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git-commit(1)                     Git Manual                     git-commit(1)


       git-commit - Record changes to the repository


       git commit [-a | --interactive | --patch] [-s] [-v] [-u<mode>] [--amend]
                  [--dry-run] [(-c | -C | --squash) <commit> | --fixup [(amend|reword):]<commit>)]
                  [-F <file> | -m <msg>] [--reset-author] [--allow-empty]
                  [--allow-empty-message] [--no-verify] [-e] [--author=<author>]
                  [--date=<date>] [--cleanup=<mode>] [--[no-]status]
                  [-i | -o] [--pathspec-from-file=<file> [--pathspec-file-nul]]
                  [(--trailer <token>[(=|:)<value>])...] [-S[<keyid>]]
                  [--] [<pathspec>...]


       Create a new commit containing the current contents of the index and
       the given log message describing the changes. The new commit is a
       direct child of HEAD, usually the tip of the current branch, and the
       branch is updated to point to it (unless no branch is associated with
       the working tree, in which case HEAD is "detached" as described in git-

       The content to be committed can be specified in several ways:

        1. by using git-add(1) to incrementally "add" changes to the index
           before using the commit command (Note: even modified files must be

        2. by using git-rm(1) to remove files from the working tree and the
           index, again before using the commit command;

        3. by listing files as arguments to the commit command (without
           --interactive or --patch switch), in which case the commit will
           ignore changes staged in the index, and instead record the current
           content of the listed files (which must already be known to Git);

        4. by using the -a switch with the commit command to automatically
           "add" changes from all known files (i.e. all files that are already
           listed in the index) and to automatically "rm" files in the index
           that have been removed from the working tree, and then perform the
           actual commit;

        5. by using the --interactive or --patch switches with the commit
           command to decide one by one which files or hunks should be part of
           the commit in addition to contents in the index, before finalizing
           the operation. See the "Interactive Mode" section of git-add(1) to
           learn how to operate these modes.

       The --dry-run option can be used to obtain a summary of what is
       included by any of the above for the next commit by giving the same set
       of parameters (options and paths).

       If you make a commit and then find a mistake immediately after that,
       you can recover from it with git reset.


       -a, --all
           Tell the command to automatically stage files that have been
           modified and deleted, but new files you have not told Git about are
           not affected.

       -p, --patch
           Use the interactive patch selection interface to choose which
           changes to commit. See git-add(1) for details.

       -C <commit>, --reuse-message=<commit>
           Take an existing commit object, and reuse the log message and the
           authorship information (including the timestamp) when creating the

       -c <commit>, --reedit-message=<commit>
           Like -C, but with -c the editor is invoked, so that the user can
           further edit the commit message.

           Create a new commit which "fixes up" <commit> when applied with git
           rebase --autosquash. Plain --fixup=<commit> creates a "fixup!"
           commit which changes the content of <commit> but leaves its log
           message untouched.  --fixup=amend:<commit> is similar but creates
           an "amend!" commit which also replaces the log message of <commit>
           with the log message of the "amend!" commit.
           --fixup=reword:<commit> creates an "amend!" commit which replaces
           the log message of <commit> with its own log message but makes no
           changes to the content of <commit>.

           The commit created by plain --fixup=<commit> has a subject composed
           of "fixup!" followed by the subject line from <commit>, and is
           recognized specially by git rebase --autosquash. The -m option may
           be used to supplement the log message of the created commit, but
           the additional commentary will be thrown away once the "fixup!"
           commit is squashed into <commit> by git rebase --autosquash.

           The commit created by --fixup=amend:<commit> is similar but its
           subject is instead prefixed with "amend!". The log message of
           <commit> is copied into the log message of the "amend!" commit and
           opened in an editor so it can be refined. When git rebase
           --autosquash squashes the "amend!" commit into <commit>, the log
           message of <commit> is replaced by the refined log message from the
           "amend!" commit. It is an error for the "amend!" commit's log
           message to be empty unless --allow-empty-message is specified.

           --fixup=reword:<commit> is shorthand for --fixup=amend:<commit>
           --only. It creates an "amend!" commit with only a log message
           (ignoring any changes staged in the index). When squashed by git
           rebase --autosquash, it replaces the log message of <commit>
           without making any other changes.

