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```dot(1)                                                                  dot(1)

```

NAME

```       dot - filter for drawing directed graphs
neato - filter for drawing undirected graphs
twopi - filter for radial layouts of graphs
circo - filter for circular layout of graphs
fdp - filter for drawing undirected graphs
sfdp - filter for drawing large undirected graphs
patchwork - filter for squarified tree maps
osage - filter for array-based layouts

```

SYNOPSIS

```       dot [options] [files]
neato [options] [files]
twopi [options] [files]
circo [options] [files]
fdp [options] [files]
sfdp [options] [files]
patchwork [options] [files]
osage [options] [files]

```

DESCRIPTION

```       These  are a collection of programs for drawing graphs.  There is actu-
ally only one main program; the specific layout algorithms  are  imple-
mented  as  plugins.  Thus, they largely share all of the same command-
line options.

dot draws directed graphs.  It works well on  directed  acyclic  graphs
and  other  graphs  that  can be drawn as hierarchies or have a natural
``flow.''

neato draws undirected graphs using a ``spring'' model and reducing the
related  energy  (see  Kamada and Kawai, Information Processing Letters
31:1, April 1989).

twopi draws graphs using a radial layout (see G.  Wills,  Symposium  on
Graph  Drawing  GD'97, September, 1997).  Basically, one node is chosen
as the center and put at the origin.  The remaining nodes are placed on
a  sequence  of  concentric  circles  centered about the origin, each a
fixed radial distance from the previous circle.  All nodes  distance  1
from  the  center  are placed on the first circle; all nodes distance 1
from a node on the first circle are placed on the second circle; and so
forth.

circo  draws graphs using a circular layout (see Six and Tollis, GD '99
and ALENEX '99, and Kaufmann and Wiese, GD '02.)  The  tool  identifies
biconnected  components  and draws the nodes of the component on a cir-
cle. The block-cutpoint tree is then laid out using a recursive  radial
algorithm.  Edge  crossings within a circle are minimized by placing as
many edges on the circle's perimeter as possible.   In  particular,  if
the  component is outerplanar, the component will have a planar layout.
If a node belongs to multiple non-trivial biconnected  components,  the
layout  puts  the  node  in  one of them. By default, this is the first
non-trivial component found in the search from the root component.

fdp draws undirected graphs using a ``spring'' model. It  relies  on  a
force-directed  approach in the spirit of Fruchterman and Reingold (cf.
Software-Practice & Experience 21(11), 1991, pp. 1129-1164).

sfdp also draws undirected graphs using the ``spring'' model  described
above,  but  it uses a multi-scale approach to produce layouts of large
graphs in a reasonably short time.

patchwork draws the graph as a squarified treemap (see M. Bruls et al.,
``Squarified  treemaps'',  Proc. Joint Eurographics and IEEE TCVG Symp.
on Visualization, 2000, pp. 33-42). The clusters of the graph are  used
to specify the tree.

osage draws the graph using its cluster structure. For a given cluster,
each of its subclusters is laid out internally.  Then the  subclusters,
plus  any remaining nodes, are repositioned based on the cluster's pack
and packmode attributes.

```

OUTPUT FORMATS

```       Graphviz uses an extensible plugin mechanism for its output  renderers,
so to see what output formats your installation of dot supports you can
use ``dot -T:'' and check the warning message.  Also, The plugin mecha-
nism  supports multiple implementations of the output formats, allowing
variations in the renderers and formatters.  To see what  variants  are
available  for  a  particular  output  format,  use, for example: ``dot
-Tpng:'' and to force a particular variant,  use,  for  example:  ``dot
-Tpng:gd''

-Tdot (Dot format containing layout infomation),
-Txdot (Dot format containing complete layout infomation),
-Tps (PostScript),
-Tpdf (PDF),
-Tsvg -Tsvgz (Structured Vector Graphics),
-Tfig (XFIG graphics),
-Tpng (png bitmap graphics),
-Tgif (gif bitmap graphics),
-Tjpg -Tjpeg (jpeg bitmap graphics),
-Tjson (xdot information encoded in JSON),
-Timap (imagemap files for httpd servers for each node or edge that has
a non-null href attribute.),
-Tcmapx (client-side imagemap for use in html and xhtml).
Additional less common or more special-purpose output  formats  can  be
found at //http://www.graphviz.org/content/output-formats.

Alternative  plugins providing support for a given output format can be
found from the error message resulting from appending a ':' to the for-
mat. e.g. -Tpng: The first plugin listed is always the default.

The  -P  switch  can  be used to produce a graph of all output variants
supported by plugins in the local installation of graphviz.

```

GRAPH FILE LANGUAGE

```       Here is a synopsis of the  graph  file  language,  normally  using  the
extension .gv, for graphs:

[strict] (graph|digraph) name { statement-list }
is the top-level graph. If the graph is strict, then multiple edges are
not allowed between the same pairs of  nodes.   If  it  is  a  directed
graph,  indicated by digraph, then the edgeop must be "->". If it is an
undirected graph then the edgeop must be "--".

