  Use  list  as  the  type  and  display
              searches the list of colormap types in top-to-bottom order until
              one is located. See xstdcmap(1) for one way of creating Standard
              Colormaps.

       -mask <filename>
              Specify a clipping mask

              The  image  read  from  the file is used as a clipping mask.  It
              must have the same dimensions as the image being masked.

              If the mask image contains an opacity channel,  the  opacity  of
              each pixel is used to define the mask.  Otherwise, the intensity
              (gray level) of each pixel is used.  Unmasked (black) pixels are
              modified  while  masked  pixels  (not  black) are protected from
              alteration.

              Use +mask to remove the clipping mask.

              It is not necessary to use -clip to activate the mask; -clip  is
              implied by -mask.

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

              If  the  image  does  not have a matte channel, create an opaque
              one.

              Use +matte to ignore the matte channel and to  avoid  writing  a
              matte channel in the output file.

       -mattecolor <color>
              specify the color to be used with the -frame option

              The  color  is  specified  using  the format described under the
              -fill option.

       -maximum-error <limit>
              specifies the maximum amount of total image error

              Specifies the maximum amount of total image error (based on com-
              parison  using  a specified metric) before an error ("image dif-
              ference exceeds limit") is reported.  The error is reported  via
              a non-zero command execution return status.

       -median <radius>
              apply a median filter to the image

       -metric <metric>
              comparison metric (MAE, MSE, PAE, PSNR, RMSE)

       -minify <factor>
              minify the image

              The image size is halved using linear interpolation.

       -mode <value>
              mode of operation

              The  available  montage modes are frame to place the images in a
              rectangular grid while adding  a  decorative  frame  with  drop-
              shadow,  unframe  to  place  undecorated images in a rectangular
              grid, and concatenate to pack the images closely together  with-
              out any well-defined grid or decoration.

       -modulate brightness[,saturation[,hue]]
              vary the brightness, saturation, and hue of an image

              Specify  the percent change in brightness, color saturation, and
              hue separated by commas. Default argument values  are  100  per-
              cent, resulting in no change. For example, to increase the color
              brightness by 20% and decrease the color saturation by  10%  and
              leave the hue unchanged, use: -modulate 120,90.

              Hue  is  the  percentage  of  absolute rotation from the current
              position. For example 50 results in a counter-clockwise rotation
              of  90  degrees,  150  results  in  a  clockwise  rotation of 90
              degrees, with 0 and 200 both resulting  in  a  rotation  of  180
              degrees.

       -monitor
              show progress indication

              A  simple  command-line  progress  indication is shown while the
              command is running. The process indication shows  the  operation
              currently  being  performed  and the percent completed. Commands
              using X11 may replace the command line progress indication  with
              a graphical one once an image has been displayed.

       -monochrome
              transform the image to black and white

       -morph <frames>
              morphs an image sequence

              Both the image pixels and size are linearly interpolated to give
              the appearance of a meta-morphosis from one image to the next.

              The sequence of images is terminated by the  appearance  of  any
              option.   If  the  -morph  option appears after all of the input
              images, all images are morphed.

       -mosaic
              create a mosaic from an image or an image sequence

              The -mosaic option provides a flexible way to composite  one  or
              more images onto a solid-color canvas image. It works similar to
              -flatten except that a base canvas image is  automatically  cre-
              ated with a suitable size given the image size, page dimensions,
              and page offsets of images to be composited.  The color  of  the
              base  canvas  image  may be set via the -background option.  The
              default canvas color is 'white', but  'black'  or  'transparent'
              may  be  more  suitable  depending  on the composition algorithm
              requested.

              The -compose option may be used to specify the composition algo-
              rithm  to  use when compositing the subsequent image on the base
              canvas.

              The -page option can be used to establish the dimensions of  the
              mosaic  and  to position the subsequent image within the mosaic.
              If the -page argument does not specify width  and  height,  then
              the canvas dimensions are evaluated based on the image sizes and
              offsets.

              The sequence of images is terminated by the  appearance  of  any
              option.   If  the  -mosaic option appears after all of the input
              images, all images are included in the mosaic.

              The following is an example of composing an image based on  red,
              green,  and  blue layers extracted from a sequence of images and
              pasted on the canvas image at specified offsets:

                  gm convert -background black \
                            -compose CopyRed   -page +0-100 red.png \
                            -compose CopyGreen -page +0+40  green.png \
                            -compose CopyBlue  -page +0+180 blue.png \
                            -mosaic output.png


       -motion-blur <radius>{x<sigma>}{+angle}
              Simulate motion blur

              Simulate motion blur by convolving the  image  with  a  Gaussian
              operator of the given radius and standard deviation (sigma). For
              reasonable results, radius  should  be  larger  than  sigma.  If
              radius is zero, then a suitable radius is automatically selected
              based on sigma. The angle specifies the angle that the object is
              coming from (side which is blurred).

       -name  name an image

       -negate
              replace every pixel with its complementary color

              The  red,  green,  and blue intensities of an image are negated.
              White becomes black, yellow becomes blue, etc.  Use  +negate  to
              only negate the grayscale pixels of the image.

       -noise <radius|type>
              add or reduce noise in an image

              The  principal  function  of noise peak elimination filter is to
              smooth the objects within an image without losing edge  informa-
              tion and without creating undesired structures. The central idea
              of the algorithm is to replace a pixel with its next neighbor in
              value  within a pixel window, if this pixel has been found to be
              noise. A pixel is defined as noise if and only if this pixel  is
              a maximum or minimum within the pixel window.

              Use radius to specify the width of the neighborhood.

              Use  +noise  followed  by a noise type to add noise to an image.
              The noise added modulates the existing image pixels. Choose from
              these noise types:

                   Uniform
                   Gaussian
                   Multiplicative
                   Impulse
                   Laplacian
                   Poisson
                   Random (uniform distribution)


       -noop  NOOP (no option)

              The  -noop option can be used to terminate a group of images and
              reset all options to their default values, when no other  option
              is desired.

       -normalize
              transform image to span the full range of color values

              This is a contrast enhancement technique based on the image his-
              togram.

              When computing the contrast enhancement  values,  the  histogram
              edges are truncated so that the majority of the image pixels are
              considered in the constrast enhancement, and outliers (e.g. ran-
              dom  noise  or minute details) are ignored.  The default is that
              0.1 percent of the histogram entries are ignored.  The  percent-
              age  of  the  histogram  to ignore may be specified by using the
              -set option with the histogram-threshold  parameter  similar  to
              -set  histogram-threshold  0.01  to specify 0.01 percent.  Use 0
              percent to use the entire histogram,  with  possibly  diminished
              contrast enhancement.

       -opaque <color>
              change this color to the pen color within the image

              The  color  is  specified  using  the format described under the
              -fill option.  The color is replaced if it is identical  to  the
              target  color, or close enough to the target color in a 3D space
              as defined by the Euclidean distance specified by -fuzz.

              See -fill and -fuzz for more details.

       -operator channel operator rvalue[%]
              apply a mathematical, bitwise, or value  operator  to  an  image
              channel

              Apply  a low-level mathematical, bitwise, or value operator to a
              selected image channel or all image channels.  Operations  which
              result  in  negative  results  are reset to zero, and operations
              which overflow the available range are reset to the maximum pos-
              sible value.

              Select  a  channel from: Red, Green, Blue, Opacity, Matte, Cyan,
              Magenta, Yellow, Black, All, or  Gray.  All  only  modifies  the
              color  channels  and does not modify the Opacity channel. Except
              for the threshold operators, All operates on each channel  inde-
              pendently so that operations are on a per-channel basis.

              Gray treats the color channels as a grayscale intensity and per-
              forms the requested operation on the equivalent pixel  intensity
              so the result is a gray image.

              Select  an operator from Add, And, Assign, Depth, Divide, Gamma,
              Negate, LShift, Log, Max, Min, Multiply, Or,  Pow  RShift,  Sub-
              tract,  Threshold, Threshold-White, Threshold-Black, Xor, Noise-
              Gaussian, Noise-Impulse, Noise-Laplacian,  Noise-Multiplicative,
              Noise-Poisson, Noise-Random, and Noise-Uniform.

              Rvalue  may  be  any  floating  point or integer value. Normally
              rvalue will be in the range of 0 to MaxRGB, where MaxRGB is  the
              largest  quantum  value  supported  by  the GraphicsMagick build
              (255, 65535, or 4294967295) but values outside  this  range  are
              useful  for some arithmetic operations.  Arguments to logical or
              bit-wise operations are rounded to  a  positive  integral  value
              prior  to  use. If a percent (%) symbol is appended to the argu-
              ment, then the argument has a range of 0 to 100 percent.

              The following is a description of the operators:

               Add

                    Result is rvalue added to channel value.

               And

                    Result is the logical AND of rvalue with channel value.

               Assign

                    Result is rvalue.

               Depth

                    Result is  channel  value  adjusted  so  that  it  may  be
                    (approximately)  stored  in  the  specified number of bits
                    without additional loss.

               Divide

                    Result is channel value divided by rvalue.

               Gamma

                    Result is channel value gamma adjusted by rvalue.

               LShift

                    Result is channel value bitwise  left  shifted  by  rvalue
                    bits.

               Log

                    Result is computed as log(value*rvalue+1)/log(rvalue+1).

               Max

                    Result  is  assigned  to  rvalue if rvalue is greater than
                    value.

               Min

                    Result is assigned to rvalue if rvalue is less than value.

               Multiply

                    Result is channel value multiplied by rvalue.

               Negate

                    Result is inverse of channel value (like a film negative).
                    An rvalue must be supplied  but  is  currently  not  used.
                    Inverting the image twice results in the original image.

               Or

                    Result is the logical OR of rvalue with channel value.

               Pow

                    Result  is computed as pow(value,rvalue). Similar to Gamma
                    except that rvalue is not inverted.

               RShift

                    Result is channel value bitwise right  shifted  by  rvalue
                    bits.

               Subtract

                    Result is channel value minus rvalue.

               Threshold

                    Result is maximum (white) if channel value is greater than
                    rvalue, or minimum (black) if it is less than or equal  to
                    rvalue.  If  all channels are specified, then thresholding
                    is done based on computed pixel intensity.

               Threshold-white

                    Result is maximum (white) if channel value is greater than
                    rvalue  and  is  unchanged  if it is less than or equal to
                    rvalue. This can be used to remove apparent noise from the
                    bright  parts  of an image. If all channels are specified,
                    then thresholding is done based on computed  pixel  inten-
                    sity.

               Threshold-black

                    Result  is  minimum  (black) if channel value is less than
                    than rvalue and is unchanged if  it  is  greater  than  or
                    equal to rvalue. This can be used to remove apparent noise
                    from the dark parts of an image. If all channels are spec-
                    ified,  then  thresholding is done based on computed pixel
                    intensity.

               Xor

                    Result is the logical XOR of rvalue with channel value. An
                    interesting  property  of  XOR is that performing the same
                    operation twice results in the original value.

               Noise-Gaussian

                    Result is the current channel value modulated  with  gaus-
                    sian noise according to the intensity specified by rvalue.

               Noise-Impulse

                    Result is the current channel value modulated with impulse
                    noise according to the intensity specified by rvalue.

               Noise-Laplacian

                    Result  is the current channel value modulated with lapla-
                    cian noise according to the intensity specified by rvalue.

               Noise-Multiplicative

                    Result  is the current channel value modulated with multi-
                    plicative gaussian noise according to the intensity speci-
                    fied by rvalue.

               Noise-Poisson

                    Result is the current channel value modulated with poisson
                    noise according to the intensity specified by rvalue.

               Noise-Random

                    Result is the current channel value modulated with  random
                    (uniform  distribution)  noise  according to the intensity
                    specified  by  rvalue.   The   initial   noise   intensity
                    (rvalue=1.0) is the range of one pixel quantum span.

               Noise-Uniform

                    Result  is  the  channel  value with uniform noise applied
                    according to the intensity specified by rvalue.



               As an example, the Assign operator assigns a fixed value  to  a
               channel.  For example, this command sets the red channel to the
               mid-range value:

                   gm convert in.bmp -operator red assign "50%" out.bmp


               The following applies 50% thresholding to the image and returns
               a gray image:

                   gm convert in.bmp -operator gray threshold "50%" out.bmp


       -ordered-dither <channeltype> <NxN>
              ordered dither the image

              The  channel  or  channels specified in the channeltype argument
              are reduced to binary,  using  an  ordered  dither  method.  The
              choices  for  channeltype  are All, Intensity, Red, Green, Blue,
              Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black, and Opacity

              When channeltype is "All", the color samples are dithered into a
              gray level and then that gray level is stored in the three color
              channels.  Separately, the opacity channel is  dithered  into  a
              bilevel opacity value which is stored in the opacity channel.

              When  channeltype  is  "Intensity",  only  the color samples are
              dithered. When channeltype is "opacity"  or  "matte",  only  the
              opacity  channel is dithered. When a color channel is specified,
              only that channel is dithered.

              The choices for N are 2 through 7. The image is divided into NxN
              pixel  tiles.   In  each  tile, some or all pixels are turned to
              white depending on their intensity.  For each N, (N**2)+1 levels
              of gray can be represented.  For N == 2, 3, or 4, the pixels are
              turned to white in an order  that  maximizes  dispersion  (i.e.,
              reduces  granularity),  while  for  N  ==  5, 6, and 7, they are
              turned to white in an order  that  creates  a  roughly  circular
              black  blob  in  the  middle of each tile.  An attractive "half-
              tone" looking image can be obtained by first rotating the  image
              45  degrees,  performing  a  5x5  ordered-dither operation, then
              rotating it back to the original orientation and cropping to the
              original  image  dimensions.   If  the  original image is gamma-
              encoded, it is adviseable to  convert  it  to  linear  intensity
              first, e.g., with the "-gamma 0.45455" option.

       -output-directory <directory>
              output files to directory

              Use  -output-directory  to  specify  a  directory under which to
              write the output files. Normally mogrify  overwrites  the  input
              files  but with this option the output files may be written to a
              different directory so that the input files are  preserved.  The
              algorithm  used preserves all of the input path specification in
              the output path so that the user-specified input path (including
              any directory part) is appended to the output path.  The user is
              responsible for creating the output directory.

       -orient <orientation>
              Set the image orientation attribute

              Sets the image orientation  attribute.   The  image  orientation
              attribute  is  compatible with the TIFF orientation tag (and the
              EXIF orientation tag).  Accepted values are undefined,  TopLeft,
              TopRight,  BottomRight, BottomLeft, LeftTop, RightTop, RightBot-
              tom, LeftBottom, and hyphenated versions thereof (e.g. left-bot-
              tom).   Please note that GraphicsMagick does not include an EXIF
              editor so if an EXIF profile is written to the output image, the
              value in the EXIF profile might not match the image.  It is pos-
              sible for an image file to indicate its orientation  in  several
              different ways simultaneously.

       -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{!}{<}{>}
              size and location of an image canvas

              Use this option to specify the dimensions of the PostScript page
              in dots per inch or a TEXT page in pixels.  The  choices  for  a
              PostScript page are:

                   11x17         792  1224
                   Ledger       1224   792
                   Legal         612  1008
                   Letter        612   792
                   LetterSmall   612   792
                   ArchE        2592  3456
                   ArchD        1728  2592
                   ArchC        1296  1728
                   ArchB         864  1296
                   ArchA         648   864
                   A0           2380  3368
                   A1           1684  2380
                   A2           1190  1684
                   A3            842  1190
                   A4            595   842
                   A4Small       595   842
                   A5            421   595
                   A6            297   421
                   A7            210   297
                   A8            148   210
                   A9            105   148
                   A10            74   105
                   B0           2836  4008
                   B1           2004  2836
                   B2           1418  2004
                   B3           1002  1418
                   B4            709  1002
                   B5            501   709
                   C0           2600  3677
                   C1           1837  2600
                   C2           1298  1837
                   C3            918  1298
                   C4            649   918
                   C5            459   649
                   C6            323   459
                   Flsa          612   936
                   Flse          612   936
                   HalfLetter    396   612


              For convenience you can specify the page size by media (e.g. A4,
              Ledger, etc.). Otherwise,  -page  behaves  much  like  -geometry
              (e.g.  -page letter+43+43>).

              This  option  is  also used to place subimages when writing to a
              multi-image format that supports offsets, such as GIF89 and MNG.
              When used for this purpose the offsets are always  measured from
              the top left corner of the canvas and are not  affected  by  the
              -gravity   option.    To  position  a  GIF  or  MNG  image,  use
              -page{+-}<x>{+-}<y> (e.g. -page +100+200).  When  writing  to  a
              MNG  file,  a -page option appearing ahead of the first image in
              the sequence with nonzero width and height defines the width and
              height  values  that  are written in the MHDR chunk.  Otherwise,
              the MNG width and height are computed from the bounding box that
              contains all images in the sequence.  When writing a GIF89 file,
              only the bounding box method is used  to  determine  its  dimen-
              sions.

              For  a  PostScript  page, the image is sized as in -geometry and
              positioned relative to the lower left hand corner of the page by
              {+-}<xoffset>{+-}<y offset>. Use -page 612x792>, for example, to
              center the image within the page. If the image size exceeds  the
              PostScript  page,  it  is  reduced to fit the page.  The default
              gravity for the -page option is NorthWest, i.e., positive x  and
              y  offset  are measured rightward and downward from the top left
              corner of the page, unless the -gravity option is present with a
              value other than NorthWest.

              The default page dimensions for a TEXT image is 612x792.

              This option is used in concert with -density.

              Use +page to remove the page settings for an image.

       -paint <radius>
              simulate an oil painting

              Each  pixel is replaced by the most frequent color in a circular
              neighborhood whose width is specified with radius.

       -pause <seconds>
              pause between animation loops [animate]

              Pause for the specified number of seconds before  repeating  the
              animation.

       -pause <seconds>
              pause between snapshots [import]

              Pause for the specified number of seconds before taking the next
              snapshot.

       -pen <color>
              (This option has been replaced by the -fill option)

       -ping  efficiently determine image characteristics

              Use this option to disable reading  the  image  pixels  so  that
              image  characteristics  such  as  the  image  dimensions  may be
              obtained very quickly. For identify, use +ping to force  reading
              the  image pixels so that the pixel read rate may be included in
              the displayed information.

       -pointsize <value>
              pointsize of the PostScript, X11, or TrueType font

       -preview <type>
              image preview type

              Use this option to affect the  preview  operation  of  an  image
              (e.g.    convert  file.png  -preview  Gamma  Preview:gamma.png).
              Choose from these previews:

                   Rotate
                   Shear
                   Roll
                   Hue
                   Saturation
                   Brightness
                   Gamma
                   Spiff
                   Dull
                   Grayscale
                   Quantize
                   Despeckle
                   ReduceNoise
                   AddNoise
                   Sharpen
                   Blur
                   Threshold
                   EdgeDetect
                   Spread
                   Shade
                   Raise
                   Segment
                   Solarize
                   Swirl
                   Implode
                   Wave
                   OilPaint
                   CharcoalDrawing
                   JPEG


              The default preview is JPEG.

       -process <command>
              process a sequence of images using a process module

              The command argument has the form module=arg1,arg2,arg3,...,argN
              where  module  is  the  name of the module to invoke (e.g. "ana-
              lyze") and arg1,arg2,arg3,...,argN are an  arbitrary  number  of
              arguments to pass to the process module.  The sequence of images
              is terminated by the appearance of any option.

              If the -process option appears after all of  the  input  images,
              all images are processed.

       -profile <filename>
              add ICM, IPTC, or generic profile  to image

              -profile  filename  adds  an  ICM  (ICC  color management), IPTC
              (newswire information), or a generic (including Exif) profile to
              the image

              Use  +profile  icm,  +profile  iptc, or +profile profile_name to
              remove the respective profile.  Multiple profiles may be listed,
              separated  by  commas.  Profiles may be excluded from subsequent
              listed matches by  preceding  their  name  with  an  exclamation
              point.   For  example,  +profile  '!icm,*'  strips  all profiles
              except for the ICM profile.  Use identify -verbose to  find  out
              what profiles are in the image file.  Use +profile "*" to remove
              all profiles.  Writing the image to a format that does not  sup-
              port  profiles  will  of  course  also  cause all profiles to be
              removed.  The JPEG and PNG formats will store any profiles  that
              have been read and not removed.  In JPEG they are stored in APP1
              markers, and in PNG they are stored as hex-coded binary in  com-
              pressed zTXt chunks, except for the iCC chunk which is stored in
              the iCCP chunk.

              To extract a profile, the -profile option is not used.  Instead,
              simply  write  the  file  to an image format such as APP1, 8BIM,
              ICM, or IPTC.

              For example, to extract the Exif data (which is stored  in  JPEG
              files in the APP1 profile), use


                  gm convert cockatoo.jpg exifdata.app1

              Note  that GraphicsMagick does not attempt to update any profile
              to reflect changes made to the image, e.g., rotation  from  por-
              trait  to landscape orientation, so it is possible that the pre-
              served profile may contain invalid data.