           Neither "fixup!" nor "amend!" commits change authorship of <commit>
           when applied by git rebase --autosquash. See git-rebase(1) for

           Construct a commit message for use with rebase --autosquash. The
           commit message subject line is taken from the specified commit with
           a prefix of "squash! ". Can be used with additional commit message
           options (-m/-c/-C/-F). See git-rebase(1) for details.

           When used with -C/-c/--amend options, or when committing after a
           conflicting cherry-pick, declare that the authorship of the
           resulting commit now belongs to the committer. This also renews the
           author timestamp.

           When doing a dry-run, give the output in the short-format. See git-
           status(1) for details. Implies --dry-run.

           Show the branch and tracking info even in short-format.

           When doing a dry-run, give the output in a porcelain-ready format.
           See git-status(1) for details. Implies --dry-run.

           When doing a dry-run, give the output in the long-format. Implies

       -z, --null
           When showing short or porcelain status output, print the filename
           verbatim and terminate the entries with NUL, instead of LF. If no
           format is given, implies the --porcelain output format. Without the
           -z option, filenames with "unusual" characters are quoted as
           explained for the configuration variable core.quotePath (see git-

       -F <file>, --file=<file>
           Take the commit message from the given file. Use - to read the
           message from the standard input.

           Override the commit author. Specify an explicit author using the
           standard A U Thor <> format. Otherwise <author>
           is assumed to be a pattern and is used to search for an existing
           commit by that author (i.e. rev-list --all -i --author=<author>);
           the commit author is then copied from the first such commit found.

           Override the author date used in the commit.

       -m <msg>, --message=<msg>
           Use the given <msg> as the commit message. If multiple -m options
           are given, their values are concatenated as separate paragraphs.

           The -m option is mutually exclusive with -c, -C, and -F.

       -t <file>, --template=<file>
           When editing the commit message, start the editor with the contents
           in the given file. The commit.template configuration variable is
           often used to give this option implicitly to the command. This
           mechanism can be used by projects that want to guide participants
           with some hints on what to write in the message in what order. If
           the user exits the editor without editing the message, the commit
           is aborted. This has no effect when a message is given by other
           means, e.g. with the -m or -F options.

       -s, --signoff, --no-signoff
           Add a Signed-off-by trailer by the committer at the end of the
           commit log message. The meaning of a signoff depends on the project
           to which you're committing. For example, it may certify that the
           committer has the rights to submit the work under the project's
           license or agrees to some contributor representation, such as a
           Developer Certificate of Origin. (See
  for the one used by the Linux
           kernel and Git projects.) Consult the documentation or leadership
           of the project to which you're contributing to understand how the
           signoffs are used in that project.

           The --no-signoff option can be used to countermand an earlier
           --signoff option on the command line.

       --trailer <token>[(=|:)<value>]
           Specify a (<token>, <value>) pair that should be applied as a
           trailer. (e.g.  git commit --trailer "Signed-off-by:C O Mitter \
           <>" --trailer "Helped-by:C O Mitter \
           <>" will add the "Signed-off-by" trailer and
           the "Helped-by" trailer to the commit message.) The trailer.*
           configuration variables (git-interpret-trailers(1)) can be used to
           define if a duplicated trailer is omitted, where in the run of
           trailers each trailer would appear, and other details.

       -n, --[no-]verify
           By default, the pre-commit and commit-msg hooks are run. When any
           of --no-verify or -n is given, these are bypassed. See also

           Usually recording a commit that has the exact same tree as its sole
           parent commit is a mistake, and the command prevents you from
           making such a commit. This option bypasses the safety, and is
           primarily for use by foreign SCM interface scripts.

           Like --allow-empty this command is primarily for use by foreign SCM
           interface scripts. It allows you to create a commit with an empty
           commit message without using plumbing commands like git-commit-

           This option determines how the supplied commit message should be
           cleaned up before committing. The <mode> can be strip, whitespace,
           verbatim, scissors or default.

               Strip leading and trailing empty lines, trailing whitespace,
               commentary and collapse consecutive empty lines.

               Same as strip except #commentary is not removed.

               Do not change the message at all.

               Same as whitespace except that everything from (and including)
               the line found below is truncated, if the message is to be
               edited. "#" can be customized with core.commentChar.

                   # ------------------------ >8 ------------------------

               Same as strip if the message is to be edited. Otherwise

           The default can be changed by the commit.cleanup configuration
           variable (see git-config(1)).

