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git-commit(1)                      Git Manual                      git-commit(1)




NAME

       git-commit - Record changes to the repository


SYNOPSIS

       git commit [-a | --interactive | --patch] [-s] [-v] [-u<mode>] [--amend]
                  [--dry-run] [(-c | -C | --squash) <commit> | --fixup [(amend|reword):]<commit>)]
                  [-F <file> | -m <msg>] [--reset-author] [--allow-empty]
                  [--allow-empty-message] [--no-verify] [-e] [--author=<author>]
                  [--date=<date>] [--cleanup=<mode>] [--[no-]status]
                  [-i | -o] [--pathspec-from-file=<file> [--pathspec-file-nul]]
                  [(--trailer <token>[(=|:)<value>])...] [-S[<keyid>]]
                  [--] [<pathspec>...]



DESCRIPTION

       Create a new commit containing the current contents of the index and the
       given log message describing the changes. The new commit is a direct
       child of HEAD, usually the tip of the current branch, and the branch is
       updated to point to it (unless no branch is associated with the working
       tree, in which case HEAD is "detached" as described in git-checkout(1)).

       The content to be committed can be specified in several ways:

        1. by using git-add(1) to incrementally "add" changes to the index
           before using the commit command (Note: even modified files must be
           "added");

        2. by using git-rm(1) to remove files from the working tree and the
           index, again before using the commit command;

        3. by listing files as arguments to the commit command (without
           --interactive or --patch switch), in which case the commit will
           ignore changes staged in the index, and instead record the current
           content of the listed files (which must already be known to Git);

        4. by using the -a switch with the commit command to automatically "add"
           changes from all known files (i.e. all files that are already listed
           in the index) and to automatically "rm" files in the index that have
           been removed from the working tree, and then perform the actual
           commit;

        5. by using the --interactive or --patch switches with the commit
           command to decide one by one which files or hunks should be part of
           the commit in addition to contents in the index, before finalizing
           the operation. See the "Interactive Mode" section of git-add(1) to
           learn how to operate these modes.

       The --dry-run option can be used to obtain a summary of what is included
       by any of the above for the next commit by giving the same set of
       parameters (options and paths).

       If you make a commit and then find a mistake immediately after that, you
       can recover from it with git reset.


OPTIONS

       -a, --all
           Tell the command to automatically stage files that have been modified
           and deleted, but new files you have not told Git about are not
           affected.

       -p, --patch
           Use the interactive patch selection interface to choose which changes
           to commit. See git-add(1) for details.

       -C <commit>, --reuse-message=<commit>
           Take an existing commit object, and reuse the log message and the
           authorship information (including the timestamp) when creating the
           commit.

       -c <commit>, --reedit-message=<commit>
           Like -C, but with -c the editor is invoked, so that the user can
           further edit the commit message.

       --fixup=[(amend|reword):]<commit>
           Create a new commit which "fixes up" <commit> when applied with git
           rebase --autosquash. Plain --fixup=<commit> creates a "fixup!" commit
           which changes the content of <commit> but leaves its log message
           untouched.  --fixup=amend:<commit> is similar but creates an "amend!"
           commit which also replaces the log message of <commit> with the log
           message of the "amend!" commit.  --fixup=reword:<commit> creates an
           "amend!" commit which replaces the log message of <commit> with its
           own log message but makes no changes to the content of <commit>.

           The commit created by plain --fixup=<commit> has a subject composed
           of "fixup!" followed by the subject line from <commit>, and is
           recognized specially by git rebase --autosquash. The -m option may be
           used to supplement the log message of the created commit, but the
           additional commentary will be thrown away once the "fixup!" commit is
           squashed into <commit> by git rebase --autosquash.