       +progress
              disable progress monitor and busy cursor

              By default, when an image is displayed, a progress  monitor  bar
              is  shown  in  the  top left corner of an existing image display
              window, and the current cursor is  replaced  with  an  hourglass
              cursor.  Use  +progress to disable the progress monitor and busy
              cursor during display operations.  While the progress monitor is
              disabled  for  all  operations,  the busy cursor continues to be
              enabled for non-display operations  such  as  image  processing.
              This option is useful for non-interactive display operations, or
              when a "clean" look is desired.

       -quality <value>
              JPEG/MIFF/PNG/TIFF compression level
               For the JPEG and MPEG image formats, quality is 0 (lowest image
              quality  and highest compression) to 100 (best quality but least
              effective compression). The default  quality  is  75.   Use  the
              -sampling-factor  option to specify the factors for chroma down-
              sampling.  To use the same quality value as that  found  by  the
              JPEG decoder, use the -define jpeg:preserve-settings flag.

              For  the  MIFF image format, and the TIFF format while using ZIP
              compression, quality/10 is the zlib compression level, which  is
              0  (worst  but  fastest compression) to 9 (best but slowest). It
              has no effect on the image appearance, since the compression  is
              always lossless.

              For  the  JPEG-2000 image format, quality is mapped using a non-
              linear equation to the compression ratio required by the  Jasper
              library. This non-linear equation is intended to loosely approx-
              imate the quality provided by the JPEG v1  format.  The  default
              quality  value 75 results in a request for 16:1 compression. The
              quality value 100 results in a request  for  non-lossy  compres-
              sion.

              For  the  MNG  and PNG image formats, the quality value sets the
              zlib compression level (quality / 10) and filter-type (quality %
              10).  Compression  levels  range from 0 (fastest compression) to
              100 (best but slowest). For compression level  0,  the  Huffman-
              only  strategy is used, which is fastest but not necessarily the
              worst compression.

              If filter-type is 4 or less, the specified filter-type  is  used
              for all scanlines:

                   0: none
                   1: sub
                   2: up
                   3: average
                   4: Paeth


              If  filter-type is 5, adaptive filtering is used when quality is
              greater than 50 and the image does not have a color map,  other-
              wise no filtering is used.

              If  filter-type  is  6,  adaptive filtering with minimum-sum-of-
              absolute-values is used.

              Only if the output is MNG, if filter-type is 7, the  LOCO  color
              transformation  and adaptive filtering with minimum-sum-of-abso-
              lute-values are used.

              The default is quality is 75, which means nearly the  best  com-
              pression  with  adaptive  filtering.  The quality setting has no
              effect on the appearance of PNG and MNG images, since  the  com-
              pression is always lossless.

              For further information, see the PNG specification.

              When  writing  a JNG image with transparency, two quality values
              are required, one for the main image and one for  the  grayscale
              image  that conveys the opacity channel.  These are written as a
              single integer equal to the main image quality plus  1000  times
              the opacity quality.  For example, if you want to use quality 75
              for the main image and quality 90 to compress the opacity  data,
              use -quality 90075.

              For  the  PNM  family  of  formats (PNM, PGM, and PPM) specify a
              quality factor of zero in order to obtain the ASCII  variant  of
              the  format. Note that -compress none used to be used to trigger
              ASCII output but  provided  the  opposite  result  of  what  was
              expected as compared with other formats.

       -raise <width>x<height>
              lighten or darken image edges

              This will create a 3-D effect. See -geometry for details details
              about the geometry specification. Offsets are not used.

              Use -raise to create a raised effect, otherwise use +raise.

       -random-threshold <channeltype> <LOWxHIGH>
              random threshold the image

              The channel or channels specified in the <channeltype>  argument
              are  reduced  to  binary,  using an random-threshold method. The
              choices for channeltype are All, Intensity,  Red,  Green,  Blue,
              Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black, and Opacity

              When  channeltype  is  "All",  the color samples are thresholded
              into a graylevel and then that gray level is stored in the three
              color  channels.  Separately, the opacity channel is thresholded
              into a bilevel opacity value which  is  stored  in  the  opacity
              channel.  For  each pixel, a new random number is used to estab-
              lish the threshold to be used. The threshold never  exceeds  the
              specified  maximum  (HIGH)  and is never less than the specified
              minimum (LOW).

              When channeltype is "intensity",  only  the  color  samples  are
              thresholded.  When channeltype is "opacity" or "matte", only the
              opacity channel is thresholded. The other  named  channels  only
              threshold the associated channel.

       -recolor <matrix>
              apply a color translation matrix to image channels

              A  user  supplied  color translation matrix (expressed as a text
              string) is used to translate/blend the image channels  based  on
              weightings  in  a supplied matrix which may be of order 3 (color
              channels only), 4 (color channels plus  opacity),  or  5  (color
              channels plus opacity and offset).  Values in the columns of the
              matrix (red, green, blue, opacity) are used as multipliers  with
              the  existing channel values and added together according to the
              rows of the matrix.  Matrix values are floating point and may be
              negative.   The  offset column (column 5) is purely additive and
              is scaled such that 0.0 to 1.0 represents  the  maximum  quantum
              range  (but  values are not limited to this range). The math for
              the color translation matrix is similar to that  used  by  Adobe
              Flash except that the offset is scaled to 1.0 (divide Flash off-
              set by 255 for use with GraphicsMagick) so that the results  are
              independent of quantum depth.

              An identity matrix exists for each matrix order which results in
              no change to the image.  The translation matrix should be  based
              on an alteration of the identity matrix.

              Identity matrix of order 3

                1 0 0
                0 1 0
                0 0 1


              which may be formatted into a convenient matrix argument similar
              to (comma is treated as white space):

                -recolor "1 0 0, 0 1 0, 0 0 1"


              Identity matrix of order 4

                1 0 0 0
                0 1 0 0
                0 0 1 0
                0 0 0 1


              Identity matrix of order 5.  The last row is required  to  exist
              for the purpose of parsing, but is otherwise not used.

                1 0 0 0 0
                0 1 0 0 0
                0 0 1 0 0
                0 0 0 1 0
                0 0 0 0 1


              As an example, an image wrongly in BGR channel order may be con-
              verted to RGB using this matrix (blue->red, red->blue):

                0 0 1
                0 1 0
                1 0 0


              and an RGB image using standard Rec.709 primaries  may  be  con-
              verted to grayscale using this matrix of standard weighting fac-
              tors:

                0.2126 0.7152 0.0722
                0.2126 0.7152 0.0722
                0.2126 0.7152 0.0722


              and contrast may be reduced by scaling down by 80% and adding  a
              10% offset:

                0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1
                0.0 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.1
                0.0 0.0 0.8 0.0 0.1
                0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.1
                0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0


       -red-primary <x>,<y>
              red chromaticity primary point

       -region <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>
              apply options to a portion of the image

              The  x and y offsets are treated in the same manner as in -crop.

       -remote
              perform a X11 remote operation

              The -remote command sends a command to a  "gm  display"  or  "gm
              animate"  which  is already running. The only command recognized
              at this time is the name of an image file to load. This capabil-
              ity is very useful to load new images without needing to restart
              GraphicsMagick (e.g. for a slide-show or to  use  GraphicsMagick
              as  the  display  engine  for  a  different  GUI).  Also see the
              +progress option for a way to disable progress indication for  a
              clean look while loading new images.

       -render
              render vector operations

              Use  +render  to  turn  off rendering vector operations. This is
              useful when saving the result to vector formats such as  MVG  or
              SVG.

       -repage  <width>x<height>+xoff+yoff[!]
              Adjust image page offsets

              Adjust  the  current  image  page canvas and position based on a
              relative page specification.  This option may be used to  change
              the  location of a subframe (e.g. part of an animation) prior to
              composition.   If  the  geometry   specification   is   absolute
              (includes  a  '!'),  then  the offset adjustment is absolute and
              there is no adjustment to page width and height,  otherwise  the
              page width and height values are also adjusted based on the cur-
              rent image dimensions.  Use +repage to set the image  page  off-
              sets to default.

       -resample <horizontal>x<vertical>
              Resample image to specified horizontal and vertical resolution

              Resize  the  image so that its rendered size remains the same as
              the original at the specified target resolution. Either the cur-
              rent  image  resolution  units or the previously set with -units
              are used to interpret the argument. For example, if  a  300  DPI
              image  renders at 3 inches by 2 inches on a 300 DPI device, when
              the image has been resampled to 72 DPI,  it  will  render  at  3
              inches  by  2 inches on a 72 DPI device.  Note that only a small
              number of image formats (e.g. JPEG, PNG, and TIFF)  are  capable
              of  storing  the image resolution. For formats which do not sup-
              port an image resolution, the original resolution of  the  image
              must  be  specified  via  -density  on the command line prior to
              specifying the resample resolution.

              Note that Photoshop stores and obtains image resolution  from  a
              proprietary  embedded  profile.  If  this  profile exists in the
              image, then Photoshop will continue to treat the image using its
              former  resolution,  ignoring  the image resolution specified in
              the standard file header.

              Some image formats (e.g. PNG) require use of metric  or  english
              units  so even if the original image used a particular unit sys-
              tem, if it is saved to a different format prior  to  resampling,
              then it may be necessary to specify the desired resolution units
              using -units since the original units may  have  been  lost.  In
              other  words,  do  not  assume  that  the  resolution  units are
              restored if the image has been saved to a file.

       -resize <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}
              resize an image

              This is an alias for the -geometry option and it behaves in  the
              same  manner. If the -filter option precedes the -resize option,
              the specified filter is used.

              There are some exceptions:

              When used as a composite option, -resize conveys  the  preferred
              size  of  the output image, while -geometry conveys the size and
              placement of the composite image within the main image.

              When used as a montage option,  -resize  conveys  the  preferred
              size  of  the montage, while -geometry conveys information about
              the tiles.

       -roll {+-}<x>{+-}<y>
              roll an image vertically or horizontally

              See -geometry for details the geometry specification.  The x and
              y offsets are not affected by the -gravity option.

              A  negative x offset rolls the image left-to-right. A negative y
              offset rolls the image top-to-bottom.

       -rotate <degrees>{<}{>}
              rotate the image

              Positive angles rotate the image in a clockwise direction  while
              negative angles rotate counter-clockwise.

              Use  > to rotate the image only if its width exceeds the height.
              < rotates the image only if its width is less than  the  height.
              For example, if you specify -rotate "-90>" and the image size is
              480x640, the image is not rotated.  However,  if  the  image  is
              640x480,  it  is  rotated  by  -90  degrees.  If you use > or <,
              enclose it in quotation marks to prevent it from being misinter-
              preted as a file redirection.

              Empty  triangles  left  over  from rotating the image are filled
              with the color defined as  background  (class  backgroundColor).
              The  color  is  specified  using  the format described under the
              -fill option.

       -sample <geometry>
              scale image using pixel sampling

              See -geometry for  details  about  the  geometry  specification.
              -sample  ignores  the -filter selection if the -filter option is
              present.  Offsets,  if  present  in  the  geometry  string,  are
              ignored, and the -gravity option has no effect.

       -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>
              chroma subsampling factors

              This  option  specifies  the  sampling factors to be used by the
              DPX, JPEG, MPEG, or YUV encoders for  chroma  downsampling.  The
              sampling factor must be specified while reading the raw YUV for-
              mat since it is not preserved in  the  file  header.   Industry-
              standard  video subsampling notation such as "4:2:2" may also be
              used to specify the sampling factors. "4:2:2" is equivalent to a
              specification of "2x1"

              The  JPEG  decoder  obtains  the  original sampling factors (and
              quality settings) when a JPEG file is read. To re-use the origi-
              nal  sampling factors (and quality setting) when JPEG is output,
              use the -define jpeg:preserve-settings flag.

       -scale <geometry>
              scale the image.

              See -geometry for  details  about  the  geometry  specification.
              -scale  uses  a  simpler,  faster  algorithm, and it ignores the
              -filter selection if the -filter option is present.  Offsets, if
              present  in  the  geometry string, are ignored, and the -gravity
              option has no effect.

       -scene <value>
              set scene number

              This option sets the scene number of an image or the first image
              in an image sequence.

       -scenes <value-value>
              range of image scene numbers to read

              Each  image in the range is read with the filename followed by a
              period (.) and the decimal scene number.  You  can  change  this
              behavior  by  embedding a %d, %0Nd, %o, %0No, %x, or %0Nx printf
              format specification in the file name. For example,

                  gm montage -scenes 5-7 image.miff montage.miff


              makes  a  montage  of  files  image.miff.5,  image.miff.6,   and
              image.miff.7, and

                  gm animate -scenes 0-12 image%02d.miff


              animates files image00.miff, image01.miff, through image12.miff.

       -screen
              specify the screen to capture

              This option indicates that the GetImage request used  to  obtain
              the  image  should  be  done  on  the  root  window, rather than
              directly on the specified window.  In this way, you  can  obtain
              pieces  of  other windows that overlap the specified window, and
              more importantly, you can capture menus or other popups that are
              independent windows but appear over the specified window.

       -set <attribute> <value>
              set an image attribut

              Set  a  named image attribute.  The attribute is set on the cur-
              rent (previously specified on command line) image.

       -segment <cluster threshold>x<smoothing threshold>
              segment an image

              Segment an image by analyzing the histograms of the color compo-
              nents  and identifying units that are homogeneous with the fuzzy
              c-means technique.

              Segmentation is a very useful fast  and  and  approximate  color
              quantization algorithm for scanned printed pages or scanned car-
              toons. It may also be used as a special effect. Specify  cluster
              threshold as the minimum percentage of total pixels in a cluster
              before it is considered valid.  For huge images containing small
              detail,  this  may need to be a tiny fraction of a percent (e.g.
              0.015) so that important detail is not lost.  Smoothing  thresh-
              old  eliminates noise in the second derivative of the histogram.
              As the value is increased, you can expect a smoother second  de-
              rivative.  The  default is 1.5. Add the -verbose option to see a
              dump of cluster statistics given the parameters used.  The  sta-
              tistics may be used as a guide to help fine tune the options.

       -shade <azimuth>x<elevation>
              shade the image using a distant light source

              Specify  azimuth  and  elevation  as  the  position of the light
              source. Use +shade to return the shading results as a  grayscale
              image.

       -shadow <radius>{x<sigma>}
              shadow the montage

       -shared-memory
              use shared memory

              This  option specifies whether the utility should attempt to use
              shared memory for pixmaps.  GraphicsMagick must be compiled with
              shared  memory support, and the display must support the MIT-SHM
              extension.  Otherwise, this option is ignored.  The  default  is
              True.

       -sharpen <radius>{x<sigma>}
              sharpen the image

              Use  a Gaussian operator of the given radius and standard devia-
              tion (sigma).

       -shave <width>x<height>{%}
              shave pixels from the image edges

              Specify the width of the region to be removed from both sides of
              the  image  and the height of the regions to be removed from top
              and bottom.

       -shear <x degrees>x<y degrees>
              shear the image along the X or Y axis

              Use the specified positive or negative shear angle.

              Shearing slides one edge of an image along the X or Y axis, cre-
              ating a parallelogram. An X direction shear slides an edge along
              the X axis, while a Y direction shear slides an edge along the Y
              axis.  The  amount  of the shear is controlled by a shear angle.
              For X direction shears, x degrees is measured relative to the  Y
              axis,  and  similarly,  for Y direction shears y degrees is mea-
              sured relative to the X axis.

              Empty triangles left over from shearing  the  image  are  filled
              with  the  color  defined as background (class backgroundColor).
              The color is specified using  the  format  described  under  the
              -fill option.

       -silent
              operate silently

       -size <width>x<height>{+offset}
              width and height of the image

              Use  this  option  to specify the width and height of raw images
              whose dimensions are unknown such as  GRAY,  RGB,  or  CMYK.  In
              addition  to  width and height, use -size with an offset to skip
              any header information in the image or tell the number of colors
              in a MAP image file, (e.g. -size 640x512+256).

              For Photo CD images, choose from these sizes:

                   192x128
                   384x256
                   768x512
                   1536x1024
                   3072x2048


              Finally, use this option to choose a particular resolution layer
              of a JBIG or JPEG image (e.g. -size 1024x768).

       -snaps <value>
              number of screen snapshots

              Use this option to grab more than one image from  the  X  server
              screen, to create an animation sequence.

       -solarize <factor>
              negate all pixels above the threshold level

              Specify  factor  as  the percent threshold of the intensity (0 -
              99.9%).

              This option produces a solarization effect seen when exposing  a
              photographic film to light during the development process.

       -spread <amount>
              displace image pixels by a random amount

              Amount defines the size of the neighborhood around each pixel to
              choose a candidate pixel to swap.

       -stegano <offset>
              hide watermark within an image

              Use an offset to start the image hiding some  number  of  pixels
              from the beginning of the image.  Note this offset and the image
              size.  You will need this information to  recover  the  stegano-
              graphic image (e.g. display -size 320x256+35 stegano:image.png).

       -stereo
              composite two images to create a stereo anaglyph

              The left side of the stereo pair is saved as the red channel  of
              the output image.  The right side is saved as the green channel.
              Red-green stereo glasses  are  required  to  properly  view  the
              stereo image.

       -strip remove all profiles and text attributes from the image

              All  embedded profiles and text attributes are stripped from the
              image.  This is useful for images used for the web, or when out-
              put files need to be as small as possible

       -stroke <color>
              color to use when stroking a graphic primitive

              The  color  is  specified  using  the format described under the
              -fill option.

              See -draw for further details.

       -strokewidth <value>
              set the stroke width

              See -draw for further details.

       -swirl <degrees>
              swirl image pixels about the center

              Degrees defines the tightness of the swirl.

       -text-font <name>
              font for writing fixed-width text

              Specifies the name of the preferred font to use in fixed  (type-
              writer  style) formatted text.  The default is 14 point Courier.

              You can tag a font to specify whether it is a PostScript,  True-
              Type,  or X11 font.  For example, Courier.ttf is a TrueType font
              and x:fixed is X11.

       -texture <filename>
              name of texture to tile onto the image background

       -threshold <value>{%}
              threshold the image

              Modify the image such that any pixel sample  with  an  intensity
              value  greater than the threshold is assigned the maximum inten-
              sity (white), or otherwise is  assigned  the  minimum  intensity
              (black). If a percent prefix is applied, then the threshold is a
              percentage of the available range.

              To efficiently create a black  and  white  image  from  a  color
              image, use

                  gm convert -threshold 50% in.png out.png


              The  optimum threshold value depends on the nature of the image.
              In order to threshold individual  channels,  use  the  -operator
              subcommand  with  it's Threshold, Threshold-White, or Threshold-
              Black options.

       -thumbnail <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}
              resize an image (quickly)

              The -thumbnail command resizes the image as quickly as possible,
              with  more  concern  for  speed  than  resulting  image quality.
              Regardless, resulting image quality  should  be  acceptable  for
              many  uses.   It  is  primarily  intended to be used to generate
              smaller versions of the image, but may also be used  to  enlarge
              the  image.   The -thumbnail geometry argument observes the same
              syntax and rules as it does for -resize.

       -tile <filename>
              tile image when filling a graphic primitive

       -tile <geometry>
              layout of images [montage]

       -title <string>
              assign title to displayed image [animate, display, montage]

              Use this option to assign a specific title to the image. This is
              assigned  to  the image window and is typically displayed in the
              window title bar.  Optionally you can include  the  image  file-
              name,  type,  width, height, Exif data, or other image attribute
              by embedding special format characters described under the -for-
              mat option.

              For example,

                   -title "%m:%f %wx%h"


              produces  an  image title of MIFF:bird.miff 512x480 for an image
              titled bird.miff and whose width is 512 and height is 480.

       -transform
              transform the image

              This option applies the transformation matrix  from  a  previous
              -affine option.

                  gm convert -affine 2,2,-2,2,0,0 -transform bird.ppm bird.jpg


       -transparent <color>
              make this color transparent within the image

              The color is specified using  the  format  described  under  the
              -fill option.

       -treedepth <value>
              tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

              Normally,  this integer value is zero or one. A value of zero or
              one causes the use of an optimal tree depth for the color reduc-
              tion algorithm

              An optimal depth generally allows the best representation of the
              source image with the fastest computational speed and the  least
              amount  of  memory.  However, the default depth is inappropriate
              for some images. To assure the best representation,  try  values
              between  2 and 8 for this parameter.  Refer to quantize for more
              details.

              The -colors or -monochrome option, or writing to an image format
              which  requires  color reduction, is required for this option to
              take effect.

       -trim  trim an image

              This option removes any edges that are exactly the same color as
              the  corner  pixels.   Use -fuzz to make -trim remove edges that
              are nearly the same color as the corner pixels.

       -type <type>
              the image type

              Choose from: Bilevel, Grayscale,  Palette,  PaletteMatte,  True-
              Color, TrueColorMatte, ColorSeparation, ColorSeparationMatte, or
              Optimize.

              Normally, when a format supports different  subformats  such  as
              bilevel, grayscale, palette, truecolor, and truecolor+alpha, the
              encoder will try to choose a suitable  subformat  based  on  the
              nature  of the image. The -type option may be used to tailor the
              output subformat. By default the output subformat  is  based  on
              readily  available  image  information and is usually similar to
              the input format.

              Specify -type Optimize in order to enable inspecting all  pixels
              (if  necessary)  in  order to find the most efficient subformat.
              Inspecting all of the pixels may be slow for very large  images,
              particularly if they are stored in a disk cache. If an RGB image
              contains only gray pixels, then every pixel in the image must be
              inspected  in  order  to  decide  that  the  image  is  actually
              grayscale!