       -e, --edit
           The message taken from file with -F, command line with -m, and from
           commit object with -C are usually used as the commit log message
           unmodified. This option lets you further edit the message taken
           from these sources.

           Use the selected commit message without launching an editor. For
           example, git commit --amend --no-edit amends a commit without
           changing its commit message.

           Replace the tip of the current branch by creating a new commit. The
           recorded tree is prepared as usual (including the effect of the -i
           and -o options and explicit pathspec), and the message from the
           original commit is used as the starting point, instead of an empty
           message, when no other message is specified from the command line
           via options such as -m, -F, -c, etc. The new commit has the same
           parents and author as the current one (the --reset-author option
           can countermand this).

           It is a rough equivalent for:

                       $ git reset --soft HEAD^
                       $ ... do something else to come up with the right tree ...
                       $ git commit -c ORIG_HEAD

           but can be used to amend a merge commit.

           You should understand the implications of rewriting history if you
           amend a commit that has already been published. (See the
           "RECOVERING FROM UPSTREAM REBASE" section in git-rebase(1).)

           Bypass the post-rewrite hook.

       -i, --include
           Before making a commit out of staged contents so far, stage the
           contents of paths given on the command line as well. This is
           usually not what you want unless you are concluding a conflicted

       -o, --only
           Make a commit by taking the updated working tree contents of the
           paths specified on the command line, disregarding any contents that
           have been staged for other paths. This is the default mode of
           operation of git commit if any paths are given on the command line,
           in which case this option can be omitted. If this option is
           specified together with --amend, then no paths need to be
           specified, which can be used to amend the last commit without
           committing changes that have already been staged. If used together
           with --allow-empty paths are also not required, and an empty commit
           will be created.

           Pathspec is passed in <file> instead of commandline args. If <file>
           is exactly - then standard input is used. Pathspec elements are
           separated by LF or CR/LF. Pathspec elements can be quoted as
           explained for the configuration variable core.quotePath (see git-
           config(1)). See also --pathspec-file-nul and global

           Only meaningful with --pathspec-from-file. Pathspec elements are
           separated with NUL character and all other characters are taken
           literally (including newlines and quotes).

       -u[<mode>], --untracked-files[=<mode>]
           Show untracked files.

           The mode parameter is optional (defaults to all), and is used to
           specify the handling of untracked files; when -u is not used, the
           default is normal, i.e. show untracked files and directories.

           The possible options are:

           o   no - Show no untracked files

           o   normal - Shows untracked files and directories

           o   all - Also shows individual files in untracked directories.

           All usual spellings for Boolean value true are taken as normal and
           false as no. The default can be changed using the
           status.showUntrackedFiles configuration variable documented in git-

       -v, --verbose
           Show unified diff between the HEAD commit and what would be
           committed at the bottom of the commit message template to help the
           user describe the commit by reminding what changes the commit has.
           Note that this diff output doesn't have its lines prefixed with #.
           This diff will not be a part of the commit message. See the
           commit.verbose configuration variable in git-config(1).

           If specified twice, show in addition the unified diff between what
           would be committed and the worktree files, i.e. the unstaged
           changes to tracked files.

       -q, --quiet
           Suppress commit summary message.

           Do not create a commit, but show a list of paths that are to be
           committed, paths with local changes that will be left uncommitted
           and paths that are untracked.

           Include the output of git-status(1) in the commit message template
           when using an editor to prepare the commit message. Defaults to on,
           but can be used to override configuration variable commit.status.

           Do not include the output of git-status(1) in the commit message
           template when using an editor to prepare the default commit

       -S[<keyid>], --gpg-sign[=<keyid>], --no-gpg-sign
           GPG-sign commits. The keyid argument is optional and defaults to
           the committer identity; if specified, it must be stuck to the
           option without a space.  --no-gpg-sign is useful to countermand
           both commit.gpgSign configuration variable, and earlier --gpg-sign.

           Do not interpret any more arguments as options.

           When pathspec is given on the command line, commit the contents of
           the files that match the pathspec without recording the changes
           already added to the index. The contents of these files are also
           staged for the next commit on top of what have been staged before.

           For more details, see the pathspec entry in gitglossary(7).