           The commit created by --fixup=amend:<commit> is similar but its
           subject is instead prefixed with "amend!". The log message of
           <commit> is copied into the log message of the "amend!" commit and
           opened in an editor so it can be refined. When git rebase
           --autosquash squashes the "amend!" commit into <commit>, the log
           message of <commit> is replaced by the refined log message from the
           "amend!" commit. It is an error for the "amend!" commit's log message
           to be empty unless --allow-empty-message is specified.

           --fixup=reword:<commit> is shorthand for --fixup=amend:<commit>
           --only. It creates an "amend!" commit with only a log message
           (ignoring any changes staged in the index). When squashed by git
           rebase --autosquash, it replaces the log message of <commit> without
           making any other changes.

           Neither "fixup!" nor "amend!" commits change authorship of <commit>
           when applied by git rebase --autosquash. See git-rebase(1) for
           details.

       --squash=<commit>
           Construct a commit message for use with rebase --autosquash. The
           commit message subject line is taken from the specified commit with a
           prefix of "squash! ". Can be used with additional commit message
           options (-m/-c/-C/-F). See git-rebase(1) for details.

       --reset-author
           When used with -C/-c/--amend options, or when committing after a
           conflicting cherry-pick, declare that the authorship of the resulting
           commit now belongs to the committer. This also renews the author
           timestamp.

       --short
           When doing a dry-run, give the output in the short-format. See git-
       status(1) for details. Implies --dry-run.

       --branch
           Show the branch and tracking info even in short-format.

       --porcelain
           When doing a dry-run, give the output in a porcelain-ready format.
           See git-status(1) for details. Implies --dry-run.

       --long
           When doing a dry-run, give the output in the long-format. Implies
           --dry-run.

       -z, --null
           When showing short or porcelain status output, print the filename
           verbatim and terminate the entries with NUL, instead of LF. If no
           format is given, implies the --porcelain output format. Without the
           -z option, filenames with "unusual" characters are quoted as
           explained for the configuration variable core.quotePath (see git-
       config(1)).

       -F <file>, --file=<file>
           Take the commit message from the given file. Use - to read the
           message from the standard input.

       --author=<author>
           Override the commit author. Specify an explicit author using the
           standard A U Thor <author@example.com> format. Otherwise <author> is
           assumed to be a pattern and is used to search for an existing commit
           by that author (i.e. rev-list --all -i --author=<author>); the commit
           author is then copied from the first such commit found.

       --date=<date>
           Override the author date used in the commit.

       -m <msg>, --message=<msg>
           Use the given <msg> as the commit message. If multiple -m options are
           given, their values are concatenated as separate paragraphs.

           The -m option is mutually exclusive with -c, -C, and -F.

       -t <file>, --template=<file>
           When editing the commit message, start the editor with the contents
           in the given file. The commit.template configuration variable is
           often used to give this option implicitly to the command. This
           mechanism can be used by projects that want to guide participants
           with some hints on what to write in the message in what order. If the
           user exits the editor without editing the message, the commit is
           aborted. This has no effect when a message is given by other means,
           e.g. with the -m or -F options.

       -s, --signoff, --no-signoff
           Add a Signed-off-by trailer by the committer at the end of the commit
           log message. The meaning of a signoff depends on the project to which
           you're committing. For example, it may certify that the committer has
           the rights to submit the work under the project's license or agrees
           to some contributor representation, such as a Developer Certificate
           of Origin. (See http://developercertificate.org for the one used by
           the Linux kernel and Git projects.) Consult the documentation or
           leadership of the project to which you're contributing to understand
           how the signoffs are used in that project.

           The --no-signoff option can be used to countermand an earlier
           --signoff option on the command line.

       --trailer <token>[(=|:)<value>]
           Specify a (<token>, <value>) pair that should be applied as a
           trailer. (e.g.  git commit --trailer "Signed-off-by:C O Mitter \
           <committer@example.com>" --trailer "Helped-by:C O Mitter \
           <committer@example.com>" will add the "Signed-off-by" trailer and the
           "Helped-by" trailer to the commit message.) The trailer.*
           configuration variables (git-interpret-trailers(1)) can be used to
           define if a duplicated trailer is omitted, where in the run of
           trailers each trailer would appear, and other details.