              Sometimes a specific subformat is desired. For example, to force
              a  JPEG  image to be written in TrueColor RGB format even though
              only gray pixels are present, use

                  gm convert bird.pgm -type TrueColor bird.jpg


              Similarly, using -type TrueColorMatte will force the encoder  to
              write  an  alpha channel even though the image is opaque, if the
              output format supports transparency.

              Some pseudo-formats  (e.g.  the  XC  format)  will  respect  the
              requested type if it occurs previously on the command line.  For
              example, to obtain a DirectClass solid color canvas image rather
              than PsuedoClass, use

                  gm convert -size 640x480 -type TrueColor xc:red red.miff


              Likewise,  specify -type Bilevel, Grayscale, TrueColor, or True-
              ColorMatte prior to reading a Postscript (or PDF file) in  order
              to  influence the type of image that Ghostcript returns. Reading
              performance will be dramatically improved for black/white  Post-
              script  if Bilevel is specified, and will be considerably faster
              if Grayscale is specified.

       -update <seconds>
               detect when image file is modified and redisplay.

              Suppose that while you are displaying an image the file that  is
              currently displayed is over-written.  display will automatically
              detect that the input file has been changed and update the  dis-
              played image accordingly.

       -units <type>
              the units of image resolution

              Choose  from:  Undefined, PixelsPerInch, or PixelsPerCentimeter.
              This option is normally used in conjunction  with  the  -density
              option.

       -unsharp <radius>{x<sigma>}{+<amount>}{+<threshold>}
              sharpen the image with an unsharp mask operator

              The  -unsharp  option  sharpens an image. The image is convolved
              with a Gaussian operator of the given radius and standard devia-
              tion  (sigma).  For  reasonable results, radius should be larger
              than sigma. Use a radius of 0 to have the method select a  suit-
              able radius.

              The parameters are:

               radius


                    The  radius  of  the Gaussian, in pixels, not counting the
                    center pixel (default 0).

               sigma


                    The standard deviation of the Gaussian, in pixels (default
                    1.0).

               amount


                    The  percentage of the difference between the original and
                    the blur image  that  is  added  back  into  the  original
                    (default 1.0).

               threshold


                    The  threshold,  as  a fraction of MaxRGB, needed to apply
                    the difference amount (default 0.05).



       -use-pixmap
              use the pixmap

       -verbose
              print detailed information about the image

              This information is printed: image  scene  number;  image  name;
              image  size;  the  image class (DirectClass or PseudoClass); the
              total number of unique colors; and the number of seconds to read
              and  transform the image. If the image is DirectClass, the total
              number of unique colors is  not  displayed  unless  -verbose  is
              specified  twice since it may take quite a long time to compute,
              particularly for deep images.  If the image is PseudoClass  then
              its  pixels are defined by indexes into a colormap. If the image
              is DirectClass then each pixel includes a complete and  indepen-
              dent color specification.

              If  -colors  is  also  specified, the total unique colors in the
              image and color reduction error values  are  printed.  Refer  to
              quantize for a description of these values.

       -version
              print GraphicsMagick version string

       -view <string>
              FlashPix viewing parameters

       -virtual-pixel <method>
              specify contents of "virtual pixels"

              This  option defines "virtual pixels" for use in operations that
              can access pixels outside the boundaries of an image.

              Choose from these methods:

               Constant


                    Use the image background color.

               Edge


                    Extend the edge pixel toward infinity (default).

               Mirror


                    Mirror the image.

               Tile


                    Tile the image.



               This option affects operations that use virtual pixels such  as
               -blur, -sharpen, -wave, etc.

       -visual <type>
              animate images using this X visual type

              Choose from these visual classes:

                   StaticGray
                   GrayScale
                   StaticColor
                   PseudoColor
                   TrueColor
                   DirectColor
                   default
                   visual id


              The  X  server  must support the visual you choose, otherwise an
              error occurs.  If a visual is not specified,  the  visual  class
              that  can  display  the  most simultaneous colors on the default
              screen is chosen.

       -watermark <brightness>x<saturation>
              percent brightness and saturation of a watermark

       -wave <amplitude>x<wavelength>
              alter an image along a sine wave

              Specify amplitude and wavelength of the wave.

       -white-point <x>,<y>
              chromaticity white point

       -white-threshold red[,green][,blue][,opacity]
              pixels above the threshold become white

              Use -white-threshold to set pixels with values above the  speci-
              fied  threshold  to  maximum value (white). If only one value is
              supplied, or the red, green, and blue values are identical, then
              intensity  thresholding  is  used. If the color threshold values
              are not identical then channel-based thresholding is  used,  and
              color  distortion will occur. Specify a negative value (e.g. -1)
              if you want a channel to be ignored but you do want to threshold
              a  channel  later  in  the  list.  If  a  percent  (%) symbol is
              appended, then the values are treated as a percentage of maximum
              range.

       -window <id>
              make image the background of a window

              id  can be a window id or name.  Specify root to select X's root
              window as the target window.

              By default the image is tiled onto the background of the  target
              window.    If  backdrop or -geometry are specified, the image is
              surrounded by the background color.  Refer to  X  RESOURCES  for
              details.

              The  image  will not display on the root window if the image has
              more unique colors than the target window colormap allows.   Use
              -colors to reduce the number of colors.

       -window-group
              specify the window group

       -write <filename>
              write an intermediate image [convert, composite]

              The  current image is written to the specified filename and then
              processing continues using that image. The following is an exam-
              ple  of  how  several  sizes of an image may be generated in one
              command (repeat as often as needed):

                  gm convert input.jpg -resize 50% -write input50.jpg \
                            -resize 25% input25.jpg


       -write <filename>
              write the image to a file [display]

              If filename already exists, you will be prompted as  to  whether
              it should be overwritten.

              By  default, the image is written in the format that it was read
              in as.  To specify a particular image  format,  prefix  filename
              with  the image type and a colon (e.g., ps:image) or specify the
              image type as the filename suffix (e.g., image.ps). Specify file
              as  -  for standard output. If file has the extension .Z or .gz,
              the file size is compressed using compress or gzip respectively.
              Precede  the image file name with | to pipe to a system command.

              Use -compress to specify the type of image compression.

              The equivalent X  resource  for  this  option  is  writeFilename
              (class WriteFilename).  See "X Resources", below, for details.


ENVIRONMENT

       COLUMNS
              Output  screen  width. Used when formatting text for the screen.
              Many Unix systems keep this shell variable up to  date,  but  it
              may  need  to be explicitly exported in order for GraphicsMagick
              to see it.

       DISPLAY
              X11 display ID (host, display number, and  screen  in  the  form
              hostname:display.screen).

       HOME   Location  of  user's home directory. GraphicsMagick searches for
              configuration files in $HOME/.magick if  the  directory  exists.
              See  MAGICK_CODER_MODULE_PATH,  MAGICK_CONFIGURE_PATH,  and MAG-
              ICK_FILTER_MODULE_PATH if more flexibility is needed.

       MAGICK_CODER_STABILITY
              The minimum coder stability level before it will  be  used.  The
              available levels are PRIMARY, STABLE, and UNSTABLE.  The default
              minimum level is UNSTABLE, which means that all available coders
              will  be used. The purpose of this option is to reduce the secu-
              rity exposure (or apparent complexity) due to the huge number of
              formats supported. Coders at the PRIMARY level are commonly used
              formats with very well maintained implementations. Coders at the
              STABLE  level  are reasonably well maintained but represent less
              used formats. Coders at the  UNSTABLE  level  either  have  weak
              implementations,  the  file format itself is weak, or the proba-
              bility the coder will be needed is vanishingly small.

       MAGICK_CODER_MODULE_PATH
              Search path to use when searching for image  format  coder  mod-
              ules.  This path allows the user to arbitrarily extend the image
              formats supported by GraphicsMagick by adding  loadable  modules
              to  an  arbitrary  location  rather  than  copying them into the
              GraphicsMagick installation directory.  The  formatting  of  the
              search  path  is  similar to operating system search paths (i.e.
              colon delimited for Unix, and semi-colon delimited for Microsoft
              Windows).  This user specified search path is used before trying
              the default search path.

       MAGICK_CONFIGURE_PATH
              Search path to  use  when  searching  for  configuration  (.mgk)
              files.   The formatting of the search path is similar to operat-
              ing system search paths (i.e.  colon  delimited  for  Unix,  and
              semi-colon delimited for Microsoft Windows). This user specified
              search path is used before trying the default search path.

       MAGICK_DEBUG
              Debug options (see -debug for details)

       MAGICK_FILTER_MODULE_PATH
              Search path to use when searching  for  filter  process  modules
              (invoked via -process). This path allows the user to arbitrarily
              extend GraphicsMagick's image processing functionality by adding
              loadable  modules  to  an arbitrary location rather than copying
              them into the GraphicsMagick installation directory. The format-
              ting  of  the  search path is similar to operating system search
              paths (i.e. colon delimited for Unix, and  semi-colon  delimited
              for  Microsoft Windows). This user specified search path is used
              before trying the default search path.

       MAGICK_HOME
              Path to  top  of  GraphicsMagick  installation  directory.  Only
              observed  by "uninstalled" builds of GraphicsMagick which do not
              have their location hard-coded or set by an installer.

       MAGICK_MMAP_READ
              If MAGICK_MMAP_READ is set to TRUE, GraphicsMagick will  attempt
              to  memory-map the input file for reading. This usually substan-
              tially improves read performance if the file has  recently  been
              read. However, testing shows that performance may be reduced for
              files accessed for the first time via a network since some oper-
              ating  systems  failed  to do read-ahead over network mounts for
              memory mapped files.

       MAGICK_IO_FSYNC
              If MAGICK_IO_FSYNC is set  to  TRUE,  then  GraphicsMagick  will
              request  that  the output file is fully flushed and synchronized
              to disk when it is closed. This incurs  a  performance  penalty,
              but  has  the  benefit  that  if  the  power fails or the system
              crashes, the file should be valid on disk. If  image  files  are
              referenced  from  a database, then this option helps assure that
              the files referenced by the database are valid.

       MAGICK_IOBUF_SIZE
              The amount of I/O buffering (in bytes) to use when  reading  and
              writing  encoded  files. The default is 16384, which is observed
              to work well for many cases. The best value for a local filesys-
              tem  is usually the the native filesystem block size (e.g. 4096,
              8192, or even 131,072 for ZFS) in order to minimize  the  number
              of  physical  disk  I/O  operations.   I/O  performance to files
              accessed over a network may benefit significantly by tuning this
              option.  Larger  values  are not necessarily better (they may be
              slower!), and there is rarely  any  benefit  from  using  values
              larger  than  32768.  Use  convert's -verbose option in order to
              evaluate read and write rates in pixels per second while keeping
              in  mind  that  the  operating system will try to cache files in
              RAM.

       MAGICK_LIMIT_DISK
              Maximum amount of disk space allowed for use by the pixel cache.

       MAGICK_LIMIT_FILES
              Maximum number of open files.

       MAGICK_LIMIT_MAP
              Maximum size of a memory map.

       MAGICK_LIMIT_MEMORY
              Maximum amount of memory to allocate from the heap.

       MAGICK_TMPDIR
              Path  to  directory  where GraphicsMagick should write temporary
              files. The default is to use the system default, or the location
              set by TMPDIR.

       TMPDIR For  POSIX-compatible systems (Unix-compatible), the path to the
              directory where all applications should write  temporary  files.
              Overridden by MAGICK_TMPDIR if it is set.

       TMP or TEMP
              For  Microsoft Windows, the path to the directory where applica-
              tions should write temporary files. Overridden by  MAGICK_TMPDIR
              if it is set.

       OMP_NUM_THREADS
              As per the OpenMP standard, this specifies the number of threads
              to use in parallel regions. Some compilers default the number of
              threads  to use to the number of processor cores available while
              others default to just one thread. See the OpenMP  specification
              for  other  standard  adjustments and your compiler's manual for
              vendor-specific settings.


CONFIGURATION FILES

       GraphicsMagick uses a number of XML format configuration files:

       colors.mgk
              colors configuration file

                <?xml version="1.0"?>
                <colormap>
                  <color name="AliceBlue" red="240" green="248" blue="255"
                         compliance="SVG, X11, XPM" />
                </colormap>


       delegates.mgk
              delegates configuration file

       log.mgk
              logging configuration file

                <?xml version="1.0"?>
                <magicklog>
                  <log events="None" />
                  <log output="stdout" />
                  <log filename="Magick-%d.log" />
                  <log generations="3" />
                  <log limit="2000" />
                  <log format="%t %r %u %p %m/%f/%l/%d:\n  %e"  />
                </magicklog>


       modules.mgk
              loadable modules configuration file

                <?xml version="1.0"?>
                <modulemap>
                  <module magick="8BIM" name="META" />
                </modulemap>


       type.mgk
              master type (fonts) configuration file

                <?xml version="1.0"?>
                <typemap>
                  <include file="type-windows.mgk" />
                  <type
                    name="AvantGarde-Book"
                    fullname="AvantGarde Book"
                    family="AvantGarde"
                    foundry="URW"
                    weight="400"
                    style="normal"
                    stretch="normal"
                    format="type1"
                    metrics="/usr/local/share/ghostscript/fonts/a010013l.afm"
                    glyphs="/usr/local/share/ghostscript/fonts/a010013l.pfb"
                  />
                </typemap>



GM ANIMATE

       Animate displays a sequence of images on any workstation  display  run-
       ning an X server. animate first determines the hardware capabilities of
       the workstation. If the number of unique colors in  an  image  is  less
       than  or  equal to the number the workstation can support, the image is
       displayed in an X window. Otherwise the number of colors in  the  image
       is  first  reduced  to  match  the  color resolution of the workstation
       before it is displayed.

       This means that a continuous-tone 24 bits-per-pixel image  can  display
       on  a 8 bit pseudo-color device or monochrome device. In most instances
       the reduced color image closely resembles the original.  Alternatively,
       a  monochrome  or pseudo-color image sequence can display on a continu-
       ous-tone 24 bits-per-pixel device.

       To help prevent color flashing on X server visuals that have colormaps,
       animate  creates a single colormap from the image sequence. This can be
       rather time consuming. You can speed this operation up by reducing  the
       colors  in  the  image  before you "animate" them. Use mogrify to color
       reduce the images to a single colormap.  See  mogrify(1)  for  details.
       Alternatively, you can use a Standard Colormap; or a static, direct, or
       true color visual.  You can define a Standard Colormap  with  xstdcmap.
       See xstdcmap(1) for details. This method is recommended for colormapped
       X server because it eliminates the need to compute a global colormap.


EXAMPLES

       To animate a set of images of a cockatoo, use:

           gm animate cockatoo.*


       To animate a cockatoo image sequence while using the Standard  Colormap
       best, use:

           xstdcmap -best
           gm animate -map best cockatoo.*


       To  animate an image of a cockatoo without a border centered on a back-
       drop, use:


           gm animate +borderwidth -backdrop cockatoo.*



OPTIONS

       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.


       -authenticate <string>
              decrypt image with this password

       -backdrop
              display the image centered on a backdrop.

       -background <color>
              the background color

       -bordercolor <color>
              the border color

       -borderwidth <geometry>
              the border width

       -chop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              remove pixels from the interior of an image

       -colormap <type>
              define the colormap type

       -colors <value>
              preferred number of colors in the image

       -colorspace <value>
              the type of colorspace

       -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              preferred size and location of the cropped image

       -debug <events>
              enable debug printout

       -define <key>{=<value>},...
              add coder/decoder specific options

       -delay <1/100ths of a second>
              display the next image after pausing

       -density <width>x<height>
              horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth <value>
              depth of the image

       -display <host:display[.screen]>
              specifies the X server to contact

       -dispose <method>
              GIF disposal method

       -dither
              apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

       -font <name>
              use this font when annotating the image with text

       -foreground <color>
              define the foreground color

       -gamma <value>
              level of gamma correction

       -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@}{!}{^}{<}{>}
              preferred size and location of the Image window.

       -help  print usage instructions

       -iconGeometry <geometry>
              specify the icon geometry

       -iconic
              iconic animation

       -interlace <type>
              the type of interlacing scheme

       -limit <type> <value>
              Disk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, or Threads resource limit

       -log <string>
              Specify format for debug log

       -map <type>
              display image using this type.

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

       -mattecolor <color>
              specify the color to be used with the -frame option

       -monitor
              show progress indication

       -monochrome
              transform the image to black and white

       -name  name an image

       -noop  NOOP (no option)

       -pause <seconds>
              pause between animation loops [animate]

       -remote
              perform a X11 remote operation

       -rotate <degrees>{<}{>}
              rotate the image

       -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>
              chroma subsampling factors

       -scenes <value-value>
              range of image scene numbers to read

       -shared-memory
              use shared memory

       -size <width>x<height>{+offset}
              width and height of the image

       -text-font <name>
              font for writing fixed-width text

       -title <string>
              assign title to displayed image [animate, display, montage]

       -treedepth <value>
              tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

       -trim  trim an image

       -type <type>
              the image type

       -verbose
              print detailed information about the image

       -version
              print GraphicsMagick version string

       -visual <type>
              animate images using this X visual type

       -window <id>
              make image the background of a window

              For a more detailed description of  each  option,  see  Options,
              above.


              Any option you specify on the command line remains in effect for
              the group of images following it, until the group is  terminated
              by  the appearance of any option or -noop.  For example, to ani-
              mate three images, the first with 32 colors, the second with  an
              unlimited  number  of colors, and the third with only 16 colors,
              use:


                  gm animate -colors 32 cockatoo.1 -noop cockatoo.2
                           -colors 16 cockatoo.3


              Animate options can appear on the command  line  or  in  your  X
              resources  file. See X(1). Options on the command line supersede
              values specified in your X resources file.  Image filenames  may
              appear  in  any order on the command line if the image format is
              MIFF (refer to miff(5) and the scene keyword is specified in the
              image.  Otherwise  the  images  will  display  in the order they
              appear on the command line.


MOUSE BUTTONS

       Press any button to map or unmap the Command widget. See the next  sec-
       tion for more information about the Command widget.


COMMAND WIDGET

       The Command widget lists a number of sub-menus and commands. They are

           Animate

               Open
               Play
               Step
               Repeat
               Auto Reverse

           Speed

               Faster
               Slower

           Direction

               Forward
               Reverse

           Image Info
           Help
           Quit


       Menu  items  with  a indented triangle have a sub-menu. They are repre-
       sented above as the indented items. To access a sub-menu item, move the
       pointer  to  the appropriate menu and press a button and drag. When you
       find the desired sub-menu item, release the button and the  command  is
       executed.  Move the pointer away from the sub-menu if you decide not to
       execute a particular command.


KEYBOARD ACCELERATORS

               Ctl+O

                    Press to load an image from a file.
               space

                    Press to display the next image in the sequence.
               <

                    Press to speed-up the display of  the  images.   Refer  to
                    -delay for more information.
               >

                    Press  to slow the display of the images.  Refer to -delay
                    for more information.
               ?

                    Press to display information about the image.   Press  any
                    key or button to erase the information.
                    This  information is printed: image name;  image size; and
                    the total number of unique colors in the image.
               F1

                    Press to display helpful information about animate(1).
               Ctl-q

                    Press to discard all images and exit program.



X RESOURCES

       Animate options can appear on the command line or in  your  X  resource
       file.  Options on the command line supersede values specified in your X
       resource file. See X(1) for more information on X resources.

       All animate options have a corresponding X resource. In  addition,  the
       animate program uses the following X resources:

               background (class Background)


                    Specifies  the preferred color to use for the Image window
                    background. The default is #ccc.
               borderColor (class BorderColor)


                    Specifies the preferred color to use for the Image  window
                    border. The default is #ccc.
               borderWidth (class BorderWidth)


                    Specifies  the width in pixels of the Image window border.
                    The default is 2.
               font (class Font or FontList)


                    Specifies the name of the preferred font to use in  normal
                    formatted text.  The default is 14 point Helvetica.
               foreground (class Foreground)


                    Specifies  the  preferred color to use for text within the
                    Image window.  The default is black.
               geometry (class geometry)


                    Specifies the preferred size and  position  of  the  image
                    window.  It  is  not necessarily obeyed by all window man-
                    agers.  Offsets, if present, are handled in X(1) style.  A
                    negative  x  offset is measured from the right edge of the
                    screen to the right edge of the icon,  and  a  negative  y
                    offset  is  measured from the bottom edge of the screen to
                    the bottom edge of the icon.
               iconGeometry (class IconGeometry)


                    Specifies the preferred size and position of the  applica-
                    tion  when iconified.  It is not necessarily obeyed by all
                    window managers.  Offsets, if present, are handled in  the
                    same manner as in class Geometry.
               iconic (class Iconic)


                    This  resource  indicates  that  you would prefer that the
                    application's windows initially not be visible as  if  the
                    windows  had  be immediately iconified by you. Window man-
                    agers may choose not to honor the application's request.
               matteColor (class MatteColor)


                    Specify the color of windows. It is  used  for  the  back-
                    grounds  of  windows,  menus,  and notices. A 3D effect is
                    achieved by using highlight and shadow colors derived from
                    this color. Default value: #ddd.
               name (class Name)


                    This resource specifies the name under which resources for
                    the application should be found. This resource  is  useful
                    in  shell aliases to distinguish between invocations of an
                    application, without resorting to creating links to  alter
                    the  executable  file name. The default is the application
                    name.
               sharedMemory (class SharedMemory)


                    This resource specifies whether animate should attempt use
                    shared  memory  for  pixmaps. ImageMagick must be compiled
                    with shared memory support, and the display  must  support
                    the   MIT-SHM   extension.  Otherwise,  this  resource  is
                    ignored. The default is True.
               text_font (class textFont)


                    Specifies the name of the preferred font to use  in  fixed
                    (typewriter style) formatted text. The default is 14 point
                    Courier.
               title (class Title)


                    This resource specifies the title to be used for the Image
                    window.  This  information  is  sometimes used by a window
                    manager to provide some sort  of  header  identifying  the
                    window. The default is the image file name.