       When recording your own work, the contents of modified files in your
       working tree are temporarily stored to a staging area called the
       "index" with git add. A file can be reverted back, only in the index
       but not in the working tree, to that of the last commit with git
       restore --staged <file>, which effectively reverts git add and prevents
       the changes to this file from participating in the next commit. After
       building the state to be committed incrementally with these commands,
       git commit (without any pathname parameter) is used to record what has
       been staged so far. This is the most basic form of the command. An

           $ edit hello.c
           $ git rm goodbye.c
           $ git add hello.c
           $ git commit

       Instead of staging files after each individual change, you can tell git
       commit to notice the changes to the files whose contents are tracked in
       your working tree and do corresponding git add and git rm for you. That
       is, this example does the same as the earlier example if there is no
       other change in your working tree:

           $ edit hello.c
           $ rm goodbye.c
           $ git commit -a

       The command git commit -a first looks at your working tree, notices
       that you have modified hello.c and removed goodbye.c, and performs
       necessary git add and git rm for you.

       After staging changes to many files, you can alter the order the
       changes are recorded in, by giving pathnames to git commit. When
       pathnames are given, the command makes a commit that only records the
       changes made to the named paths:

           $ edit hello.c hello.h
           $ git add hello.c hello.h
           $ edit Makefile
           $ git commit Makefile

       This makes a commit that records the modification to Makefile. The
       changes staged for hello.c and hello.h are not included in the
       resulting commit. However, their changes are not lost -- they are still
       staged and merely held back. After the above sequence, if you do:

           $ git commit

       this second commit would record the changes to hello.c and hello.h as

       After a merge (initiated by git merge or git pull) stops because of
       conflicts, cleanly merged paths are already staged to be committed for
       you, and paths that conflicted are left in unmerged state. You would
       have to first check which paths are conflicting with git status and
       after fixing them manually in your working tree, you would stage the
       result as usual with git add:

           $ git status | grep unmerged
           unmerged: hello.c
           $ edit hello.c
           $ git add hello.c

       After resolving conflicts and staging the result, git ls-files -u would
       stop mentioning the conflicted path. When you are done, run git commit
       to finally record the merge:

           $ git commit

       As with the case to record your own changes, you can use -a option to
       save typing. One difference is that during a merge resolution, you
       cannot use git commit with pathnames to alter the order the changes are
       committed, because the merge should be recorded as a single commit. In
       fact, the command refuses to run when given pathnames (but see -i


       Author and committer information is taken from the following
       environment variables, if set:


       (nb "<", ">" and "\n"s are stripped)

       The author and committer names are by convention some form of a
       personal name (that is, the name by which other humans refer to you),
       although Git does not enforce or require any particular form. Arbitrary
       Unicode may be used, subject to the constraints listed above. This name
       has no effect on authentication; for that, see the credential.username
       variable in git-config(1).

       In case (some of) these environment variables are not set, the
       information is taken from the configuration items and, or, if not present, the environment variable EMAIL, or, if
       that is not set, system user name and the hostname used for outgoing
       mail (taken from /etc/mailname and falling back to the fully qualified
       hostname when that file does not exist).

       The and and their corresponding email
       options override and if set and are overridden
       themselves by the environment variables.

       The typical usage is to set just the and
       variables; the other options are provided for more complex use cases.


       The GIT_AUTHOR_DATE and GIT_COMMITTER_DATE environment variables
       support the following date formats:

       Git internal format
           It is <unix-timestamp> <time-zone-offset>, where <unix-timestamp>
           is the number of seconds since the UNIX epoch.  <time-zone-offset>
           is a positive or negative offset from UTC. For example CET (which
           is 1 hour ahead of UTC) is +0100.

       RFC 2822
           The standard date format as described by RFC 2822, for example Thu,
           07 Apr 2005 22:13:13 +0200.

       ISO 8601
           Time and date specified by the ISO 8601 standard, for example
           2005-04-07T22:13:13. The parser accepts a space instead of the T
           character as well. Fractional parts of a second will be ignored,
           for example 2005-04-07T22:13:13.019 will be treated as

               In addition, the date part is accepted in the following
               formats: YYYY.MM.DD, MM/DD/YYYY and DD.MM.YYYY.

       In addition to recognizing all date formats above, the --date option
       will also try to make sense of other, more human-centric date formats,
       such as relative dates like "yesterday" or "last Friday at noon".