       -n, --[no-]verify
           By default, the pre-commit and commit-msg hooks are run. When any of
           --no-verify or -n is given, these are bypassed. See also githooks(5).

       --allow-empty
           Usually recording a commit that has the exact same tree as its sole
           parent commit is a mistake, and the command prevents you from making
           such a commit. This option bypasses the safety, and is primarily for
           use by foreign SCM interface scripts.

       --allow-empty-message
           Like --allow-empty this command is primarily for use by foreign SCM
           interface scripts. It allows you to create a commit with an empty
           commit message without using plumbing commands like git-commit-
       tree(1).

       --cleanup=<mode>
           This option determines how the supplied commit message should be
           cleaned up before committing. The <mode> can be strip, whitespace,
           verbatim, scissors or default.

           strip
               Strip leading and trailing empty lines, trailing whitespace,
               commentary and collapse consecutive empty lines.

           whitespace
               Same as strip except #commentary is not removed.

           verbatim
               Do not change the message at all.

           scissors
               Same as whitespace except that everything from (and including)
               the line found below is truncated, if the message is to be
               edited. "#" can be customized with core.commentChar.

                   # ------------------------ >8 ------------------------

           default
               Same as strip if the message is to be edited. Otherwise
               whitespace.

           The default can be changed by the commit.cleanup configuration
           variable (see git-config(1)).

       -e, --edit
           The message taken from file with -F, command line with -m, and from
           commit object with -C are usually used as the commit log message
           unmodified. This option lets you further edit the message taken from
           these sources.

       --no-edit
           Use the selected commit message without launching an editor. For
           example, git commit --amend --no-edit amends a commit without
           changing its commit message.

       --amend
           Replace the tip of the current branch by creating a new commit. The
           recorded tree is prepared as usual (including the effect of the -i
           and -o options and explicit pathspec), and the message from the
           original commit is used as the starting point, instead of an empty
           message, when no other message is specified from the command line via
           options such as -m, -F, -c, etc. The new commit has the same parents
           and author as the current one (the --reset-author option can
           countermand this).

           It is a rough equivalent for:

                       $ git reset --soft HEAD^
                       $ ... do something else to come up with the right tree ...
                       $ git commit -c ORIG_HEAD

           but can be used to amend a merge commit.

           You should understand the implications of rewriting history if you
           amend a commit that has already been published. (See the "RECOVERING
           FROM UPSTREAM REBASE" section in git-rebase(1).)

       --no-post-rewrite
           Bypass the post-rewrite hook.

       -i, --include
           Before making a commit out of staged contents so far, stage the
           contents of paths given on the command line as well. This is usually
           not what you want unless you are concluding a conflicted merge.

       -o, --only
           Make a commit by taking the updated working tree contents of the
           paths specified on the command line, disregarding any contents that
           have been staged for other paths. This is the default mode of
           operation of git commit if any paths are given on the command line,
           in which case this option can be omitted. If this option is specified
           together with --amend, then no paths need to be specified, which can
           be used to amend the last commit without committing changes that have
           already been staged. If used together with --allow-empty paths are
           also not required, and an empty commit will be created.

       --pathspec-from-file=<file>
           Pathspec is passed in <file> instead of commandline args. If <file>
           is exactly - then standard input is used. Pathspec elements are
           separated by LF or CR/LF. Pathspec elements can be quoted as
           explained for the configuration variable core.quotePath (see git-
       config(1)). See also --pathspec-file-nul and global
           --literal-pathspecs.

       --pathspec-file-nul
           Only meaningful with --pathspec-from-file. Pathspec elements are
           separated with NUL character and all other characters are taken
           literally (including newlines and quotes).

       -u[<mode>], --untracked-files[=<mode>]
           Show untracked files.