GM BATCH


DESCRIPTION

       batch  executes  an  arbitary number of the utility commands (e.g. con-
       vert) in the form of a simple linear batch script in order  to  improve
       execution  efficiency,  and/or to allow use as a subordinate co-process
       under the control of an arbitrary script or program.


EXAMPLES

        To drive 'gm batch' using a shell script (or a program written in  any
       language),  have the script/program send commands to 'gm batch' via its
       standard input.  Specify that standard input should be  used  by  using
       '-'  as the file name.  The following example converts all files match-
       ing '*.jpg' to TIFF format while rotating each file by 90  degrees  and
       stripping  all  embedded profiles.  The shell script syntax is standard
       Unix shell:

         for file in *.jpg
         do
           outfile=`basename $file .jpg`.tiff
           echo convert -verbose "'$file'" -rotate 90 \
           +profile "'*'" "'$outfile'"
         done | gm batch -echo on -feedback on -


       We can accomplish the same as the previous example by putting  all  the
       commands  in  a text file and then specifying the name of the text file
       as the script to execute:

         for file in *.jpg
         do
           outfile=`basename $file .jpg`.tiff
           echo convert -verbose "'$file'" -rotate 90 \
           +profile "'*'" "'$outfile'"
         done > script.txt
         gm batch -echo on -feedback on script.txt



OPTIONS

       Options are processed from left to right and  must  appear  before  any
       filename argument.

       -echo on|off
              command echo on or off

              Specify on to enable echoing commands to standard output as they
              are read or off to disable.  The default is off.

       -escape unix|windows
              Parse using unix or windows syntax

              Commands must be parsed from the input stream and escaping needs
              to be used to protect spaces or quoting characters in the input.
              Specify unix to use unix-style command line parsing  or  windows
              for  Microsoft  Windows command shell style parsing. The default
              depends on if the software is compiled for Microsoft Windows  or
              for  a Unix-type system (including Cygwin on Microsoft Windows).
              It is recommended to use unix syntax because it is more powerful
              and more portable.

       -fail text
              text to print if a command fails

              When  feedback is enabled, this specifies the text to print when
              the command fails.  The default text is FAIL.

       -feedback on|off
              enable error feedback

              Print text (see -pass and -fail  options)  feedback  after  each
              command to indicate the result, the default is off.

       -help   Prints batch command help.

       -pass text
              text to print if a command passes

              When  feedback is enabled, this specifies the text to print when
              the command passes.  The default text is PASS.

       -prompt text
              Prompt text to use for command line

              If no filename argument was specified, a simple  command  prompt
              appears  where  you  may  enter  GraphicsMagick  commands.   The
              default prompt is GM>.  Use this option to change the prompt  to
              something else.

       -stop-on-error on|off
              Specify if command processing stops on error

              Normally command processing continues if a command encounters an
              error.  Specify -stop-on-error on to cause  processing  to  quit
              immediately on error.


GM BENCHMARK


DESCRIPTION

       benchmark  executes  an arbitrary gm utility command (e.g. convert) for
       one or more loops, and/or a specified execution time, and reports  many
       execution metrics.  For builds using OpenMP, a mode is provided to exe-
       cute the benchmark with an increasing number of threads and  provide  a
       report  of speedup and multi-thread execution efficiency.  If benchmark
       is used to execute a command without any additional benchmark  options,
       then the command is run once.


EXAMPLES

       To obtain benchmark information for a single execution of a command:

           gm benchmark convert input.ppm -gaussian 0x1 output.ppm

       To obtain benchmark information from 100 iterations of the command:

           gm benchmark -iterations 100 convert input.ppm \
             -gaussian 0x1 output.ppm

       To obtain benchmark information by iterating the command until a speci-
       fied amount of time (in seconds) has been consumed:

           gm benchmark -duration 30 convert input.ppm \
             -gaussian 0x1 output.ppm

       To obtain a full  performance  report  with  an  increasing  number  of
       threads  (1-32  threads,  stepping  the  number of threads by four each
       time):

           gm benchmark -duration 3 -stepthreads 4 convert \
             input.ppm -gaussian 0x2 output.ppm

       Here is the interpretation of the output:

           threads - number of threads used.
           iter - number of command iterations executed.
           user - total user time consumed.
           total - total elapsed time consumed.
           iter/s - number of command iterations per second.
           iter/cpu - amount of CPU time consumed per iteration.
           speedup - speedup compared with one thread.
           karp-flatt - Karp-Flatt measure of speedup efficiency.

       Please note that the reported "speedup" is based on the execution  time
       of  just  one thread.  A preliminary warm-up pass is used before timing
       the first loop in order to ensure that the CPU is brought out of power-
       saving  modes  and  that system caches are warmed up.  Most modern CPUs
       provide a "turbo" mode where the CPU clock speed is increased (e.g.  by
       a  factor  of  two)  when only one or two cores are active.  If the CPU
       grows excessively hot (due to insufficient cooling), then it  may  dial
       back  its  clock  rates as a form of thermal management.  These factors
       result in an under-reporting of speedup compared to if "turbo" mode was
       disabled  and  the CPU does not need to worry about thermal management.
       The powertop utility available under Linux and Solaris provides  a  way
       to observe CPU core clock rates while a benchmark is running.


OPTIONS

        Options  are  processed  from left to right and must appear before any
       argument.

       -duration duration
              duration to run benchmark Specify the number of seconds  to  run
              the  benchmark.  The  command  is  executed repeatedly until the
              specified amount of time has elapsed.

       -help   Prints benchmark command help.

       -iterations loops
              number of command iterations Specify the number of iterations to
              run  the benchmark. The command is executed repeatedly until the
              specified number of iterations has been reached.

       -rawcsv
              Print results in CSV format Print results in  a  comma-separated
              value  (CSV)  format  which  is  easy  to  parse for plotting or
              importing into a spreadsheet or database.  The  values  reported
              are threads, iterations, user_time, and elapsed_time.

       -stepthreads step
              execute a per-thread benchmark ramp
               Execute a per-thread benchmark ramp, incrementing the number of
              threads at each step by the specified value.  The maximum number
              of  threads  is taken from the standard OMP_NUM_THREADS environ-
              ment variable.


GM COMPARE

       compare compares two  similar  images  using  a  specified  statistical
       method (see -metric) and/or by writing a difference image (-file), with
       the altered pixels annotated using a specified method (see  -highlight-
       style)  and color (see -highlight-color). Reference-image is the origi-
       nal image and compare-image is the (possibly)  altered  version,  which
       should have the same dimensions as reference-image.


EXAMPLES

       To  compare two images using Mean Square Error (MSE) statistical analy-
       sis use:

           gm compare -metric mse original.miff compare.miff


       To create an annotated difference image use:

           gm compare -algorithm annotate -highlight-color purple
                   -file diff.miff original.miff compare.miff



OPTIONS

       Options are processed in command line order. Any option you specify  on
       the  command  line  remains  in effect only for the image that follows.
       All options are reset to their default values after each image is read.

       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.


       -authenticate <string>
              decrypt image with this password

       -colorspace <value>
              the type of colorspace

       -debug <events>
              enable debug printout

       -define <key>{=<value>},...
              add coder/decoder specific options

       -density <width>x<height>
              horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth <value>
              depth of the image

       -display <host:display[.screen]>
              specifies the X server to contact

       -endian <type>
              specify endianness (MSB, LSB, or Native) of image

       -file <filename>
              write annotated difference image to file

       -help  print usage instructions

       -highlight-color <color>
              pixel annotation color

       -highlight-style <style>
              pixel annotation style

       -interlace <type>
              the type of interlacing scheme

       -limit <type> <value>
              Disk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, or Threads resource limit

       -log <string>
              Specify format for debug log

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

       -maximum-error <limit>
              specifies the maximum amount of total image error

       -metric <metric>
              comparison metric (MAE, MSE, PAE, PSNR, RMSE)

       -monitor
              show progress indication

       -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>
              chroma subsampling factors

       -size <width>x<height>{+offset}
              width and height of the image

       -type <type>
              the image type

       -verbose
              print detailed information about the image

       -version
              print GraphicsMagick version string

              For  a  more  detailed  description of each option, see Options,
              above.



GM COMPOSITE

       composite composites (combines) images to  create  new  images.   base-
       image  is the base image and change-image contains the changes.  ouput-
       image is the result, and normally has  the  same  dimensions  as  base-
       image.


       The  optional mask-image can be used to provide opacity information for
       change-image when it has none or if you want a different mask.  A  mask
       image  is typically grayscale and the same size as base-image. If mask-
       image is not grayscale, it is converted to grayscale and the  resulting
       intensities are used as opacity information.


EXAMPLES

       To composite an image of a cockatoo with a perch, use:

           gm composite cockatoo.miff perch.ras composite.miff


       To compute the difference between images in a series, use:

           gm composite -compose difference series.2 series.1
                     difference.miff


       To  composite  an image of a cockatoo with a perch starting at location
       (100,150), use:

           gm composite -geometry +100+150 cockatoo.miff
                     perch.ras composite.miff


       To tile a logo across your image of a cockatoo, use

           gm convert +shade 30x60 cockatoo.miff mask.miff
           gm composite -compose bumpmap -tile logo.png
                     cockatoo.miff mask.miff composite.miff


       To composite a red, green, and blue color plane into a single composite
       image, try

           gm composite -compose CopyGreen green.png red.png
                     red-green.png
           gm composite -compose CopyBlue blue.png red-green.png
                     gm composite.png



OPTIONS

       Options  are processed in command line order. Any option you specify on
       the command line remains in effect only for  the  image  that  follows.
       All options are reset to their default values after each image is read.

       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.


       -authenticate <string>
              decrypt image with this password

       -background <color>
              the background color

       -blue-primary <x>,<y>
              blue chromaticity primary point

       -colors <value>
              preferred number of colors in the image

       -colorspace <value>
              the type of colorspace

       -comment <string>
              annotate an image with a comment

       -compose <operator>
              the type of image composition

       -compress <type>
              the type of image compression

       -debug <events>
              enable debug printout

       -define <key>{=<value>},...
              add coder/decoder specific options

       -density <width>x<height>
              horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth <value>
              depth of the image

       -displace <horizontal scale>x<vertical scale>
              shift image pixels as defined by a displacement map

       -display <host:display[.screen]>
              specifies the X server to contact

       -dispose <method>
              GIF disposal method

       -dissolve <percent>
              dissolve an image into another by the given percent

       -dither
              apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

       -encoding <type>
              specify the text encoding

       -endian <type>
              specify endianness (MSB, LSB, or Native) of image

       -filter <type>
              use this type of filter when resizing an image

       -font <name>
              use this font when annotating the image with text

       -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@}{!}{^}{<}{>}
              preferred size and location of the Image window.

       -gravity <type>
              direction primitive  gravitates to when annotating the image.

       -green-primary <x>,<y>
              green chromaticity primary point

       -help  print usage instructions

       -interlace <type>
              the type of interlacing scheme

       -label <name>
              assign a label to an image

       -limit <type> <value>
              Disk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, or Threads resource limit

       -log <string>
              Specify format for debug log

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

       -monitor
              show progress indication

       -monochrome
              transform the image to black and white

       -negate
              replace every pixel with its complementary color

       -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{!}{<}{>}
              size and location of an image canvas

       -profile <filename>
              add ICM, IPTC, or generic profile  to image

       -quality <value>
              JPEG/MIFF/PNG/TIFF compression level

       -recolor <matrix>
              apply a color translation matrix to image channels

       -red-primary <x>,<y>
              red chromaticity primary point

       -render
              render vector operations

       -repage  <width>x<height>+xoff+yoff[!]
              Adjust image page offsets

       -resize <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}
              resize an image

       -rotate <degrees>{<}{>}
              rotate the image

       -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>
              chroma subsampling factors

       -scene <value>
              set scene number

       -set <attribute> <value>
              set an image attribut

       -sharpen <radius>{x<sigma>}
              sharpen the image

       -size <width>x<height>{+offset}
              width and height of the image

       -stegano <offset>
              hide watermark within an image

       -stereo
              composite two images to create a stereo anaglyph

       -strip remove all profiles and text attributes from the image

       -thumbnail <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}
              resize an image (quickly)

       -treedepth <value>
              tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

       -trim  trim an image

       -type <type>
              the image type

       -units <type>
              the units of image resolution

       -unsharp <radius>{x<sigma>}{+<amount>}{+<threshold>}
              sharpen the image with an unsharp mask operator

       -verbose
              print detailed information about the image

       -version
              print GraphicsMagick version string

       -watermark <brightness>x<saturation>
              percent brightness and saturation of a watermark

       -white-point <x>,<y>
              chromaticity white point

       -write <filename>
              write an intermediate image [convert, composite]

              For a more detailed description of  each  option,  see  Options,
              above.



GM CONJURE

       The  Magick  scripting language (MSL) will primarily benefit those that
       want to accomplish custom image processing tasks but  do  not  wish  to
       program,  or  those  that do not have access to a Perl interpreter or a
       compiler.  The interpreter is called conjure and  here  is  an  example
       script:

           <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
           <image size="400x400" >
             <read filename="image.gif" />
             <get width="base-width" height="base-height" />
             <resize geometry="%[dimensions]" />
             <get width="width" height="height" />
             <print output=
               "Image sized from %[base-width]x%[base-height]
                to %[width]x%[height].\n" />
             <write filename="image.png" />
           </image>


       invoked with

           gm conjure -dimensions 400x400 incantation.msl


       All operations will closely follow the key/value pairs defined in Perl-
       Magick, unless otherwise noted.


OPTIONS

       Options are processed in command line order. Any option you specify  on
       the  command  line  remains in effect until it is explicitly changed by
       specifying the option again with  a  different  effect,  or  if  it  is
       changed by a statement in the scripting language.

       You  can  define your own keyword/value pairs on the command line.  The
       script can then use this information when setting values  by  including
       %[keyword]  in  the  string.  For example, if you included "-dimensions
       400x400" on the command line, as illustrated  above,  then  any  string
       containing   "%[dimensions]"   would  have  400x400  substituted.   The
       "%[string]" can be  used  either  an  entire  string,  such  as  geome-
       try="%[dimensions]"  or as a part of a string such as filename="%[base-
       name].png".

       The keyword can be any string except for the following reserved strings
       (in any upper, lower, or mixed case variant): debug, help, and verbose,
       whose usage is described below.

       The value can be any string.  If either the keyword or the  value  con-
       tains  white  space  or  any symbols that have special meanings to your
       shell such as "#", "|", or "%", enclose the string in  quotation  marks
       or use "\" to escape the white space and special symbols.

       Keywords  and values are case dependent.  "Key", "key", and "KEY" would
       be three different keywords.

       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.


       -debug <events>
              enable debug printout

       -define <key>{=<value>},...
              add coder/decoder specific options

       -help  print usage instructions

       -log <string>
              Specify format for debug log

       -verbose
              print detailed information about the image

       -version
              print GraphicsMagick version string


MAGICK SCRIPTING LANGUAGE

       The Magick Scripting Language (MSL)  presently  defines  the  following
       elements and their attributes:

               <image>

                    background, color, id, size

                    Define  a new image object.  </image> destroys it. Because
                    of this, if you wish  to  reference  multiple  "subimages"
                    (aka  pages  or  layers),  you can embed one image element
                    inside of another. For example:



                        <image>
                        <read filename="input.png" />
                        <get width="base-width" height="base-height" />
                        <image height="base-height" width="base-width">
                        <image />
                        <write filename="output.mng" />
                        </image>




                        <image size="400x400" />


               <group>


                    Define a new group of image objects.  By  default,  images
                    are only valid for the life of their <image>element.



                        <image>   -- creates the image
                        .....     -- do stuff with it
                        </image>  -- dispose of the image



                    However,  in  a  group, all images in that group will stay
                    around for the life of the group:



                        <group>                           -- start a group
                            <image>                       -- create an image
                            ....                          -- do stuff
                            </image>                      -- NOOP
                            <image>                        --  create  another
                    image
                            ....                          -- do more stuff
                            </image>                      -- NOOP
                            <write filename="image.mng" />  -- output
                        </group>                           --  dispose of both
                    images


               <read>

                        filename

                    Read a new image from a disk file.



                        <read filename="image.gif" />



                    To read two images use



                        <read filename="image.gif" />
                        <read filename="image.png />


               <write>

                        filename
                    Write the image(s) to disk, either as a  single  multiple-
                    image file or multiple ones if necessary.



                         <write filename=image.tiff" />

               <get>

                    Get   any  attribute  recognized  by  PerlMagick's  GetAt-
                    tribute() and stores it as an image  attribute  for  later
                    use. Currently only width and height are supported.


                        <get width="base-width" height="base-height" />
                        <print  output="Image  size  is  %[base-width]x%[base-
                    height].\n" />


               <set>

                    background, bordercolor, clip-mask,  colorspace,  density,
                    magick,  mattecolor, opacity.  Set an attribute recognized
                    by PerlMagick's GetAttribute().
               <profile>

                        [profilename]

                    Read one or more IPTC, ICC or generic profiles  from  file
                    and assign to image



                        <profile iptc="profile.iptc" generic="generic.dat" />



                    To remove a specified profile use "!" as the filename eg



                        <profile icm="!" iptc="profile.iptc" />


               <border>

                        fill, geometry, height, width
               <blur>

                        radius, sigma
               <charcoal>

                        radius, sigma
               <chop>

                        geometry, height, width, x, y
               <crop>

                        geometry, height, width, x, y
               <composite>

                        compose, geometry, gravity, image, x, y


                        <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
                        <group>
                            <image id="image_01">
                                <read filename="cloud3.gif"/>
                                <resize geometry="250x90"/>
                            </image>
                            <image id="image_02">
                                <read filename="cloud4.gif"/>
                                <resize geometry="190x100"/>
                            </image>
                            <image>
                                <read filename="background.jpg"/>
                                <composite       image="image_01"       geome-
                    try="+740+470"/>
                                <composite       image="image_02"       geome-
                    try="+390+415"/>
                            </image>
                            <write filename="result.png"/>
                        </group>


               <despeckle>

               <emboss>

                        radius, sigma
               <enhance>

               <equalize>

               <edge>

                        radius
               <flip>

               <flop>

               <frame>

                        fill, geometry, height, width, x, y, inner, outer
               <flatten>

               <get>

                        height, width
               <gamma>

                        red, green, blue
               <image>

                        background, color, id, size
               <implode>

                        amount
               <magnify>

               <minify>

               <medianfilter>

                        radius
               <normalize>

               <oilpaint>

                        radius
               <print>

                        output
               <profile>

                        [profilename]
               <read>

               <resize>

                        blur, filter, geometry, height, width
               <roll>

                        geometry, x, y
               <rotate>

                        degrees
               <reducenoise>

                        radius
               <sample>

                        geometry, height, width
               <scale>

                        geometry, height, width
               <sharpen>

                        radius, sigma
               <shave>

                        geometry, height, width
               <shear>

                        x, y
               <solarize>

                        threshold
               <spread>

                        radius
               <stegano>

                        image
               <stereo>

                        image
               <swirl>

                        degrees
               <texture>

                        image
               <threshold>

                        threshold
               <transparent>

                        color
               <trim>




GM CONVERT

       Convert converts an input file using one image format to an output file
       with a differing image format. In addition, various types of image pro-
       cessing  can  be performed on the converted image during the conversion
       process. Convert recognizes the image formats  listed  in  GraphicsMag-
       ick(1).



EXAMPLES

       To make a thumbnail of a JPEG image, use:

           gm convert -size 120x120 cockatoo.jpg -resize 120x120
                   +profile "*" thumbnail.jpg


       In  this example, '-size 120x120' gives a hint to the JPEG decoder that
       the image is going to be downscaled to  120x120,  allowing  it  to  run
       faster  by  avoiding returning full-resolution images to GraphicsMagick
       for the subsequent resizing operation.  The '-resize 120x120' specifies
       the  desired  dimensions of the output image.  It will be scaled so its
       largest dimension is 120 pixels.  The '+profile "*"' removes  any  ICM,
       EXIF,  IPTC,  or  other profiles that might be present in the input and
       aren't needed in the thumbnail.