       Though not required, it's a good idea to begin the commit message with
       a single short (no more than 50 characters) line summarizing the
       change, followed by a blank line and then a more thorough description.
       The text up to the first blank line in a commit message is treated as
       the commit title, and that title is used throughout Git. For example,
       git-format-patch(1) turns a commit into email, and it uses the title on
       the Subject line and the rest of the commit in the body.

       Git is to some extent character encoding agnostic.

       o   The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted sequences of
           bytes. There is no encoding translation at the core level.

       o   Path names are encoded in UTF-8 normalization form C. This applies
           to tree objects, the index file, ref names, as well as path names
           in command line arguments, environment variables and config files
           (.git/config (see git-config(1)), gitignore(5), gitattributes(5)
           and gitmodules(5)).

           Note that Git at the core level treats path names simply as
           sequences of non-NUL bytes, there are no path name encoding
           conversions (except on Mac and Windows). Therefore, using non-ASCII
           path names will mostly work even on platforms and file systems that
           use legacy extended ASCII encodings. However, repositories created
           on such systems will not work properly on UTF-8-based systems (e.g.
           Linux, Mac, Windows) and vice versa. Additionally, many Git-based
           tools simply assume path names to be UTF-8 and will fail to display
           other encodings correctly.

       o   Commit log messages are typically encoded in UTF-8, but other
           extended ASCII encodings are also supported. This includes
           ISO-8859-x, CP125x and many others, but not UTF-16/32, EBCDIC and
           CJK multi-byte encodings (GBK, Shift-JIS, Big5, EUC-x, CP9xx etc.).

       Although we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded in
       UTF-8, both the core and Git Porcelain are designed not to force UTF-8
       on projects. If all participants of a particular project find it more
       convenient to use legacy encodings, Git does not forbid it. However,
       there are a few things to keep in mind.

        1. git commit and git commit-tree issue a warning if the commit log
           message given to it does not look like a valid UTF-8 string, unless
           you explicitly say your project uses a legacy encoding. The way to
           say this is to have i18n.commitEncoding in .git/config file, like

                       commitEncoding = ISO-8859-1

           Commit objects created with the above setting record the value of
           i18n.commitEncoding in their encoding header. This is to help other
           people who look at them later. Lack of this header implies that the
           commit log message is encoded in UTF-8.

        2. git log, git show, git blame and friends look at the encoding
           header of a commit object, and try to re-code the log message into
           UTF-8 unless otherwise specified. You can specify the desired
           output encoding with i18n.logOutputEncoding in .git/config file,
           like this:

                       logOutputEncoding = ISO-8859-1

           If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of
           i18n.commitEncoding is used instead.

       Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit log message
       when a commit is made to force UTF-8 at the commit object level,
       because re-coding to UTF-8 is not necessarily a reversible operation.


       The editor used to edit the commit log message will be chosen from the
       GIT_EDITOR environment variable, the core.editor configuration
       variable, the VISUAL environment variable, or the EDITOR environment
       variable (in that order). See git-var(1) for details.

       Everything above this line in this section isn't included from the git-
       config(1) documentation. The content that follows is the same as what's
       found there:

           This setting overrides the default of the --cleanup option in git
           git-commit(1) for details. Changing the default can be
           useful when you always want to keep lines that begin with the
           comment character # in your log message, in which case you would do
           git config commit.cleanup whitespace (note that you will have to
           remove the help lines that begin with # in the commit log template
           yourself, if you do this).

           A boolean to specify whether all commits should be GPG signed. Use
           of this option when doing operations such as rebase can result in a
           large number of commits being signed. It may be convenient to use
           an agent to avoid typing your GPG passphrase several times.

           A boolean to enable/disable inclusion of status information in the
           commit message template when using an editor to prepare the commit
           message. Defaults to true.

           Specify the pathname of a file to use as the template for new
           commit messages.

           A boolean or int to specify the level of verbosity with git commit.
           See git-commit(1).


       This command can run commit-msg, prepare-commit-msg, pre-commit,
       post-commit and post-rewrite hooks. See githooks(5) for more


           This file contains the commit message of a commit in progress. If
           git commit exits due to an error before creating a commit, any
           commit message that has been provided by the user (e.g., in an
           editor session) will be available in this file, but will be
           overwritten by the next invocation of git commit.


       git-add(1), git-rm(1), git-mv(1), git-merge(1), git-commit-tree(1)


       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 2.45.0                        2024-04-29                     git-commit(1)

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