           The mode parameter is optional (defaults to all), and is used to
           specify the handling of untracked files; when -u is not used, the
           default is normal, i.e. show untracked files and directories.

           The possible options are:

           o   no - Show no untracked files

           o   normal - Shows untracked files and directories

           o   all - Also shows individual files in untracked directories.

           The default can be changed using the status.showUntrackedFiles
           configuration variable documented in git-config(1).

       -v, --verbose
           Show unified diff between the HEAD commit and what would be committed
           at the bottom of the commit message template to help the user
           describe the commit by reminding what changes the commit has. Note
           that this diff output doesn't have its lines prefixed with #. This
           diff will not be a part of the commit message. See the commit.verbose
           configuration variable in git-config(1).

           If specified twice, show in addition the unified diff between what
           would be committed and the worktree files, i.e. the unstaged changes
           to tracked files.

       -q, --quiet
           Suppress commit summary message.

       --dry-run
           Do not create a commit, but show a list of paths that are to be
           committed, paths with local changes that will be left uncommitted and
           paths that are untracked.

       --status
           Include the output of git-status(1) in the commit message template
           when using an editor to prepare the commit message. Defaults to on,
           but can be used to override configuration variable commit.status.

       --no-status
           Do not include the output of git-status(1) in the commit message
           template when using an editor to prepare the default commit message.

       -S[<keyid>], --gpg-sign[=<keyid>], --no-gpg-sign
           GPG-sign commits. The keyid argument is optional and defaults to the
           committer identity; if specified, it must be stuck to the option
           without a space.  --no-gpg-sign is useful to countermand both
           commit.gpgSign configuration variable, and earlier --gpg-sign.

       --
           Do not interpret any more arguments as options.

       <pathspec>...
           When pathspec is given on the command line, commit the contents of
           the files that match the pathspec without recording the changes
           already added to the index. The contents of these files are also
           staged for the next commit on top of what have been staged before.

           For more details, see the pathspec entry in gitglossary(7).


EXAMPLES

       When recording your own work, the contents of modified files in your
       working tree are temporarily stored to a staging area called the "index"
       with git add. A file can be reverted back, only in the index but not in
       the working tree, to that of the last commit with git restore --staged
       <file>, which effectively reverts git add and prevents the changes to
       this file from participating in the next commit. After building the state
       to be committed incrementally with these commands, git commit (without
       any pathname parameter) is used to record what has been staged so far.
       This is the most basic form of the command. An example:

           $ edit hello.c
           $ git rm goodbye.c
           $ git add hello.c
           $ git commit


       Instead of staging files after each individual change, you can tell git
       commit to notice the changes to the files whose contents are tracked in
       your working tree and do corresponding git add and git rm for you. That
       is, this example does the same as the earlier example if there is no
       other change in your working tree:

           $ edit hello.c
           $ rm goodbye.c
           $ git commit -a


       The command git commit -a first looks at your working tree, notices that
       you have modified hello.c and removed goodbye.c, and performs necessary
       git add and git rm for you.

       After staging changes to many files, you can alter the order the changes
       are recorded in, by giving pathnames to git commit. When pathnames are
       given, the command makes a commit that only records the changes made to
       the named paths:

           $ edit hello.c hello.h
           $ git add hello.c hello.h
           $ edit Makefile
           $ git commit Makefile


       This makes a commit that records the modification to Makefile. The
       changes staged for hello.c and hello.h are not included in the resulting
       commit. However, their changes are not lost -- they are still staged and
       merely held back. After the above sequence, if you do:

           $ git commit


       this second commit would record the changes to hello.c and hello.h as
       expected.