       To convert a MIFF image of a cockatoo to a SUN raster image, use:

           gm convert cockatoo.miff sun:cockatoo.ras


       To convert a multi-page PostScript document to  individual  FAX  pages,
       use:

           gm convert -monochrome document.ps fax:page


       To  convert  a TIFF image to a PostScript A4 page with the image in the
       lower left-hand corner, use:

           gm convert -page A4+0+0 image.tiff document.ps


       To convert a raw Gray image with  a  128  byte  header  to  a  portable
       graymap, use:

           gm convert -depth 8 -size 768x512+128 gray:raw
                   image.pgm


       In  this example, "raw" is the input file.  Its format is "gray" and it
       has the dimensions and number of header bytes specified  by  the  -size
       option and the sample depth specified by the -depth option.  The output
       file is "image.pgm".  The suffix ".pgm" specifies its format.

       To convert a Photo CD image to a TIFF image, use:

           gm convert -size 1536x1024 img0009.pcd image.tiff
           gm convert img0009.pcd[4] image.tiff


       To create a visual image directory of all your JPEG images, use:

           gm convert 'vid:*.jpg' directory.miff


       To annotate an image with  blue  text  using  font  12x24  at  position
       (100,100), use:

           gm convert -font helvetica -fill blue
                   -draw "text 100,100 Cockatoo"
                   bird.jpg bird.miff


       To tile a 640x480 image with a JPEG texture with bumps use:

           gm convert -size 640x480 tile:bumps.jpg tiled.png


       To  surround  an  icon with an ornamental border to use with Mosaic(1),
       use:

           gm convert -mattecolor "#697B8F" -frame 6x6 bird.jpg
                   icon.png


       To create a MNG animation from a DNA molecule sequence, use:

           gm convert -delay 20 dna.* dna.mng



OPTIONS

       Options are processed in command line order. Any option you specify  on
       the  command line remains in effect for the set of images that follows,
       until the set is terminated by the appearance of any option  or  -noop.
       Some  options  only  affect  the decoding of images and others only the
       encoding.  The latter can appear after the final group of input images.

       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.


       -adjoin
              join images into a single multi-image file

       -affine <matrix>
              drawing transform matrix

       -antialias
              remove pixel aliasing

       -append
              append a set of images

        -asc-cdl <spec>
              apply ASC CDL color transform

       -authenticate <string>
              decrypt image with this password

       -auto-orient
              orient (rotate) image so it is upright

       -average
              average a set of images

       -background <color>
              the background color

       -black-threshold red[,green][,blue][,opacity]
              pixels below the threshold become black

       -blue-primary <x>,<y>
              blue chromaticity primary point

       -blur <radius>{x<sigma>}
              blur the image with a Gaussian operator

       -border <width>x<height>
              surround the image with a border of color

       -bordercolor <color>
              the border color

       -box <color>
              set the color of the annotation bounding box

       -channel <type>
              the type of channel

       -charcoal <factor>
              simulate a charcoal drawing

       -chop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              remove pixels from the interior of an image

       -clip  apply the clipping path, if one is present

       -coalesce
              merge a sequence of images

       -colorize <value>
              colorize the image with the pen color

       -colors <value>
              preferred number of colors in the image

       -colorspace <value>
              the type of colorspace

       -comment <string>
              annotate an image with a comment

       -compose <operator>
              the type of image composition

       -compress <type>
              the type of image compression

       -contrast
              enhance or reduce the image contrast

       -convolve <kernel>
              convolve image with the specified convolution kernel

       -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              preferred size and location of the cropped image

       -cycle <amount>
              displace image colormap by amount

       -debug <events>
              enable debug printout

       -deconstruct
              break down an image sequence into constituent parts

       -define <key>{=<value>},...
              add coder/decoder specific options

       -delay <1/100ths of a second>
              display the next image after pausing

       -density <width>x<height>
              horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth <value>
              depth of the image

       -despeckle
              reduce the speckles within an image

       -display <host:display[.screen]>
              specifies the X server to contact

       -dispose <method>
              GIF disposal method

       -dither
              apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

       -draw <string>
              annotate an image with one or more graphic primitives

       -edge <radius>
              detect edges within an image

       -emboss <radius>
              emboss an image

       -encoding <type>
              specify the text encoding

       -endian <type>
              specify endianness (MSB, LSB, or Native) of image

       -enhance
              apply a digital filter to enhance a noisy image

       -equalize
              perform histogram equalization to the image

       -extent <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>
              composite image on background color canvas image

       -fill <color>
              color to use when filling a graphic primitive

       -filter <type>
              use this type of filter when resizing an image

       -flatten
              flatten a sequence of images

       -flip  create a "mirror image"

       -flop  create a "mirror image"

       -font <name>
              use this font when annotating the image with text

       -format <string>
              output formatted image characteristics

       -frame <width>x<height>+<outer bevel width>+<inner bevel width>
              surround the image with an ornamental border

       -fuzz <distance>{%}
              colors within this Euclidean distance are considered equal

       -gamma <value>
              level of gamma correction

       -gaussian <radius>{x<sigma>}
              blur the image with a Gaussian operator

       -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@}{!}{^}{<}{>}
              preferred size and location of the Image window.

       -gravity <type>
              direction primitive  gravitates to when annotating the image.

       -green-primary <x>,<y>
              green chromaticity primary point

       -hald-clut <clut>
              apply a Hald CLUT to the image

       -help  print usage instructions

       -implode <factor>
              implode image pixels about the center

       -intent <type>
              use this type of rendering intent when managing the image color

       -interlace <type>
              the type of interlacing scheme

       -label <name>
              assign a label to an image

       -lat <width>x<height>{+-}<offset>{%}
              perform local adaptive thresholding

       -level <black_point>{,<gamma>}{,<white_point>}{%}
              adjust the level of image contrast

       -limit <type> <value>
              Disk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, or Threads resource limit

       -list <type>
              the type of list

       -log <string>
              Specify format for debug log

       -loop <iterations>
              add Netscape loop extension to your GIF animation

       -magnify
              magnify the image

       -map <filename>
              choose a particular set of colors from this image

       -mask <filename>
              Specify a clipping mask

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

       -mattecolor <color>
              specify the color to be used with the -frame option

       -median <radius>
              apply a median filter to the image

       -minify <factor>
              minify the image

       -modulate brightness[,saturation[,hue]]
              vary the brightness, saturation, and hue of an image

       -monitor
              show progress indication

       -monochrome
              transform the image to black and white

       -morph <frames>
              morphs an image sequence

       -mosaic
              create a mosaic from an image or an image sequence

       -motion-blur <radius>{x<sigma>}{+angle}
              Simulate motion blur

       -negate
              replace every pixel with its complementary color

       -noise <radius|type>
              add or reduce noise in an image

       -noop  NOOP (no option)

       -normalize
              transform image to span the full range of color values

       -opaque <color>
              change this color to the pen color within the image

       -operator channel operator rvalue[%]
              apply  a  mathematical,  bitwise,  or value operator to an image
              channel

       -ordered-dither <channeltype> <NxN>
              ordered dither the image

       -orient <orientation>
              Set the image orientation attribute

       -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{!}{<}{>}
              size and location of an image canvas

       -paint <radius>
              simulate an oil painting

       -pen <color>
              (This option has been replaced by the -fill option)

       -ping  efficiently determine image characteristics

       -pointsize <value>
              pointsize of the PostScript, X11, or TrueType font

       -preview <type>
              image preview type

       -process <command>
              process a sequence of images using a process module

       -profile <filename>
              add ICM, IPTC, or generic profile  to image

       -quality <value>
              JPEG/MIFF/PNG/TIFF compression level

       -raise <width>x<height>
              lighten or darken image edges

       -random-threshold <channeltype> <LOWxHIGH>
              random threshold the image

       -recolor <matrix>
              apply a color translation matrix to image channels

       -red-primary <x>,<y>
              red chromaticity primary point

       -region <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>
              apply options to a portion of the image

       -render
              render vector operations

       -repage  <width>x<height>+xoff+yoff[!]
              Adjust image page offsets

       -resample <horizontal>x<vertical>
              Resample image to specified horizontal and vertical resolution

       -resize <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}
              resize an image

       -roll {+-}<x>{+-}<y>
              roll an image vertically or horizontally

       -rotate <degrees>{<}{>}
              rotate the image

       -sample <geometry>
              scale image using pixel sampling

       -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>
              chroma subsampling factors

       -scale <geometry>
              scale the image.

       -scene <value>
              set scene number

       -set <attribute> <value>
              set an image attribut

       -segment <cluster threshold>x<smoothing threshold>
              segment an image

       -shade <azimuth>x<elevation>
              shade the image using a distant light source

       -sharpen <radius>{x<sigma>}
              sharpen the image

       -shave <width>x<height>{%}
              shave pixels from the image edges

       -shear <x degrees>x<y degrees>
              shear the image along the X or Y axis

       -size <width>x<height>{+offset}
              width and height of the image

       -solarize <factor>
              negate all pixels above the threshold level

       -spread <amount>
              displace image pixels by a random amount

       -strip remove all profiles and text attributes from the image

       -stroke <color>
              color to use when stroking a graphic primitive

       -strokewidth <value>
              set the stroke width

       -swirl <degrees>
              swirl image pixels about the center

       -texture <filename>
              name of texture to tile onto the image background

       -threshold <value>{%}
              threshold the image

       -thumbnail <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}
              resize an image (quickly)

       -tile <filename>
              tile image when filling a graphic primitive

       -transform
              transform the image

       -transparent <color>
              make this color transparent within the image

       -treedepth <value>
              tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

       -trim  trim an image

       -type <type>
              the image type

       -units <type>
              the units of image resolution

       -unsharp <radius>{x<sigma>}{+<amount>}{+<threshold>}
              sharpen the image with an unsharp mask operator

       -use-pixmap
              use the pixmap

       -verbose
              print detailed information about the image

       -version
              print GraphicsMagick version string

       -view <string>
              FlashPix viewing parameters

       -virtual-pixel <method>
              specify contents of "virtual pixels"

       -wave <amplitude>x<wavelength>
              alter an image along a sine wave

       -white-point <x>,<y>
              chromaticity white point

       -white-threshold red[,green][,blue][,opacity]
              pixels above the threshold become white

       -write <filename>
              write an intermediate image [convert, composite]

              For a more detailed description of  each  option,  see  Options,
              above.


GM DISPLAY

       Display is a machine architecture independent image processing and dis-
       play program. It can display an image on any workstation screen running
       an  X server. Display can read and write many of the more popular image
       formats (e.g. JPEG, TIFF, PNM, Photo CD, etc.).

       With display, you can perform these functions on an image:

                o  load an image from a file
                o  display the next image
                o  display the former image
                o  display a sequence of images as a slide show
                o  write the image to a file
                o  print the image to a PostScript printer
                o  delete the image file
                o  create a Visual Image Directory
                o  select the image to display by its  thumbnail  rather  than
               name
                o  undo last image transformation
                o  copy a region of the image
                o  paste a region to the image
                o  restore the image to its original size
                o  refresh the image
                o  half the image size
                o  double the image size
                o  resize the image
                o  crop the image
                o  cut the image
                o  flop image in the horizontal direction
                o  flip image in the vertical direction
                o  rotate the image 90 degrees clockwise
                o  rotate the image 90 degrees counter-clockwise
                o  rotate the image
                o  shear the image
                o  roll the image
                o  trim the image edges
                o  invert the colors of the image
                o  vary the color brightness
                o  vary the color saturation
                o  vary the image hue
                o  gamma correct the image
                o  sharpen the image contrast
                o  dull the image contrast
                o  perform histogram equalization on the image
                o  perform histogram normalization on the image
                o  negate the image colors
                o  convert the image to grayscale
                o  set the maximum number of unique colors in the image
                o  reduce the speckles within an image
                o  eliminate peak noise from an image
                o  detect edges within the image
                o  emboss an image
                o  segment the image by color
                o  simulate an oil painting
                o  simulate a charcoal drawing
                o  annotate the image with text
                o  draw on the image
                o  edit an image pixel color
                o  edit the image matte information
                o  composite an image with another
                o  add a border to the image
                o  surround image with an ornamental border
                o  apply image processing techniques to a region of interest
                o  display information about the image
                o  zoom a portion of the image
                o  show a histogram of the image
                o  display image to background of a window
                o  set user preferences
                o  display information about this program
                o  discard all images and exit program
                o  change the level of magnification
                o   display images specified by a World Wide Web (WWW) uniform
               resource locator (URL)



EXAMPLES

       To scale an image of a cockatoo to exactly 640 pixels in width and  480
       pixels in height and position the window at location (200,200), use:

           gm display -geometry 640x480+200+200! cockatoo.miff


       To  display an image of a cockatoo without a border centered on a back-
       drop, use:

           gm display +borderwidth -backdrop cockatoo.miff


       To tile a slate texture onto the root window, use:

           gm display -size 1280x1024 -window root slate.png


       To display a visual image directory of all your JPEG images, use:

           gm display 'vid:*.jpg'


       To display a MAP image that is 640 pixels in width and  480  pixels  in
       height with 256 colors, use:

           gm display -size 640x480+256 cockatoo.map


       To display an image of a cockatoo specified with a World Wide Web (WWW)
       uniform resource locator (URL), use:

           gm display ftp://wizards.dupont.com/images/cockatoo.jpg


       To display histogram of an image, use:

           gm gm convert file.jpg HISTOGRAM:- | gm display -



OPTIONS

       Options are processed in command line order. Any option you specify  on
       the  command  line  remains in effect until it is explicitly changed by
       specifying the option again with a different  effect.  For  example  to
       display  three  images,  the  first  with 32 colors, the second with an
       unlimited number of colors, and the third with only 16 colors, use:

           gm display -colors 32 cockatoo.miff -noop duck.miff
                        -colors 16 macaw.miff


       Display options can appear on the command line or in your  X  resources
       file.  See X(1). Options on the command line supersede values specified
       in your X resources file.

       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.


       -authenticate <string>
              decrypt image with this password

       -backdrop
              display the image centered on a backdrop.

       -background <color>
              the background color

       -border <width>x<height>
              surround the image with a border of color

       -bordercolor <color>
              the border color

       -borderwidth <geometry>
              the border width

       -colormap <type>
              define the colormap type

       -colors <value>
              preferred number of colors in the image

       -colorspace <value>
              the type of colorspace

       -comment <string>
              annotate an image with a comment

       -compress <type>
              the type of image compression

       -contrast
              enhance or reduce the image contrast

       -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              preferred size and location of the cropped image

       -debug <events>
              enable debug printout

       -define <key>{=<value>},...
              add coder/decoder specific options

       -delay <1/100ths of a second>
              display the next image after pausing

       -density <width>x<height>
              horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth <value>
              depth of the image

       -despeckle
              reduce the speckles within an image

       -display <host:display[.screen]>
              specifies the X server to contact

       -dispose <method>
              GIF disposal method

       -dither
              apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

       -edge <radius>
              detect edges within an image

       -endian <type>
              specify endianness (MSB, LSB, or Native) of image

       -enhance
              apply a digital filter to enhance a noisy image

       -filter <type>
              use this type of filter when resizing an image

       -flip  create a "mirror image"

       -flop  create a "mirror image"

       -font <name>
              use this font when annotating the image with text

       -foreground <color>
              define the foreground color

       -frame <width>x<height>+<outer bevel width>+<inner bevel width>
              surround the image with an ornamental border

       -gamma <value>
              level of gamma correction

       -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@}{!}{^}{<}{>}
              preferred size and location of the Image window.

       -help  print usage instructions

       -iconGeometry <geometry>
              specify the icon geometry

       -iconic
              iconic animation

       -immutable
              make image immutable

       -interlace <type>
              the type of interlacing scheme

       -label <name>
              assign a label to an image

       -limit <type> <value>
              Disk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, or Threads resource limit

       -log <string>
              Specify format for debug log

       -magnify <factor>
              magnify the image

       -map <type>
              display image using this type.

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

       -mattecolor <color>
              specify the color to be used with the -frame option

       -monitor
              show progress indication

       -monochrome
              transform the image to black and white

       -name  name an image

       -negate
              replace every pixel with its complementary color

       -noop  NOOP (no option)

       -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{!}{<}{>}
              size and location of an image canvas

       +progress
              disable progress monitor and busy cursor

       -quality <value>
              JPEG/MIFF/PNG/TIFF compression level

       -raise <width>x<height>
              lighten or darken image edges

       -remote
              perform a X11 remote operation

       -roll {+-}<x>{+-}<y>
              roll an image vertically or horizontally

       -rotate <degrees>{<}{>}
              rotate the image

       -sample <geometry>
              scale image using pixel sampling

       -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>
              chroma subsampling factors

       -scenes <value-value>
              range of image scene numbers to read

       -set <attribute> <value>
              set an image attribut

       -segment <cluster threshold>x<smoothing threshold>
              segment an image

       -shared-memory
              use shared memory

       -sharpen <radius>{x<sigma>}
              sharpen the image

       -size <width>x<height>{+offset}
              width and height of the image

       -text-font <name>
              font for writing fixed-width text

       -texture <filename>
              name of texture to tile onto the image background

       -title <string>
              assign title to displayed image [animate, display, montage]

       -treedepth <value>
              tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

       -trim  trim an image

       -type <type>
              the image type

       -update <seconds>
               detect when image file is modified and redisplay.

       -use-pixmap
              use the pixmap

       -verbose
              print detailed information about the image

       -version
              print GraphicsMagick version string

       -visual <type>
              animate images using this X visual type

       -window <id>
              make image the background of a window

       -window-group
              specify the window group

       -write <filename>
              write the image to a file [display]

              For a more detailed description of  each  option,  see  Options,
              above.



MOUSE BUTTONS

       The  effects of each button press is described below. Three buttons are
       required. If you have a two button mouse, button 1 and 3 are  returned.
       Press ALT and button 3 to simulate button 2.

       1        Press this button to map or unmap the Command widget . See the
              next section for more information about the Command widget.

       2       Press and drag to define a region of the image to magnify.

       3       Press and drag to choose from a select set of  display(1)  com-
              mands.  This  button behaves differently if the image being dis-
              played is a visual image directory. Choose a particular tile  of
              the directory and press this button and drag to select a command
              from a pop-up menu.  Choose from these menu items:

                  Open
                  Next
                  Former
                  Delete
                  Update


              If you choose Open, the image represented by the  tile  is  dis-
              played.   To  return  to the visual image directory, choose Next
              from the Command widget (refer to  Command  Widget).   Next  and
              Former  moves  to  the next or former image respectively. Choose
              Delete to delete a particular image tile. Finally, choose Update
              to synchronize all the image tiles with their respective images.
              See montage and miff for more details.


COMMAND WIDGET

       The Command widget lists a number of sub-menus and commands. They are

           File

           Open...
           Next
           Former
           Select...
           Save...
           Print...
           Delete...
           Canvas...
           Visual Directory...
           Quit



           Edit

           Undo
           Redo
           Cut
           Copy
           Paste



           View

           Half Size
           Original Size
           Double Size
           Resize...
           Apply
           Refresh
           Restore



           Transform

           Crop
           Chop
           Flop
           Flip
           Rotate Right
           Rotate Left
           Rotate...
           Shear...
           Roll...
           Trim Edges



           Enhance

           Hue...
           Saturation...
           Brightness...
           Gamma...
           Spiff...
           Dull
           Equalize
           Normalize
           Negate
           GRAYscale
           Quantize...



           Effects

           Despeckle
           Emboss
           Reduce Noise
           Add Noise
           Sharpen...
           Blur...
           Threshold...
           Edge Detect...
           Spread...
           Shade...
           Raise...
           Segment...



           F/X

           Solarize...
           Swirl...
           Implode...
           Wave...
           Oil Paint...
           Charcoal Draw...



           Image Edit

           Annotate...
           Draw...
           Color...
           Matte...
           Composite...
           Add Border...
           Add Frame...
           Comment...
           Launch...
           Region of Interest...



           Miscellany

           Image Info
           Zoom Image
           Show Preview...
           Show Histogram
           Show Matte
           Background...
           Slide Show
           Preferences...



           Help

           Overview
           Browse Documentation
           About Display



       Menu items with a indented triangle have a sub-menu.  They  are  repre-
       sented above as the indented items. To access a sub-menu item, move the
       pointer to the appropriate menu and press button 1 and drag.  When  you
       find  the  desired sub-menu item, release the button and the command is
       executed.  Move the pointer away from the sub-menu if you decide not to
       execute a particular command.


KEYBOARD ACCELERATORS

       Accelerators  are  one or two key presses that effect a particular com-
       mand.  The keyboard accelerators that display understands is:

           Ctl+O     Press to load an image from a file.
           space     Press to display the next image.


       If the image is a multi-paged document such as a  PostScript  document,
       you  can skip ahead several pages by preceding this command with a num-
       ber.  For example to display the fourth page beyond the  current  page,
       press 4space.

           backspace Press to display the former image.


       If  the  image is a multi-paged document such as a PostScript document,
       you can skip behind several pages by preceding this command with a num-
       ber.   For  example  to  display  the fourth page preceding the current
       page, press 4n.