Statements may be:

name=val;
node [name=val];
edge [name=val];
Set default graph, node, or edge attribute name to val.  Any  subgraph,
node, or edge appearing after this inherits the new default attributes.

n0 [name0=val0,name1=val1,...]; Creates node n0 (if it does not already
exist) and sets its attributes according to the optional list.

n0 edgeop n1 edgeop ... edgeop nn [name0=val0,name1=val1,...];
Creates  edges  between nodes n0, n1, ..., nn and sets their attributes
according to the optional list.  Creates nodes as necessary.

[subgraph name] { statement-list }
Creates a subgraph.  Subgraphs may be used in place of n0, ...,  nn  in
the  above statements to create edges.  [subgraph name] is optional; if
missing, the subgraph is assigned an internal name.

The language accepts both C-style comments /*C...*/ or //...

Attribute names and values are ordinary (C-style) strings.  The follow-
ing sections describe attributes that control graph layout.

A   more   complete  description  of  the  language  can  be  found  at
http://www.graphviz.org/content/dot-language.

```

GRAPH, NODE AND EDGE ATTRIBUTES

```       Graphviz uses the name=value attributes, attached to graphs, subgraphs,
nodes  and  edges, to tailor the layout and rendering. We list the more
prominent  attributes  below.  The  complete  list  is   available   at
http://www.graphviz.org/content/attrs.

Attributes Common to Nodes, Edges, Clusters and Graphs
href=url  the default url for image map files; in PostScript files, the
base URL for all relative URLs, as recognized by Acrobat Distiller  3.0
and up.

URL=url (``URL'' is a synonym for ``href.'')

fontcolor=colorvalue sets the label text color.

A  colorvalue  may  be  "h,s,v"  (hue, saturation, brightness) floating
point numbers between 0 and 1, or an X11  color  name  such  as  white,
black, red, green, blue, yellow, magenta, or cyan, or a "#rrggbb" (red,
green,    blue,    2    hex    characters     each)     value.      See
http://www.graphviz.org/content/attrs#kcolor                        and
http://www.graphviz.org/content/color-names for further details.

fontsize=n sets the label type size to n points.

fontname=name sets the label font family name.

label=text where text may include escaped newlines \n, \l,  or  \r  for
center, left, and right justified lines.  The string '\G' value will be
replaced by the graph name.  For node labels,  the  string  '\N'  value
will be replaced by the node name.  For edges, if the substring '\T' is
found in a label, it will be replaced by the name of the tail node;  if
the substring '\H' is found in a label, it will be replaced by the name
of the head node; if the substring '\E' value is found in  a  label  it
will    be   replaced   by:   tail_node_name->head_node_name   or   by:

Graphviz also supports special HTML-like labels for  constructing  com-
plex   node   content.   A   full-description  of  these  is  given  at
http://www.graphviz.org/content/node-shapes#html.

If a node has shape=record, the label may contain recursive  box  lists
delimited  by  {  | }.  Port identifiers in labels are set off by angle
brackets < >.

Graph Attributes
size="x,y" specifies the maximum bounding box of drawing in inches.

ratio=f sets the aspect ratio to f which may be a floating  point  num-
ber, or one of the keywords fill, compress, or auto.

layout=engine  indicates  the preferred layout engine (dot, neato, fdp,
etc.) overriding the default from the basename of the command or the -K
commandline option.

margin=f sets the page margin (included in the page size).

ordering=out  constrains  order of out-edges in a subgraph according to
their file sequence.

rotate=90 sets landscape mode.  (orientation=land is backward  compati-
ble but obsolete.)

center=n a non-zero value centers the drawing on the page.

color=colorvalue sets foreground color (bgcolor for background).

overlap=mode.  This  specifies  what  algorithm  should do if any nodes
overlap. If mode is false, the program  uses  the  Prism  algorithm  to
adjust the nodes to eliminate overlaps. If mode is scale, the layout is
uniformly scaled up, preserving node sizes, until nodes no longer over-
lap.  The  latter  technique removes overlaps while preserving symmetry
and structure, while the former removes  overlaps  more  compactly  but
destroys  symmetries.   If mode is true (the default), no repositioning
is done.  Since the dot algorithm always produces a layout with no node
overlaps, this attribute is only useful with other layouts.

stylesheet="file.css" includes a reference to a stylesheet in -Tsvg and
-Tsvgz outputs.  Ignored by other formats.

splines If set to true, edges are drawn as splines.  If  set  to  poly-
line,  edges  are drawn as polylines.  If set to ortho, edges are drawn
as orthogonal polylines.  In all of these cases,  the  nodes  must  not
overlap.   If  splines=false  or  splines=line, edges are drawn as line
segments.  The default is true for dot, and false for  all  other  lay-
outs.