       After a merge (initiated by git merge or git pull) stops because of
       conflicts, cleanly merged paths are already staged to be committed for
       you, and paths that conflicted are left in unmerged state. You would have
       to first check which paths are conflicting with git status and after
       fixing them manually in your working tree, you would stage the result as
       usual with git add:

           $ git status | grep unmerged
           unmerged: hello.c
           $ edit hello.c
           $ git add hello.c


       After resolving conflicts and staging the result, git ls-files -u would
       stop mentioning the conflicted path. When you are done, run git commit to
       finally record the merge:

           $ git commit


       As with the case to record your own changes, you can use -a option to
       save typing. One difference is that during a merge resolution, you cannot
       use git commit with pathnames to alter the order the changes are
       committed, because the merge should be recorded as a single commit. In
       fact, the command refuses to run when given pathnames (but see -i
       option).


COMMIT INFORMATION

       Author and committer information is taken from the following environment
       variables, if set:

           GIT_AUTHOR_NAME
           GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL
           GIT_AUTHOR_DATE
           GIT_COMMITTER_NAME
           GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL
           GIT_COMMITTER_DATE

       (nb "<", ">" and "\n"s are stripped)

       The author and committer names are by convention some form of a personal
       name (that is, the name by which other humans refer to you), although Git
       does not enforce or require any particular form. Arbitrary Unicode may be
       used, subject to the constraints listed above. This name has no effect on
       authentication; for that, see the credential.username variable in git-
       config(1).

       In case (some of) these environment variables are not set, the
       information is taken from the configuration items user.name and
       user.email, or, if not present, the environment variable EMAIL, or, if
       that is not set, system user name and the hostname used for outgoing mail
       (taken from /etc/mailname and falling back to the fully qualified
       hostname when that file does not exist).

       The author.name and committer.name and their corresponding email options
       override user.name and user.email if set and are overridden themselves by
       the environment variables.

       The typical usage is to set just the user.name and user.email variables;
       the other options are provided for more complex use cases.


DATE FORMATS

       The GIT_AUTHOR_DATE and GIT_COMMITTER_DATE environment variables support
       the following date formats:

       Git internal format
           It is <unix-timestamp> <time-zone-offset>, where <unix-timestamp> is
           the number of seconds since the UNIX epoch.  <time-zone-offset> is a
           positive or negative offset from UTC. For example CET (which is 1
           hour ahead of UTC) is +0100.

       RFC 2822
           The standard email format as described by RFC 2822, for example Thu,
           07 Apr 2005 22:13:13 +0200.

       ISO 8601
           Time and date specified by the ISO 8601 standard, for example
           2005-04-07T22:13:13. The parser accepts a space instead of the T
           character as well. Fractional parts of a second will be ignored, for
           example 2005-04-07T22:13:13.019 will be treated as
           2005-04-07T22:13:13.

               Note
               In addition, the date part is accepted in the following formats:
               YYYY.MM.DD, MM/DD/YYYY and DD.MM.YYYY.

       In addition to recognizing all date formats above, the --date option will
       also try to make sense of other, more human-centric date formats, such as
       relative dates like "yesterday" or "last Friday at noon".


DISCUSSION

       Though not required, it's a good idea to begin the commit message with a
       single short (less than 50 character) line summarizing the change,
       followed by a blank line and then a more thorough description. The text
       up to the first blank line in a commit message is treated as the commit
       title, and that title is used throughout Git. For example, git-format-
       patch(1) turns a commit into email, and it uses the title on the Subject
       line and the rest of the commit in the body.

       Git is to some extent character encoding agnostic.

       o   The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted sequences of
           bytes. There is no encoding translation at the core level.

       o   Path names are encoded in UTF-8 normalization form C. This applies to
           tree objects, the index file, ref names, as well as path names in
           command line arguments, environment variables and config files
           (.git/config (see git-config(1)), gitignore(5), gitattributes(5) and
           gitmodules(5)).