           Ctl-S    Press to save the image to a file.
           Ctl-P    Press to print the image to a
                    PostScript printer.
           Ctl-D    Press to delete an image file.
           Ctl-N    Press to create a blank canvas.
           Ctl-Q    Press to discard all images and exit program.
           Ctl+Z    Press to undo last image transformation.
           Ctl+R    Press to redo last image transformation.
           Ctl-X    Press to cut a region of
                    the image.
           Ctl-C    Press to copy a region of
                    the image.
           Ctl-V    Press to paste a region to
                    the image.
           <        Press to halve the image size.
           .        Press to return to the original image size.
           >        Press to double the image size.
           %        Press to resize the image to a width and height
                    you specify.
           Cmd-A    Press to make any image transformations
                    permanent.
                    By default, any image size transformations are
                    applied to the original image to create the
                    image displayed on the X server.  However, the
                    transformations are not permanent (i.e. the
                    original image does not change size only the
                    X image does). For example, if you press ">"
                    the X image will appear to double in size, but
                    the original image will in fact remain the same
                    size.  To force the original image to double in
                    size, press ">" followed by "Cmd-A".
           @        Press to refresh the image window.
           C        Press to crop the image.
           [        Press to chop the image.
           H        Press to flop image in the horizontal direction.
           V        Press to flip image in the vertical direction.
           /        Press to rotate the image 90 degrees clockwise.
           \        Press to rotate the image 90 degrees
                    counter-clockwise.
           *        Press to rotate the image
                    the number of degrees you specify.
           S        Press to shear the image the number of degrees
                    you specify.
           R        Press to roll the image.
           T        Press to trim the image edges.
           Shft-H   Press to vary the color hue.
           Shft-S   Press to vary the color saturation.
           Shft-L   Press to vary the image brightness.
           Shft-G   Press to gamma correct the image.
           Shft-C   Press to spiff up the image contrast.
           Shft-Z   Press to dull the image contrast.
           =        Press to perform histogram equalization on
                    the image.
           Shft-N   Press to perform histogram normalization on
                    the image.
           Shft-~   Press to negate the colors of the image.
           .        Press to convert the image colors to gray.
           Shft-#   Press to set the maximum number of unique
                    colors in the image.
           F2       Press to reduce the speckles in an image.
           F2       Press to emboss an image.
           F4       Press to eliminate peak noise from an image.
           F5       Press to add noise to an image.
           F6       Press to sharpen an image.
           F7       Press to blur image an image.
           F8       Press to threshold the image.
           F9       Press to detect edges within an image.
           F10      Press to displace pixels by a random amount.
           F11      Press to shade the image using a distant light
                    source.
           F12      Press to lighten or darken image edges to
                    create a 3-D effect.
           F13      Press to segment the image by color.
           Meta-S   Press to swirl image pixels about the center.
           Meta-I   Press to implode image pixels about the center.
           Meta-W   Press to alter an image along a sine wave.
           Meta-P   Press to simulate an oil painting.
           Meta-C   Press to simulate a charcoal drawing.
           Alt-X    Press to composite the image
                    with another.
           Alt-A    Press to annotate the image with text.
           Alt-D    Press to draw a line on the image.
           Alt-P    Press to edit an image pixel color.
           Alt-M    Press to edit the image matte information.
           Alt-X    Press to composite the image with another.
           Alt-A    Press to add a border to the image.
           Alt-F    Press to add a ornamental frame to the image.
           Alt-Shft-!   Press to add an image comment.
           Ctl-A    Press to apply image processing techniques to a
                    region of interest.
           Shft-?   Press to display information about the image.
           Shft-+   Press to map the zoom image window.
           Shft-P   Press to preview an image enhancement, effect,
                    or f/x.
           F1       Press to display helpful information about
                    the "display" utility.
           Find     Press to browse documentation about
                    GraphicsMagick.
           1-9      Press to change the level of magnification.


       Use the arrow keys to move the image one pixel up, down, left, or right
       within  the  magnify window. Be sure to first map the magnify window by
       pressing button 2.

       Press ALT and one of the arrow keys to trim off one pixel from any side
       of the image.


X RESOURCES

       Display  options  can  appear on the command line or in your X resource
       file. Options on the command line supersede values specified in your  X
       resource file. See X(1) for more information on X resources.

       Most display options have a corresponding X resource. In addition, dis-
       play uses the following X resources:

       background (class Background)
               Specifies the preferred color to use for the Image window back-
              ground. The default is #ccc.

       borderColor (class BorderColor)
                Specifies the preferred color to use for the Image window bor-
              der. The default is #ccc.

       borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
               Specifies the width in pixels of the image window  border.  The
              default is 2.

       browseCommand (class browseCommand)
                Specifies  the  name  of the preferred browser when displaying
              GraphicsMagick documentation. The default is netscape %s.

       confirmExit (class ConfirmExit)
               Display pops up a dialog box to  confirm  exiting  the  program
              when  exiting  the  program.  Set this resource to False to exit
              without a confirmation.

       displayGamma (class DisplayGamma)
               Specifies the gamma of the X server.  You  can  apply  separate
              gamma  values  to the red, green, and blue channels of the image
              with  a  gamma  value  list  delineated   with   slashes   (i.e.
              1.7/2.3/1.2).  The default is 2.2.

       displayWarnings (class DisplayWarnings)
               Display pops up a dialog box whenever a warning message occurs.
              Set this resource to False to ignore warning messages.

       font (class FontList)
               Specifies the name of the preferred font to use in normal  for-
              matted text.  The default is 14 point Helvetica.

       font[1-9] (class Font[1-9])
               Specifies the name of the preferred font to use when annotating
              the image window with text. The default fonts are  fixed,  vari-
              able, 5x8, 6x10, 7x13bold, 8x13bold, 9x15bold, 10x20, and 12x24.

       foreground (class Foreground)
               Specifies the preferred color to use for text within the  image
              window.  The default is black.

       gammaCorrect (class gammaCorrect)
                This  resource,  if  true,  will lighten or darken an image of
              known gamma to match the gamma of the display (see resource dis-
              playGamma). The default is True.

       geometry (class Geometry)
                Specifies the preferred size and position of the image window.
              It is not necessarily obeyed by all window managers.

              Offsets, if present, are handled in X(1) style.   A  negative  x
              offset  is  measured  from  the  right edge of the screen to the
              right edge of the icon, and a negative y offset is measured from
              the bottom edge of the screen to the bottom edge of the icon.

       iconGeometry (class IconGeometry)
                Specifies  the  preferred size and position of the application
              when iconified.  It is not necessarily obeyed by all window man-
              agers.

              Offsets,  if present, are handled in the same manner as in class
              Geometry.

       iconic (class Iconic)
               This resource indicates that you would prefer that the applica-
              tion's windows initially not be visible as if the windows had be
              immediately iconified by you. Window managers may choose not  to
              honor the application's request.

       magnify (class Magnify)
                specifies  an  integral  factor  by  which the image should be
              enlarged. The default is 3.  This value only affects the  magni-
              fication  window which is invoked with button number 3 after the
              image is displayed.

       matteColor (class MatteColor)
               Specify the color of windows. It is used for the backgrounds of
              windows,  menus,  and  notices. A 3D effect is achieved by using
              highlight and shadow colors derived  from  this  color.  Default
              value: #697B8F.

       name (class Name)
                This resource specifies the name under which resources for the
              application should be found. This resource is  useful  in  shell
              aliases  to  distinguish  between invocations of an application,
              without resorting to creating links to alter the executable file
              name. The default is the application name.

       pen[1-9] (class Pen[1-9])
                Specifies the color of the preferred font to use when annotat-
              ing the image window with text. The default  colors  are  black,
              blue, green, cyan, gray, red, magenta, yellow, and white.

       printCommand (class PrintCommand)
               This command is executed whenever Print is issued.  In general,
              it is the command to print PostScript to your  printer.  Default
              value: lp -c -s %i.

       sharedMemory (class SharedMemory)
                This  resource  specifies  whether  display should attempt use
              shared memory for pixmaps. GraphicsMagick must be compiled  with
              shared  memory support, and the display must support the MIT-SHM
              extension. Otherwise, this resource is ignored. The  default  is
              True.

       textFont (class textFont)
               Specifies the name of the preferred font to use in fixed (type-
              writer style) formatted text. The default is 14 point Courier.

       title (class Title)
               This resource specifies the title to be used for the image win-
              dow.  This  information is sometimes used by a window manager to
              provide a header identifying the  window.  The  default  is  the
              image file name.

       undoCache (class UndoCache)
               Specifies, in mega-bytes, the amount of memory in the undo edit
              cache.  Each time you modify the image it is saved in  the  undo
              edit  cache as long as memory is available. You can subsequently
              undo one or more of these transformations.  The  default  is  16
              Megabytes.

       usePixmap (class UsePixmap)
               Images are maintained as a XImage by default. Set this resource
              to True to utilize a server Pixmap instead. This option is  use-
              ful  if  your image exceeds the dimensions of your server screen
              and you intend to pan the image. Panning  is  much  faster  with
              Pixmaps  than  with  a XImage. Pixmaps are considered a precious
              resource, use them with discretion.

              To set the geometry of the Magnify or Pan  or  window,  use  the
              geometry  resource.  For example, to set the Pan window geometry
              to 256x256, use:

                  gm display.pan.geometry: 256x256



IMAGE LOADING

       To select an image to display, choose Open of the  File  sub-menu  from
       the  Command widget. A file browser is displayed.  To choose a particu-
       lar image file, move the pointer to the filename and press any  button.
       The  filename  is  copied to the text window. Next, press Open or press
       the RETURN key.  Alternatively,  you  can  type  the  image  file  name
       directly  into the text window. To descend directories, choose a direc-
       tory name and press the button twice  quickly.  A  scrollbar  allows  a
       large  list  of  filenames  to  be moved through the viewing area if it
       exceeds the size of the list area.

       You can trim the list of file names by using shell globbing characters.
       For example, type *.jpg to list only files that end with .jpg.

       To  select  your image from the X server screen instead of from a file,
       Choose Grab of the Open widget.


VISUAL IMAGE DIRECTORY

       To create a Visual Image Directory, choose Visual Directory of the File
       sub-menu from the Command widget . A file browser is displayed. To cre-
       ate a Visual Image Directory from all the images in the current  direc-
       tory,  press Directory or press the RETURN key.  Alternatively, you can
       select a set of image names by using  shell  globbing  characters.  For
       example,  type  *.jpg  to  include  only  files  that end with .jpg. To
       descend directories, choose a directory name and press the button twice
       quickly.  A  scrollbar  allows  a  large  list of filenames to be moved
       through the viewing area if it exceeds the size of the list area.

       After you select a set of files, they are turned  into  thumbnails  and
       tiled  onto a single image. Now move the pointer to a particular thumb-
       nail and press button 3 and drag. Finally, select Open. The image  rep-
       resented  by  the  thumbnail is displayed at its full size. Choose Next
       from the File sub-menu of the Command widget to return  to  the  Visual
       Image Directory.


IMAGE CUTTING

       Note  that  cut  information  for image window is not retained for col-
       ormapped X server visuals (e.g.  StaticColor,  StaticColor,  GRAYScale,
       PseudoColor).   Correct  cutting  behavior  may  require a TrueColor or
       DirectColor visual or a Standard Colormap.

       To begin, press choose Cut of the Edit sub-menu from the  Command  wid-
       get. Alternatively, press F3 in the image window.

       A  small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
       window. You are now in cut mode. In cut mode, the  Command  widget  has
       these options:

           Help
           Dismiss


       To  define  a  cut  region,  press button 1 and drag. The cut region is
       defined by a highlighted rectangle that expands or contracts as it fol-
       lows  the  pointer. Once you are satisfied with the cut region, release
       the button.  You are now in rectify mode. In rectify mode, the  Command
       widget has these options:

           Cut
           Help
           Dismiss


       You  can  make adjustments by moving the pointer to one of the cut rec-
       tangle corners, pressing a button, and dragging. Finally, press Cut  to
       commit  your copy region. To exit without cutting the image, press Dis-
       miss.


IMAGE COPYING

       To begin, press choose Copy of the Edit sub-menu from the Command  wid-
       get. Alternatively, press F4 in the image window.

       A  small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
       window. You are now in copy mode. In copy mode, the Command widget  has
       these options:

           Help
           Dismiss


       To  define  a  copy region, press button 1 and drag. The copy region is
       defined by a highlighted rectangle that expands or contracts as it fol-
       lows  the pointer. Once you are satisfied with the copy region, release
       the button.  You are now in rectify mode. In rectify mode, the  Command
       widget has these options:

           Copy
           Help
           Dismiss


       You  can make adjustments by moving the pointer to one of the copy rec-
       tangle corners, pressing a button, and dragging. Finally, press Copy to
       commit  your copy region. To exit without copying the image, press Dis-
       miss.


IMAGE PASTING

       To begin, press choose Paste of the Edit sub-menu from the Command wid-
       get. Alternatively, press F5 in the image window.

       A  small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
       window. You are now in Paste mode. To exit immediately, press  Dismiss.
       In Paste mode, the Command widget has these options:

           Operators

           over
           in
           out
           atop
           xor
           plus
           minus
           add
           subtract
           difference
           multiply
           bumpmap
           replace

           Help
           Dismiss


       Choose a composite operation from the Operators sub-menu of the Command
       widget. How each operator behaves is described below. image  window  is
       the  image  currently displayed on your X server and image is the image
       obtained with the File Browser widget.

       over    The result is the union of the two  image  shapes,  with  image
              obscuring image window in the region of overlap.

       in       The  result  is simply image cut by the shape of image window.
              None of the image data of image window is in the result.

       out     The resulting image is image with the shape of image window cut
              out.

       atop     The  result  is  the  same  shape  as image window, with image
              obscuring image window where the image shapes overlap. Note this
              differs  from  over  because  the portion of image outside image
              window's shape does not appear in the result.

       xor     The result is the image data from both image and  image  window
              that is outside the overlap region. The overlap region is blank.

       plus    The result is just the sum of the image data. Output values are
              cropped  to  the  maximum value (no overflow). This operation is
              independent of the matte channels.

       minus   The result of image - image window, with underflow  cropped  to
              zero.  The  matte channel is ignored (set to opaque, full cover-
              age).

       add     The result of image +  image  window,  with  overflow  wrapping
              around (mod MaxRGB+1).

       subtract
                The  result  of  image - image window, with underflow wrapping
              around (mod MaxRGB+1). The add and  subtract  operators  can  be
              used to perform reversible transformations.

       difference
                The  result  of  abs(image - image window). This is useful for
              comparing two very similar images.

       multiply
               The result of image * image window. This is useful for the cre-
              ation of drop-shadows.

       bumpmap
               The result of image window shaded by window.

       replace
              The  resulting  image is image window replaced with image.  Here
              the matte information is ignored.

              The image compositor requires a matte, or alpha channel  in  the
              image  for some operations. This extra channel usually defines a
              mask which represents a sort of a cookie-cutter for  the  image.
              This  is  the  case when matte is 255 (full coverage) for pixels
              inside the shape, zero outside, and between zero and 255 on  the
              boundary. If image does not have a matte channel, it is initial-
              ized with 0 for any pixel matching in color  to  pixel  location
              (0,0), otherwise 255. See Matte Editing for a method of defining
              a matte channel.

              Note that matte information for image window is not retained for
              colormapped  X  server  visuals  (e.g. StaticColor, StaticColor,
              GrayScale,  PseudoColor).   Correct  compositing  behavior   may
              require  a  TrueColor  or  DirectColor visual or a Standard Col-
              ormap.

              Choosing a composite operator is optional. The default  operator
              is  replace.   However,  you must choose a location to composite
              your image and press button 1. Press and hold the button  before
              releasing  and  an  outline of the image will appear to help you
              identify your location.

              The actual colors of the pasted image  is  saved.  However,  the
              color  that  appears in image window may be different. For exam-
              ple, on a monochrome screen image window will  appear  black  or
              white even though your pasted image may have many colors. If the
              image is saved to a file it is written with the correct  colors.
              To  assure  the correct colors are saved in the final image, any
              PseudoClass image is promoted to DirectClass.  To force a  Pseu-
              doClass image to remain PseudoClass, use -colors.


IMAGE CROPPING

       To  begin,  press choose Crop of the Transform submenu from the Command
       widget. Alternatively, press C in the image window.

       A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the  image
       window.  You are now in crop mode. In crop mode, the Command widget has
       these options:

           Help
           Dismiss


       To define a cropping region, press button  1  and  drag.  The  cropping
       region  is defined by a highlighted rectangle that expands or contracts
       as it follows the pointer. Once you are  satisfied  with  the  cropping
       region,  release  the  button.  You are now in rectify mode. In rectify
       mode, the Command widget has these options:

           Crop
           Help
           Dismiss


       You can make adjustments by moving the pointer to one of  the  cropping
       rectangle corners, pressing a button, and dragging. Finally, press Crop
       to commit your cropping region. To exit  without  cropping  the  image,
       press Dismiss.


IMAGE CHOPPING

       An image is chopped interactively. There is no command line argument to
       chop an image. To begin, choose Chop of the Transform sub-menu from the
       Command widget. Alternatively, press [ in the Image window.

       You  are now in Chop mode. To exit immediately, press Dismiss.  In Chop
       mode, the Command widget has these options:

           Direction

           horizontal
           vertical

           Help
           Dismiss


       If the you choose the horizontal direction (this is the  default),  the
       area of the image between the two horizontal endpoints of the chop line
       is removed.  Otherwise, the area of the image between the two  vertical
       endpoints of the chop line is removed.

       Select a location within the image window to begin your chop, press and
       hold any button. Next, move the pointer  to  another  location  in  the
       image.   As  you  move a line will connect the initial location and the
       pointer. When you release the button, the area within the image to chop
       is determined by which direction you choose from the Command widget.

       To  cancel  the  image  chopping, move the pointer back to the starting
       point of the line and release the button.


IMAGE ROTATION

       Press the / key to rotate the image 90  degrees  or  \  to  rotate  -90
       degrees.   To  interactively  choose  the  degree  of  rotation, choose
       Rotate...  of the Transform submenu from the Command Widget.   Alterna-
       tively, press * in the image window.

       A  small  horizontal  line is drawn next to the pointer. You are now in
       rotate mode. To exit immediately, press Dismiss. In  rotate  mode,  the
       Command widget has these options:

           Pixel Color

           black
           blue
           cyan
           green
           gray
           red
           magenta
           yellow
           white
           Browser...

           Direction

           horizontal
           vertical

           Help
           Dismiss


       Choose  a  background  color  from the Pixel Color sub-menu. Additional
       background colors can be specified with  the  color  browser.  You  can
       change the menu colors by setting the X resources pen1 through pen9.

       If  you  choose  the  color  browser and press Grab, you can select the
       background color by moving the pointer to  the  desired  color  on  the
       screen and press any button.

       Choose  a  point  in  the  image window and press this button and hold.
       Next, move the pointer to another location in the image. As you move  a
       line  connects  the  initial location and the pointer. When you release
       the button, the degree of image rotation is determined by the slope  of
       the  line  you  just  drew.  The slope is relative to the direction you
       choose from the Direction sub-menu of the Command widget.

       To cancel the image rotation, move the pointer  back  to  the  starting
       point of the line and release the button.


IMAGE ANNOTATION

       An  image is annotated interactively. There is no command line argument
       to annotate an image. To begin, choose Annotate of the Image Edit  sub-
       menu  from the Command widget. Alternatively, press a in the image win-
       dow.

       A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the  image
       window.  You  are now in annotate mode. To exit immediately, press Dis-
       miss.  In annotate mode, the Command widget has these options:


       Font Name


       fixed

       variable

       5x8

       6x10

       7x13bold

       8x13bold

       9x15bold

       10x20

       12x24

       Browser...


       Font Color


       black

       blue

       cyan

       green

       gray

       red

       magenta

       yellow

       white

       transparent

       Browser...


       Box Color


       black

       blue

       cyan

       green

       gray

       red

       magenta

       yellow

       white

       transparent

       Browser...


       Rotate Text


       -90

       -45

       -30

       0

       30

       45

       90

       180

       Dialog...


       Help

       Dismiss


       Choose a font name from the Font Name sub-menu. Additional  font  names
       can  be  specified with the font browser. You can change the menu names
       by setting the X resources font1 through font9.

       Choose a font color from the Font Color sub-menu. Additional font  col-
       ors  can  be  specified with the color browser. You can change the menu
       colors by setting the X resources pen1 through pen9.

       If you select the color browser and press Grab, you can choose the font
       color  by  moving  the  pointer  to the desired color on the screen and
       press any button.

       If you choose to rotate the text, choose Rotate Text from the menu  and
       select  an  angle.  Typically  you will only want to rotate one line of
       text at a time. Depending on the angle you choose, subsequent lines may
       end up overwriting each other.

       Choosing  a  font  and its color is optional. The default font is fixed
       and the default color is black. However, you must choose a location  to
       begin  entering  text  and press a button. An underscore character will
       appear at the location of the pointer. The cursor changes to  a  pencil
       to indicate you are in text mode. To exit immediately, press Dismiss.

       In  text  mode, any key presses will display the character at the loca-
       tion of the underscore and advance the underscore  cursor.  Enter  your
       text and once completed press Apply to finish your image annotation. To
       correct errors press BACK SPACE. To delete  an  entire  line  of  text,
       press DELETE.  Any text that exceeds the boundaries of the image window
       is automatically continued onto the next line.

       The actual color you request for the font is saved in the  image.  How-
       ever, the color that appears in your Image window may be different. For
       example, on a monochrome screen the text will  appear  black  or  white
       even  if you choose the color red as the font color. However, the image
       saved to a file with -write is written with red  lettering.  To  assure
       the  correct  color  text  in the final image, any PseudoClass image is
       promoted to DirectClass (see miff(5)). To force a PseudoClass image  to
       remain PseudoClass, use -colors.


IMAGE COMPOSITING

       An  image  composite is created interactively. There is no command line
       argument to composite an image. To begin, choose Composite of the Image
       Edit  from the Command widget. Alternatively, press x in the Image win-
       dow.

       First a popup window is displayed requesting  you  to  enter  an  image
       name.   Press  Composite, Grab or type a file name. Press Cancel if you
       choose not to create a composite image. When you choose Grab, move  the
       pointer to the desired window and press any button.

       If  the  Composite  image  does not have any matte information, you are
       informed and the file browser is displayed again. Enter the name  of  a
       mask  image.  The image is typically grayscale and the same size as the
       composite image. If the image is not  grayscale,  it  is  converted  to
       grayscale  and the resulting intensities are used as matte information.

       A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the  image
       window.  You are now in composite mode. To exit immediately, press Dis-
       miss.  In composite mode, the Command widget has these options:


       Operators


       over

       in

       out

       atop

       xor

       plus

       minus

       add

       subtract

       difference

       bumpmap

       replace


       Blend

       Displace

       Help

       Dismiss


       Choose a composite operation from the Operators sub-menu of the Command
       widget.  How  each operator behaves is described below. image window is
       the image currently displayed on your X server and image is  the  image
       obtained

       over     The  result  is  the union of the two image shapes, with image
              obscuring image window in the region of overlap.

       in      The result is simply image cut by the shape  of  image  window.
              None of the image data of image window is in the result.

       out     The resulting image is image with the shape of image window cut
              out.

       atop    The result is the  same  shape  as  image  window,  with  image
              obscuring image window where the image shapes overlap. Note this
              differs from over because the portion  of  image  outside  image
              window's shape does not appear in the result.

       xor      The  result is the image data from both image and image window
              that is outside the overlap region. The overlap region is blank.

       plus    The result is just the sum of the image data. Output values are
              cropped to 255 (no overflow). This operation is  independent  of
              the matte channels.

       minus    The  result of image - image window, with underflow cropped to
              zero. The matte channel is ignored (set to 255, full  coverage).

       add      The  result  of  image  + image window, with overflow wrapping
              around (mod 256).

       subtract
               The result of image - image  window,  with  underflow  wrapping
              around  (mod 256). The add and subtract operators can be used to
              perform reversible transformations.

       difference
               The result of abs(image - image window).  This  is  useful  for
              comparing two very similar images.

       bumpmap
               The result of image window shaded by window.

       replace
                The resulting image is image window replaced with image.  Here
              the matte information is ignored.

              The image compositor requires a matte, or alpha channel  in  the
              image  for some operations. This extra channel usually defines a
              mask which represents a sort of a cookie-cutter for  the  image.
              This  is  the  case when matte is 255 (full coverage) for pixels
              inside the shape, zero outside, and between zero and 255 on  the
              boundary. If image does not have a matte channel, it is initial-
              ized with 0 for any pixel matching in color  to  pixel  location
              (0,0), otherwise 255. See Matte Editing for a method of defining
              a matte channel.

              If you choose blend, the composite operator becomes  over.   The
              image  matte channel percent transparency is initialized to fac-
              tor.  The image window is  initialized  to  (100-factor).  Where
              factor is the value you specify in the Dialog widget.

              Displace  shifts  the  image pixels as defined by a displacement
              map.  With this option, image is used  as  a  displacement  map.
              Black,  within  the displacement map, is a maximum positive dis-
              placement. White is a maximum negative displacement  and  middle
              gray  is  neutral.  The  displacement is scaled to determine the
              pixel shift. By default, the displacement applies  in  both  the
              horizontal  and  vertical  directions.  However,  if you specify
              mask, image is the horizontal X displacement and mask the verti-
              cal Y displacement.

              Note that matte information for image window is not retained for
              colormapped X server visuals  (e.g.   StaticColor,  StaticColor,
              GrayScale,   PseudoColor).   Correct  compositing  behavior  may
              require a TrueColor or DirectColor visual  or  a  Standard  Col-
              ormap.

              Choosing  a composite operator is optional. The default operator
              is replace.  However, you must choose a  location  to  composite
              your  image and press button 1. Press and hold the button before
              releasing and an outline of the image will appear  to  help  you
              identify your location.

              The  actual colors of the composite image is saved. However, the
              color that appears in image window may be different.  For  exam-
              ple,  on  a  monochrome screen Image window will appear black or
              white even though your composited image may have many colors. If
              the image is saved to a file it is written with the correct col-
              ors. To assure the correct colors are saved in the final  image,
              any PseudoClass image is promoted to DirectClass (see miff).  To
              force a PseudoClass image to remain PseudoClass, use -colors.


COLOR EDITING

       Changing the the color of a set of pixels is  performed  interactively.
       There  is  no  command  line argument to edit a pixel. To begin, choose
       Color from the Image Edit submenu  of  the  Command  widget.   Alterna-
       tively, press c in the image window.

       A  small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
       window. You are now in color edit mode. To exit immediately, press Dis-
       miss.  In color edit mode, the Command widget has these options:


       Method


       point

       replace

       floodfill

       reset


       Pixel Color


       black

       blue

       cyan

       green

       gray

       red

       magenta

       yellow

       white

       Browser...


       Border Color


       black

       blue

       cyan

       green

       gray

       red

       magenta

       yellow

       white

       Browser...


       Fuzz


       0

       2

       4

       8

       16
           Dialog...


       Undo

       Help

       Dismiss


       Choose  a  color editing method from the Method sub-menu of the Command
       widget. The point method recolors any pixel selected with  the  pointer
       unless  the  button  is released. The replace method recolors any pixel
       that matches the color of the pixel you select  with  a  button  press.
       Floodfill  recolors  any  pixel that matches the color of the pixel you
       select with a button press and is  a  neighbor.   Whereas  filltoborder
       changes  the  matte  value of any neighbor pixel that is not the border
       color.  Finally reset changes the entire image to the designated color.

       Next,  choose  a  pixel color from the Pixel Color sub-menu. Additional
       pixel colors can be specified with the color browser.  You  can  change
       the menu colors by setting the X resources pen1 through pen9.

       Now  press button 1 to select a pixel within the Image window to change
       its color. Additional pixels may be  recolored  as  prescribed  by  the
       method you choose. additional pixels by increasing the Delta value.

       If  the Magnify widget is mapped, it can be helpful in positioning your
       pointer within the image (refer to button  2).  Alternatively  you  can
       select  a  pixel  to  recolor  from within the Magnify widget. Move the
       pointer to the Magnify widget and position the pixel  with  the  cursor
       control keys. Finally, press a button to recolor the selected pixel (or
       pixels).

       The actual color you request for the pixels is saved in the image. How-
       ever, the color that appears in your Image window may be different. For
       example, on a monochrome screen the pixel will appear  black  or  white
       even if you choose the color red as the pixel color. However, the image
       saved to a file with -write is written with red pixels. To  assure  the
       correct  color  text  in the final image, any PseudoClass image is pro-
       moted to DirectClass To force a PseudoClass  image  to  remain  Pseudo-
       Class, use -colors.


MATTE EDITING

       Matte information within an image is useful for some operations such as
       image compositing. This extra channel usually defines a mask which rep-
       resents  a sort of a cookie-cutter for the image. This is the case when
       matte is 255 (full coverage) for pixels inside the shape, zero outside,
       and between zero and 255 on the boundary.

       Setting  the matte information in an image is done interactively. There
       is no command line argument to edit a pixel. To begin, and choose Matte
       of the Image Edit sub-menu from the Command widget.

       Alternatively, press m in the image window.

       A  small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
       window. You are now in matte edit mode. To exit immediately, press Dis-
       miss.  In matte edit mode, the Command widget has these options:


       Method


       point

       replace

       floodfill

       reset


       Border Color


       black

       blue

       cyan

       green

       gray

       red

       magenta

       yellow

       white

       Browser...


       Fuzz


       0

       2

       4

       8

       16
           Dialog...


       Matte

       Undo

       Help

       Dismiss

       Choose  a  matte editing method from the Method sub-menu of the Command
       widget. The point method changes the  matte  value  of  the  any  pixel
       selected  with  the  pointer  until the button is released. The replace
       method changes the matte value of any pixel that matches the  color  of
       the  pixel  you select with a button press. Floodfill changes the matte
       value of any pixel that matches the color of the pixel you select  with
       a  button  press  and  is a neighbor. Whereas filltoborder recolors any
       neighbor pixel that is not the border color. Finally reset changes  the
       entire  image  to the designated matte value.  Choose Matte Value and a
       dialog appears requesting a matte value.  Enter a value between  0  and
       255. This value is assigned as the matte value of the selected pixel or
       pixels.  Now, press any button to select a pixel within the Image  win-
       dow  to change its matte value. You can change the matte value of addi-
       tional pixels by increasing the Delta value. The Delta value  is  first
       added  then  subtracted  from  the  red,  green, and blue of the target
       color. Any pixels within the range also have their matte value updated.
       If  the Magnify widget is mapped, it can be helpful in positioning your
       pointer within the image (refer to button  2).  Alternatively  you  can
       select  a  pixel to change the matte value from within the Magnify wid-
       get.  Move the pointer to the Magnify widget  and  position  the  pixel
       with  the  cursor  control  keys. Finally, press a button to change the
       matte value of the selected pixel (or pixels).   Matte  information  is
       only  valid in a DirectClass image. Therefore, any PseudoClass image is
       promoted to DirectClass. Note that matte information for PseudoClass is
       not  retained for colormapped X server visuals (e.g. StaticColor, Stat-
       icColor, GrayScale, PseudoColor) unless you immediately save your image
       to  a file (refer to Write). Correct matte editing behavior may require
       a TrueColor or DirectColor visual or a Standard Colormap.


IMAGE DRAWING

       An image is drawn upon interactively. There is no command line argument
       to  draw  on an image. To begin, choose Draw of the Image Edit sub-menu
       from the Command widget.  Alternatively, press d in the image window.

       The cursor changes to a crosshair to indicate you are in draw mode.  To
       exit  immediately,  press Dismiss. In draw mode, the Command widget has
       these options:


       Primitive


       point

       line

       rectangle

       fill rectangle

       circle

       fill circle

       ellipse

       fill ellipse

       polygon

       fill polygon


       Color


       black

       blue

       cyan

       green

       gray

       red

       magenta

       yellow

       white

       transparent

       Browser...


       Stipple


       Brick

       Diagonal

       Scales

       Vertical

       Wavy

       Translucent

       Opaque

       Open...


       Width


       1

       2

       4

       8

       16
           Dialog...


       Undo

       Help

       Dismiss

       Choose a drawing primitive from the Primitive sub-menu.

       Next, choose a color from the Color sub-menu. Additional colors can  be
       specified  with  the  color  browser. You can change the menu colors by
       setting the X  resources  pen1  through  pen9.  The  transparent  color
       updates the image matte channel and is useful for image compositing.

       If  you  choose  the  color  browser and press Grab, you can select the
       primitive color by moving the pointer  to  the  desired  color  on  the
       screen  and  press  any button. The transparent color updates the image
       matte channel and is useful for image compositing.

       Choose a stipple, if appropriate, from the Stipple sub-menu. Additional
       stipples can be specified with the file browser. Stipples obtained from
       the file browser must be on disk in the X11 bitmap format.

       Choose a line width, if appropriate, from the Width sub-menu. To choose
       a specific width select the Dialog widget.

       Choose  a  point in the image window and press button 1 and hold. Next,
       move the pointer to another location in the image. As you move, a  line
       connects  the  initial  location  and the pointer. When you release the
       button, the image is updated with the  primitive  you  just  drew.  For
       polygons,  the  image  is updated when you press and release the button
       without moving the pointer.

       To cancel image drawing, move the pointer back to the starting point of
       the line and release the button.


REGION OF INTEREST

       To  begin,  press choose Region of Interest of the Pixel Transform sub-
       menu from the Command widget.  Alternatively, press R in the image win-
       dow.

       A  small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
       window. You are now in region of interest mode. In region  of  interest
       mode, the Command widget has these options:


       Help

       Dismiss


       To  define a region of interest, press button 1 and drag. The region of
       interest is defined by a highlighted rectangle  that  expands  or  con-
       tracts  as  it  follows  the  pointer.  Once you are satisfied with the
       region of interest, release the button. You are now in apply  mode.  In
       apply mode the Command widget has these options:


       File


       Save...

       Print...


       Edit


       Undo

       Redo


       Transform


       Flip

       Flop

       Rotate Right

       Rotate Left


       Enhance


       Hue...

       Saturation...

       Brightness...

       Gamma...

       Spiff

       Dull

       Equalize

       Normalize

       Negate

       GRAYscale

       Quantize...


       Effects


       Despeckle

       Emboss

       Reduce Noise

       Add Noise

       Sharpen...

       Blur...

       Threshold...

       Edge Detect...

       Spread...

       Shade...

       Raise...

       Segment...




       F/X


       Solarize...

       Swirl...

       Implode...

       Wave...

       Oil Paint

       Charcoal Draw...




       Miscellany


       Image Info

       Zoom Image

       Show Preview...

       Show Histogram

       Show Matte


       Help

       Dismiss


       You  can  make  adjustments  to  the  region  of interest by moving the
       pointer to one of the rectangle corners, pressing a button,  and  drag-
       ging.  Finally,  choose  an image processing technique from the Command
       widget. You can choose more than  one  image  processing  technique  to
       apply  to  an  area. Alternatively, you can move the region of interest
       before applying another image processing technique. To exit, press Dis-
       miss.


IMAGE PANNING

       When  an image exceeds the width or height of the X server screen, dis-
       play maps a small panning icon. The rectangle within the  panning  icon
       shows  the area that is currently displayed in the the image window. To
       pan about the image, press any button and drag the pointer  within  the
       panning  icon.   The pan rectangle moves with the pointer and the image
       window is updated to reflect the location of the rectangle  within  the
       panning  icon. When you have selected the area of the image you wish to
       view, release the button.

       Use the arrow keys to pan the image one pixel up, down, left, or  right
       within the image window.

       The  panning  icon  is  withdrawn if the image becomes smaller than the
       dimensions of the X server screen.


USER PREFERENCES

       Preferences affect the default behavior of display(1). The  preferences
       are either true or false and are stored in your home directory as .dis-
       playrc:

                display image centered on a backdrop"


                    This backdrop covers the entire workstation screen and  is
                    useful  for  hiding  other X window activity while viewing
                    the image. The color of the backdrop is specified  as  the
                    background color. Refer to X Resources for details.
                confirm on program exit"


                    Ask  for a confirmation before exiting the display(1) pro-
                    gram.
                correct image for display gamma"


                    If the image has a known gamma, the gamma is corrected  to
                    match  that  of  the  X  server  (see  the X Resource dis-
                    playGamma).
                display warning messages"


                    Display any warning messages.
                apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to image"


                    The basic strategy of dithering is to trade intensity res-
                    olution  for  spatial resolution by averaging the intensi-
                    ties of several neighboring pixels.  Images  which  suffer
                    from   severe  contouring  when  reducing  colors  can  be
                    improved with this preference.
                use a shared colormap for colormapped X visuals"


                    This option only applies when the default X server  visual
                    is  PseudoColor  or  GRAYScale.  Refer to -visual for more
                    details. By default, a shared colormap is  allocated.  The
                    image shares colors with other X clients.  Some image col-
                    ors could be approximated, therefore your image  may  look
                    very  different  than intended. Otherwise the image colors
                    appear exactly as they are defined. However, other clients
                    may go technicolor when the image colormap is installed.
                display images as an X server pixmap"


                    Images  are  maintained  as  a XImage by default. Set this
                    resource to True to utilize a server Pixmap instead.  This
                    option  is  useful if your image exceeds the dimensions of
                    your server screen and you intend to pan the  image.  Pan-
                    ning  is  much  faster  with  Pixmaps  than with a XImage.
                    Pixmaps are considered a precious resource, use them  with
                    discretion.



       GM IDENTIFY

              Identify describes the format and characteristics of one or more
              image files. It will also report if an image  is  incomplete  or
              corrupt.   The  information displayed includes the scene number,
              the file name, the width and height of the  image,  whether  the
              image  is colormapped or not, the number of colors in the image,
              the number of bytes in the image, the format of the image (JPEG,
              PNM,  etc.), and finally the number of seconds in both user time
              and elapsed time it took to read  and  process  the  image.   If
              -verbose or +ping are provided as an option, the pixel read rate
              is also displayed. An example line output from identify follows:

                  images/aquarium.miff 640x480 PseudoClass 256c
                         308135b MIFF 0.000u 0:01


              If -verbose is set, expect additional output including any image
              comment:


                  Image: images/aquarium.miff
                  class: PseudoClass
                  colors: 256
                  signature: eb5dca81dd93ae7e6ffae99a527eb5dca8...
                  matte: False
                  geometry: 640x480
                     depth: 8
                  bytes: 308135
                  format: MIFF
                  comments:
                  Imported from MTV raster image: aquarium.mtv


              For some formats, additional format-specific  information  about
              the  file  will  be  written  if  the -debug coder or -debug all
              option is used.


IDENTIFY OPTIONS

       Options are processed in command line order. Any option you specify  on
       the  command  line  remains in effect for the set of images immediately
       following, until the set is terminated by the appearance of any  option
       or -noop.

       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.


       -authenticate <string>
              decrypt image with this password

       -debug <events>
              enable debug printout

       -define <key>{=<value>},...
              add coder/decoder specific options

       -density <width>x<height>
              horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth <value>
              depth of the image

       -format <string>
              output formatted image characteristics

       -help  print usage instructions

       -interlace <type>
              the type of interlacing scheme

       -limit <type> <value>
              Disk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, or Threads resource limit

       -log <string>
              Specify format for debug log

       -ping  efficiently determine image characteristics

       -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>
              chroma subsampling factors

       -size <width>x<height>{+offset}
              width and height of the image

       -verbose
              print detailed information about the image

       -version
              print GraphicsMagick version string

              For  a  more  detailed  description of each option, see Options,
              above.



GM IMPORT

       Import reads an image from any visible window on an X server  and  out-
       puts  it  as an image file. You can capture a single window, the entire
       screen, or any rectangular portion of  the  screen.   Use  display  for
       redisplay,  printing, editing, formatting, archiving, image processing,
       etc. of the captured image.

       The target window can be specified by id, name, or may be  selected  by
       clicking  the  mouse  in  the desired window. If you press a button and
       then drag, a rectangle will form which expands  and  contracts  as  the
       mouse  moves.  To save the portion of the screen defined by the rectan-
       gle, just release the button. The keyboard bell is  rung  once  at  the
       beginning of the screen capture and twice when it completes.


EXAMPLES

       To  select an X window or an area of the screen with the mouse and save
       it in the MIFF image format to a file entitled window.miff, use:

           gm import window.miff


       To select an X window or an area of the screen with the mouse and  save
       it  in  the  Encapsulated PostScript format to include in another docu-
       ment, use:

           gm import figure.eps


       To capture the entire X server screen in the JPEG  image  format  in  a
       file entitled root.jpeg, without using the mouse, use:

           gm import -window root root.jpeg


       To  capture  the 512x256 area at the upper right corner of the X server
       screen in the PNG image format in a well-compressed file entitled  cor-
       ner.png, without using the mouse,  use:

           gm import -window root -crop 512x256-0+0 -quality 90
                  corner.png



OPTIONS

       Options  are processed in command line order. Any option you specify on
       the command line remains in effect until it is  explicitly  changed  by
       specifying the option again with a different effect.

       Import  options  can  appear on the command line or in your X resources
       file. See X(1). Options on the command line supersede values  specified
       in your X resources file.

       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.


       -bordercolor <color>
              the border color

       -colors <value>
              preferred number of colors in the image

       -colorspace <value>
              the type of colorspace

       -comment <string>
              annotate an image with a comment

       -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              preferred size and location of the cropped image

       -debug <events>
              enable debug printout

       -define <key>{=<value>},...
              add coder/decoder specific options

       -delay <1/100ths of a second>
              display the next image after pausing

       -density <width>x<height>
              horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth <value>
              depth of the image

       -descend
              obtain image by descending window hierarchy

       -display <host:display[.screen]>
              specifies the X server to contact

       -dispose <method>
              GIF disposal method

       -dither
              apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

       -encoding <type>
              specify the text encoding

       -endian <type>
              specify endianness (MSB, LSB, or Native) of image

       -frame include the X window frame in the imported image

       -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@}{!}{^}{<}{>}
              preferred size and location of the Image window.