           Note that Git at the core level treats path names simply as sequences
           of non-NUL bytes, there are no path name encoding conversions (except
           on Mac and Windows). Therefore, using non-ASCII path names will
           mostly work even on platforms and file systems that use legacy
           extended ASCII encodings. However, repositories created on such
           systems will not work properly on UTF-8-based systems (e.g. Linux,
           Mac, Windows) and vice versa. Additionally, many Git-based tools
           simply assume path names to be UTF-8 and will fail to display other
           encodings correctly.

       o   Commit log messages are typically encoded in UTF-8, but other
           extended ASCII encodings are also supported. This includes
           ISO-8859-x, CP125x and many others, but not UTF-16/32, EBCDIC and CJK
           multi-byte encodings (GBK, Shift-JIS, Big5, EUC-x, CP9xx etc.).

       Although we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded in UTF-8,
       both the core and Git Porcelain are designed not to force UTF-8 on
       projects. If all participants of a particular project find it more
       convenient to use legacy encodings, Git does not forbid it. However,
       there are a few things to keep in mind.

        1. git commit and git commit-tree issues a warning if the commit log
           message given to it does not look like a valid UTF-8 string, unless
           you explicitly say your project uses a legacy encoding. The way to
           say this is to have i18n.commitEncoding in .git/config file, like
           this:

               [i18n]
                       commitEncoding = ISO-8859-1

           Commit objects created with the above setting record the value of
           i18n.commitEncoding in its encoding header. This is to help other
           people who look at them later. Lack of this header implies that the
           commit log message is encoded in UTF-8.

        2. git log, git show, git blame and friends look at the encoding header
           of a commit object, and try to re-code the log message into UTF-8
           unless otherwise specified. You can specify the desired output
           encoding with i18n.logOutputEncoding in .git/config file, like this:

               [i18n]
                       logOutputEncoding = ISO-8859-1

           If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of
           i18n.commitEncoding is used instead.

       Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit log message
       when a commit is made to force UTF-8 at the commit object level, because
       re-coding to UTF-8 is not necessarily a reversible operation.


ENVIRONMENT AND CONFIGURATION VARIABLES

       The editor used to edit the commit log message will be chosen from the
       GIT_EDITOR environment variable, the core.editor configuration variable,
       the VISUAL environment variable, or the EDITOR environment variable (in
       that order). See git-var(1) for details.

       Everything above this line in this section isn't included from the git-
       config(1) documentation. The content that follows is the same as what's
       found there:

       commit.cleanup
           This setting overrides the default of the --cleanup option in git
           git-commit(1) for details. Changing the default can be
           useful when you always want to keep lines that begin with comment
           character # in your log message, in which case you would do git
           config commit.cleanup whitespace (note that you will have to remove
           the help lines that begin with # in the commit log template yourself,
           if you do this).

       commit.gpgSign
           A boolean to specify whether all commits should be GPG signed. Use of
           this option when doing operations such as rebase can result in a
           large number of commits being signed. It may be convenient to use an
           agent to avoid typing your GPG passphrase several times.

       commit.status
           A boolean to enable/disable inclusion of status information in the
           commit message template when using an editor to prepare the commit
           message. Defaults to true.

       commit.template
           Specify the pathname of a file to use as the template for new commit
           messages.

       commit.verbose
           A boolean or int to specify the level of verbose with git commit. See
           git-commit(1).


HOOKS

       This command can run commit-msg, prepare-commit-msg, pre-commit,
       post-commit and post-rewrite hooks. See githooks(5) for more information.


FILES

       $GIT_DIR/COMMIT_EDITMSG
           This file contains the commit message of a commit in progress. If git
           commit exits due to an error before creating a commit, any commit
           message that has been provided by the user (e.g., in an editor
           session) will be available in this file, but will be overwritten by
           the next invocation of git commit.


SEE ALSO

       git-add(1), git-rm(1), git-mv(1), git-merge(1), git-commit-tree(1)


GIT

       Part of the git(1) suite



Git 2.38.0                         10/02/2022                      git-commit(1)

git 2.38.0 - Generated Fri Oct 7 09:42:54 CDT 2022
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