       -help  print usage instructions

       -interlace <type>
              the type of interlacing scheme

       -label <name>
              assign a label to an image

       -limit <type> <value>
              Disk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, or Threads resource limit

       -log <string>
              Specify format for debug log

       -monitor
              show progress indication

       -monochrome
              transform the image to black and white

       -negate
              replace every pixel with its complementary color

       -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{!}{<}{>}
              size and location of an image canvas

       -pause <seconds>
              pause between snapshots [import]

       -ping  efficiently determine image characteristics

       -pointsize <value>
              pointsize of the PostScript, X11, or TrueType font

       -quality <value>
              JPEG/MIFF/PNG/TIFF compression level

       -resize <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}
              resize an image

       -rotate <degrees>{<}{>}
              rotate the image

       -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>
              chroma subsampling factors

       -scene <value>
              set scene number

       -screen
              specify the screen to capture

       -set <attribute> <value>
              set an image attribut

       -silent
              operate silently

       -snaps <value>
              number of screen snapshots

       -thumbnail <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}
              resize an image (quickly)

       -transparent <color>
              make this color transparent within the image

       -trim  trim an image

       -verbose
              print detailed information about the image

       -version
              print GraphicsMagick version string

              For  a  more  detailed  description of each option, see Options,
              above.



GM MOGRIFY

       Mogrify transforms an image or a sequence of images.  These  transforms
       include  image  scaling,  image  rotation, color reduction, and others.
       Each transmogrified image overwrites the corresponding original  image,
       unless  an option such as -format causes the output filename to be dif-
       ferent from the input filename.

       The graphics formats supported by mogrify are  listed  in  GraphicsMag-
       ick(1).


EXAMPLES

       To convert all the TIFF files in a particular directory to JPEG, use:

           gm mogrify -format jpeg *.tiff


       To convert a directory full of JPEG images to thumbnails, use:

           gm mogrify -size 120x120 *.jpg -resize 120x120 +profile "*"


       In  this example, '-size 120x120' gives a hint to the JPEG decoder that
       the images are going to be downscaled to 120x120, allowing  it  to  run
       faster  by  avoiding returning full-resolution images to GraphicsMagick
       for the subsequent resizing operation.  The '-resize 120x120' specifies
       the  desired dimensions of the output images.  It will be scaled so its
       largest dimension is 120 pixels.  The '+profile "*"' removes  any  ICM,
       EXIF,  IPTC,  or  other profiles that might be present in the input and
       aren't needed in the thumbnails.

       To scale an image of a cockatoo to exactly 640 pixels in width and  480
       pixels in height, use:

           gm mogrify -resize 640x480! cockatoo.miff



OPTIONS

       Options  are processed in command line order. Any option you specify on
       the command line remains in effect for the set of images that  follows,
       until the set is terminated by the appearance of any option or -noop.

       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.


       -affine <matrix>
              drawing transform matrix

       -antialias
              remove pixel aliasing

        -asc-cdl <spec>
              apply ASC CDL color transform

       -authenticate <string>
              decrypt image with this password

       -auto-orient
              orient (rotate) image so it is upright

       -background <color>
              the background color

       -black-threshold red[,green][,blue][,opacity]
              pixels below the threshold become black

       -blue-primary <x>,<y>
              blue chromaticity primary point

       -blur <radius>{x<sigma>}
              blur the image with a Gaussian operator

       -border <width>x<height>
              surround the image with a border of color

       -bordercolor <color>
              the border color

       -channel <type>
              the type of channel

       -charcoal <factor>
              simulate a charcoal drawing

       -colorize <value>
              colorize the image with the pen color

       -colors <value>
              preferred number of colors in the image

       -colorspace <value>
              the type of colorspace

       -comment <string>
              annotate an image with a comment

       -compose <operator>
              the type of image composition

       -compress <type>
              the type of image compression

       -contrast
              enhance or reduce the image contrast

       -convolve <kernel>
              convolve image with the specified convolution kernel

       -create-directories
              create output directory if required

       -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              preferred size and location of the cropped image

       -cycle <amount>
              displace image colormap by amount

       -debug <events>
              enable debug printout

       -define <key>{=<value>},...
              add coder/decoder specific options

       -delay <1/100ths of a second>
              display the next image after pausing

       -density <width>x<height>
              horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth <value>
              depth of the image

       -despeckle
              reduce the speckles within an image

       -display <host:display[.screen]>
              specifies the X server to contact

       -dispose <method>
              GIF disposal method

       -dither
              apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

       -draw <string>
              annotate an image with one or more graphic primitives

       -edge <radius>
              detect edges within an image

       -emboss <radius>
              emboss an image

       -encoding <type>
              specify the text encoding

       -endian <type>
              specify endianness (MSB, LSB, or Native) of image

       -enhance
              apply a digital filter to enhance a noisy image

       -equalize
              perform histogram equalization to the image

       -extent <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>
              composite image on background color canvas image

       -fill <color>
              color to use when filling a graphic primitive

       -filter <type>
              use this type of filter when resizing an image

       -flip  create a "mirror image"

       -flop  create a "mirror image"

       -font <name>
              use this font when annotating the image with text

       -format <type>
              the image format type

       -frame <width>x<height>+<outer bevel width>+<inner bevel width>
              surround the image with an ornamental border

       -fuzz <distance>{%}
              colors within this Euclidean distance are considered equal

       -gamma <value>
              level of gamma correction

       -gaussian <radius>{x<sigma>}
              blur the image with a Gaussian operator

       -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@}{!}{^}{<}{>}
              preferred size and location of the Image window.

       -gravity <type>
              direction primitive  gravitates to when annotating the image.

       -green-primary <x>,<y>
              green chromaticity primary point

       -hald-clut <clut>
              apply a Hald CLUT to the image

       -help  print usage instructions

       -implode <factor>
              implode image pixels about the center

       -interlace <type>
              the type of interlacing scheme

       -label <name>
              assign a label to an image

       -lat <width>x<height>{+-}<offset>{%}
              perform local adaptive thresholding

       -level <black_point>{,<gamma>}{,<white_point>}{%}
              adjust the level of image contrast

       -limit <type> <value>
              Disk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, or Threads resource limit

       -linewidth
              the line width for subsequent draw operations

       -list <type>
              the type of list

       -log <string>
              Specify format for debug log

       -loop <iterations>
              add Netscape loop extension to your GIF animation

       -magnify
              magnify the image

       -map <filename>
              choose a particular set of colors from this image

       -mask <filename>
              Specify a clipping mask

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

       -mattecolor <color>
              specify the color to be used with the -frame option

       -median <radius>
              apply a median filter to the image

       -minify <factor>
              minify the image

       -modulate brightness[,saturation[,hue]]
              vary the brightness, saturation, and hue of an image

       -monitor
              show progress indication

       -monochrome
              transform the image to black and white

       -motion-blur <radius>{x<sigma>}{+angle}
              Simulate motion blur

       -negate
              replace every pixel with its complementary color

       -noise <radius|type>
              add or reduce noise in an image

       -noop  NOOP (no option)

       -normalize
              transform image to span the full range of color values

       -opaque <color>
              change this color to the pen color within the image

       -operator channel operator rvalue[%]
              apply  a  mathematical,  bitwise,  or value operator to an image
              channel

       -ordered-dither <channeltype> <NxN>
              ordered dither the image

       -output-directory <directory>
              output files to directory

       -orient <orientation>
              Set the image orientation attribute

       -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{!}{<}{>}
              size and location of an image canvas

       -paint <radius>
              simulate an oil painting

       -pen <color>
              (This option has been replaced by the -fill option)

       -pointsize <value>
              pointsize of the PostScript, X11, or TrueType font

       -profile <filename>
              add ICM, IPTC, or generic profile  to image

       -quality <value>
              JPEG/MIFF/PNG/TIFF compression level

       -raise <width>x<height>
              lighten or darken image edges

       -random-threshold <channeltype> <LOWxHIGH>
              random threshold the image

       -recolor <matrix>
              apply a color translation matrix to image channels

       -red-primary <x>,<y>
              red chromaticity primary point

       -region <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>
              apply options to a portion of the image

       -render
              render vector operations

       -repage  <width>x<height>+xoff+yoff[!]
              Adjust image page offsets

       -resample <horizontal>x<vertical>
              Resample image to specified horizontal and vertical resolution

       -resize <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}
              resize an image

       -roll {+-}<x>{+-}<y>
              roll an image vertically or horizontally

       -rotate <degrees>{<}{>}
              rotate the image

       -sample <geometry>
              scale image using pixel sampling

       -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>
              chroma subsampling factors

       -scale <geometry>
              scale the image.

       -scene <value>
              set scene number

       -set <attribute> <value>
              set an image attribut

       -segment <cluster threshold>x<smoothing threshold>
              segment an image

       -shade <azimuth>x<elevation>
              shade the image using a distant light source

       -sharpen <radius>{x<sigma>}
              sharpen the image

       -shave <width>x<height>{%}
              shave pixels from the image edges

       -shear <x degrees>x<y degrees>
              shear the image along the X or Y axis

       -size <width>x<height>{+offset}
              width and height of the image

       -solarize <factor>
              negate all pixels above the threshold level

       -spread <amount>
              displace image pixels by a random amount

       -strip remove all profiles and text attributes from the image

       -stroke <color>
              color to use when stroking a graphic primitive

       -strokewidth <value>
              set the stroke width

       -swirl <degrees>
              swirl image pixels about the center

       -texture <filename>
              name of texture to tile onto the image background

       -threshold <value>{%}
              threshold the image

       -thumbnail <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}
              resize an image (quickly)

       -tile <filename>
              tile image when filling a graphic primitive

       -transform
              transform the image

       -transparent <color>
              make this color transparent within the image

       -treedepth <value>
              tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

       -trim  trim an image

       -type <type>
              the image type

       -units <type>
              the units of image resolution

       -unsharp <radius>{x<sigma>}{+<amount>}{+<threshold>}
              sharpen the image with an unsharp mask operator

       -verbose
              print detailed information about the image

       -version
              print GraphicsMagick version string

       -view <string>
              FlashPix viewing parameters

       -virtual-pixel <method>
              specify contents of "virtual pixels"

       -wave <amplitude>x<wavelength>
              alter an image along a sine wave

       -white-point <x>,<y>
              chromaticity white point

       -white-threshold red[,green][,blue][,opacity]
              pixels above the threshold become white

              For a more detailed description of  each  option,  see  Options,
              above.



GM MONTAGE

       montage creates a composite image by combining several separate images.
       The images are tiled on the composite image with the name of the  image
       optionally appearing just below the individual tile.

       The composite image is constructed in the following manner. First, each
       image specified on the command line, except for the last, is scaled  to
       fit the maximum tile size. The maximum tile size by default is 120x120.
       It can be modified with  the  -geometry  command  line  argument  or  X
       resource.  See  Options for more information on command line arguments.
       See X(1) for more information on X resources.  Note  that  the  maximum
       tile size need not be a square.

       Next the composite image is initialized with the color specified by the
       -background command line argument or X resource. The width  and  height
       of  the composite image is determined by the title specified, the maxi-
       mum tile size, the number of tiles per row, the tile border  width  and
       height,  the  image  border  width, and the label height. The number of
       tiles per row specifies how many images are to appear in  each  row  of
       the  composite  image. The default is to have 5 tiles in each row and 4
       tiles in each column of the composite.  A specific value  is  specified
       with  -tile.  The  tile  border  width and height, and the image border
       width defaults to the value of the X resource -borderwidth. It  can  be
       changed  with  the -borderwidth or -geometry command line argument or X
       resource. The label height is determined by the font you  specify  with
       the  -font command line argument or X resource. If you do not specify a
       font, a font is chosen that allows the name of the  image  to  fit  the
       maximum  width  of a tiled area.  The label colors is determined by the
       -background and -fill command line argument or X resource.  Note,  that
       if  the background and pen colors are the same, labels will not appear.

       Initially, the composite image title is placed at the  top  if  one  is
       specified  (refer to -fill). Next, each image is set onto the composite
       image, surrounded by its border color,  with  its  name  centered  just
       below  it. The individual images are left-justified within the width of
       the tiled area.  The order of the images is the same as they appear  on
       the  command  line  unless  the images have a scene keyword. If a scene
       number is specified in each image, then the images are tiled  onto  the
       composite  in  the order of their scene number. Finally, the last argu-
       ment on the command line is the name assigned to the  composite  image.
       By  default,  the image is written in the MIFF format and can be viewed
       or printed with display(1).


       Note, that if the number of tiles exceeds the default number of  20  (5
       per  row,  4  per column), more than one composite image is created. To
       ensure a single image is produced, use -tile to increase the number  of
       tiles to meet or exceed the number of input images.

       Finally,  to  create one or more empty spaces in the sequence of tiles,
       use the "NULL:" image format.

       Note, a composite MIFF image displayed to  an  X  server  with  display
       behaves  differently  than other images. You can think of the composite
       as a visual image directory. Choose a particular tile of the  composite
       and press a button to display it. See display(1) and miff(5)


EXAMPLES

       To  create  a  montage  of  a cockatoo, a parrot, and a hummingbird and
       write it to a file called birds, use:

           gm montage cockatoo.miff parrot.miff hummingbird.miff
                   birds.miff


       To tile several bird images so that they are  at  most  256  pixels  in
       width  and  192 pixels in height, surrounded by a red border, and sepa-
       rated by 10 pixels of background color, use:

           gm montage -geometry 256x192+10+10 -bordercolor red
                   birds.* montage.miff


       To create an unlabeled parrot image, 640 by 480 pixels, and  surrounded
       by a border of black, use:

           gm montage -geometry 640x480 -bordercolor black
                   -label "" parrot.miff bird.miff


       To create an image of an eagle with a textured background, use:

           gm montage -texture bumps.jpg eagle.jpg eagle.png


       To  join  several  GIF  images together without any extraneous graphics
       (e.g.  no label, no shadowing, no surrounding tile frame), use:

           gm montage +frame +shadow +label -tile 5x1
                   -geometry 50x50+0+0 *.png joined.png



OPTIONS

       Any option you specify on the command line remains in  effect  for  the
       group  of  images  following  it,  until the group is terminated by the
       appearance of any option or -noop.  For example, to make a  montage  of
       three  images,  the  first with 32 colors, the second with an unlimited
       number of colors, and the third with only 16 colors, use:


           gm montage -colors 32 cockatoo.1 -noop cockatoo.2
                    -colors 16 cockatoo.3 cockatoos.miff


       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.


       -adjoin
              join images into a single multi-image file

       -affine <matrix>
              drawing transform matrix

       -authenticate <string>
              decrypt image with this password

       -background <color>
              the background color

       -blue-primary <x>,<y>
              blue chromaticity primary point

       -blur <radius>{x<sigma>}
              blur the image with a Gaussian operator

       -bordercolor <color>
              the border color

       -borderwidth <geometry>
              the border width

       -chop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              remove pixels from the interior of an image

       -colors <value>
              preferred number of colors in the image

       -colorspace <value>
              the type of colorspace

       -comment <string>
              annotate an image with a comment

       -compose <operator>
              the type of image composition

       -compress <type>
              the type of image compression

       -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              preferred size and location of the cropped image

       -debug <events>
              enable debug printout

       -define <key>{=<value>},...
              add coder/decoder specific options

       -density <width>x<height>
              horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth <value>
              depth of the image

       -display <host:display[.screen]>
              specifies the X server to contact

       -dispose <method>
              GIF disposal method

       -dither
              apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

       -draw <string>
              annotate an image with one or more graphic primitives

       -encoding <type>
              specify the text encoding

       -endian <type>
              specify endianness (MSB, LSB, or Native) of image

       -fill <color>
              color to use when filling a graphic primitive

       -filter <type>
              use this type of filter when resizing an image

       -font <name>
              use this font when annotating the image with text

       -frame <width>x<height>+<outer bevel width>+<inner bevel width>
              surround the image with an ornamental border

       -gamma <value>
              level of gamma correction

       -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@}{!}{^}{<}{>}
              preferred size and location of the Image window.

       -gravity <type>
              direction primitive  gravitates to when annotating the image.

       -green-primary <x>,<y>
              green chromaticity primary point

       -help  print usage instructions

       -interlace <type>
              the type of interlacing scheme

       -label <name>
              assign a label to an image

       -limit <type> <value>
              Disk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, or Threads resource limit

       -log <string>
              Specify format for debug log

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

       -mattecolor <color>
              specify the color to be used with the -frame option

       -mode <value>
              mode of operation

       -monitor
              show progress indication

       -monochrome
              transform the image to black and white

       -noop  NOOP (no option)

       -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{!}{<}{>}
              size and location of an image canvas

       -pen <color>
              (This option has been replaced by the -fill option)

       -pointsize <value>
              pointsize of the PostScript, X11, or TrueType font

       -quality <value>
              JPEG/MIFF/PNG/TIFF compression level

       -red-primary <x>,<y>
              red chromaticity primary point

       -render
              render vector operations

       -repage  <width>x<height>+xoff+yoff[!]
              Adjust image page offsets

       -resize <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}
              resize an image

       -rotate <degrees>{<}{>}
              rotate the image

       -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>
              chroma subsampling factors

       -scenes <value-value>
              range of image scene numbers to read

       -shadow <radius>{x<sigma>}
              shadow the montage

       -sharpen <radius>{x<sigma>}
              sharpen the image

       -size <width>x<height>{+offset}
              width and height of the image

       -strip remove all profiles and text attributes from the image

       -stroke <color>
              color to use when stroking a graphic primitive

       -strokewidth <value>
              set the stroke width

       -texture <filename>
              name of texture to tile onto the image background

       -thumbnail <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}
              resize an image (quickly)

       -tile <geometry>
              layout of images [montage]

       -title <string>
              assign title to displayed image [animate, display, montage]

       -transform
              transform the image

       -transparent <color>
              make this color transparent within the image

       -treedepth <value>
              tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

       -trim  trim an image

       -type <type>
              the image type

       -verbose
              print detailed information about the image

       -version
              print GraphicsMagick version string

       -white-point <x>,<y>
              chromaticity white point

              For a more detailed description of  each  option,  see  Options,
              above.



X RESOURCES

       Montage  options  can  appear on the command line or in your X resource
       file. Options on the command line supersede values specified in your  X
       resource file. See X(1) for more information on X resources.

       All  montage options have a corresponding X resource. In addition, mon-
       tage uses the following X resources:

       background (class Background)
              background color

              Specifies the preferred color to use  for  the  composite  image
              background.  The default is #ccc.

       borderColor (class BorderColor)
              border color

              Specifies  the  preferred  color  to use for the composite image
              border. The default is #ccc.

       borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
              border width

              Specifies the width in pixels of the composite image border. The
              default is 2.

       font (class Font)
              font to use

              Specifies  the name of the preferred font to use when displaying
              text within the composite image. The default is 9x15, fixed,  or
              5x8 determined by the composite image size.

       matteColor (class MatteColor)
              color of the frame

              Specify  the color of an image frame. A 3D effect is achieved by
              using highlight and shadow colors derived from this  color.  The
              default value is #697B8F.

       pen (class Pen)
              text color

              Specifies the preferred color to use for text within the compos-
              ite image.  The default is black.

       title (class Title)
              composite image title

              This resource specifies the title to be placed at the top of the
              composite  image. The default is not to place a title at the top
              of the composite image.


GM TIME


DESCRIPTION

       time executes an  arbitrary  gm  utility  command  (e.g.  convert)  and
       reports  the  user and elapsed time.  This provides way to measure com-
       mand execution times similar to the Unix 'time' command but in a porta-
       ble and consistent way.


EXAMPLES

       To obtain time information for the execution of a command:

       %  gm time convert input.ppm -gaussian 0x2 output.ppm convert input.ppm
       -gaussian 0x2 output.ppm    22.60s user 0.00s system  2354%  cpu  0.960
       total

       Here is the interpretation of the above output:

           user - the total user time consumed.
           system - the total system time consumed.
           total - the total elapsed time consumed.



OPTIONS

       The  time  command reqires no options other than the gm command to exe-
       cute.


GM VERSION


DESCRIPTION

       version displays the software release  version,  build  quantum  (pixel
       sample)  depth,  web  site URL, copyright notice, enabled features sup-
       port, configuration parameters, and final build options used  to  build
       the  software.   The  available information depends on how the software
       was configured and the host system.


EXAMPLES

       To display the version information:

         % gm -version
         GraphicsMagick 1.3.17 2012-10-13 Q16 http://www.GraphicsMagick.org/
         Copyright (C) 2002-2012 GraphicsMagick Group.
         Additional copyrights and licenses apply to this software.
         See http://www.GraphicsMagick.org/www/Copyright.html for details.
         Feature Support:
           Thread Safe              yes
           Large Files (> 32 bit)   yes
           Large Memory (> 32 bit)  no
           BZIP                     yes
           DPS                      no
           FlashPix                 no
           FreeType                 yes
           Ghostscript (Library)    no
           JBIG                     no
           JPEG-2000                yes
           JPEG                     yes
           Little CMS               yes
           Loadable Modules         no
           OpenMP                   yes (201107)
           PNG                      yes
           TIFF                     yes
           TRIO                     no
           UMEM                     no
           WMF                      no
           X11                      yes
           XML                      yes
           ZLIB                     yes
         Host type: i386-pc-solaris2.11
         Configured using the command:
           ./configure  ...
         Final Build Parameters:
           CC       = ...
           CFLAGS   = ...
           CPPFLAGS = ...
           CXX      = ...
           CXXFLAGS = ...
           LDFLAGS  = ...
           LIBS     = ...



OPTIONS

       The version command does not currently support any options.



GraphicsMagick                    2013/03/03                             gm(1)

GraphicsMagick 1.3.18 - Generated Mon Mar 18 18:28:19 CDT 2013