(dot-specific attributes)

nodesep=f sets the minimum separation between nodes.

ranksep=f sets the minimum separation between ranks.

rankdir=LR|RL|BT  requests  a  left-to-right,  right-to-left,  or  bot-
tom-to-top, drawing.

rank=same (or min or max) in a subgraph constrains the rank  assignment
of  its nodes.   If a subgraph's name has the prefix cluster, its nodes
are drawn in a distinct rectangle  of  the  layout.   Clusters  may  be
nested.

(neato-specific attributes)
mode=val.   Algorithm  for minimizing energy in the layout. By default,
neato uses stress majorization. If mode=KK, it uses a version of gradi-
ent descent.

model=val.   The neato model computes the desired distances between all
pairs of vertices. By default, it uses the length of the shortest path.
If  model  is  set  to circuit, a circuit-resistance model is used.  If
model is set to subset, it uses a model whereby the edge length is  the
number  of  nodes  that are neighbors of exactly one of the edge's ver-
tices.

start=val.  Requests random initial placement and seeds the random num-
ber  generator.   If  val  is not an integer, the process ID or current
time is used as the seed.

epsilon=n.  Sets the cutoff for the solver.  The default is 0.1.

(twopi-specific attributes)
root=ctr. This specifies the node to be used as the center of the  lay-
out.  If  not specified, twopi will randomly pick one of the nodes that
are furthest from a leaf node, where a leaf node is a node of degree 1.
If no leaf nodes exists, an arbitrary node is picked as center.

ranksep=val.  Specifies  the  radial  distance  in  inches  between the
sequence of rings. The default is 0.75.

(circo-specific attributes)
root=nodename. Specifies the name of  a  node  occurring  in  the  root
block.  If  the  graph  is disconnected, the root node attribute can be
used to specify additional root blocks.

mindist=value. Sets the minimum separation between all  nodes.  If  not
specified then circo uses a default value of 1.0.

(fdp-specific attributes)
K=val. Sets the default ideal node separation in the layout.

maxiter=val.  Sets  the maximum number of iterations used to layout the
graph.

start=val. Adjusts the random initial placement of nodes with no speci-
fied position.  If val is is an integer, it is used as the seed for the
random number generator.  If val is  not  an  integer,  a  random  sys-
tem-generated  integer, such as the process ID or current time, is used
as the seed.

Node Attributes
height=d or width=d  sets  minimum  height  or  width.   Adding  fixed-
size=true forces these to be the actual size (text labels are ignored).

shape=builtin_polygon record epsf
builtin_polygon can be such values as plaintext, ellipse, oval, circle,
egg,  triangle, box, diamond, trapezium, parallelogram, house, hexagon,
octagon, note, tab, box3d, or component,, among others.  (Polygons  are
defined  or modified by the following node attributes: regular, periph-
eries, sides, orientation, distortion and skew.)  epsf uses the  node's
shapefile  attribute  as  the  path name of an external EPSF file to be
automatically loaded for the node shape.

See http://www.graphviz.org/content/node-shapes for a complete descrip-
tion of node shapes.

color=colorvalue  sets the outline color, and the default fill color if
style=filled and fillcolor is not specified.

fillcolor=colorvalue sets the fill color  when  style=filled.   If  not
specified,  the  fillcolor when style=filled defaults to be the same as
the outline color.

style=filled solid dashed dotted bold invis

xlabel="text" specifies a label that will be place near,  but  outside,
of a node. The normal label string is placed within the node shape.

target="target"  is  a target string for client-side imagemaps and SVG,
effective when nodes have a URL.  The target string is used  to  deter-
mine  which  window  of the browser is used for the URL.  Setting it to
"_graphviz" will open a new window if it doesn't already exist, or  re-
use it if it does.  If the target string is empty, the default, then no
target attribute is included in the output.  The  substrings  '\N'  and
'\G'  are  substituted  in  the  same  manner  as  for  the  node label
attribute.  Additionally the substring '\L'  is  substituted  with  the
node label string.

tooltip="text"  is  a tooltip string for client-side imagemaps and SVG,
effective when nodes have a URL.  The tooltip string defaults to be the
same  as  the  label  string,  but this attribute permits nodes without
labels to still have tooltips thus permitting denser graphs.  The  sub-
strings  '\N'  and  '\G'  are substituted in the same manner as for the
node label attribute.  Additionally the substring '\L'  is  substituted
with the node label string.

The following attributes apply only to polygon shape nodes:

regular=n  if n is non-zero then the polygon is made regular, i.e. sym-
metric about the x and y axis,  otherwise  the  polygon  takes  on  the
aspect ratio of the label.  builtin_polygons that are not already regu-
lar are made regular by  this  attribute.   builtin_polygons  that  are
ric).

peripheries=n sets the number of periphery lines drawn around the poly-
gon.    This   value  supersedes  the  number  of  periphery  lines  of
builtin_polygons.

sides=n sets the number of sides to the  polygon.  n<3  results  in  an
ellipse.  This attribute is ignored by builtin_polygons.

orientation=f  sets  the  orientation  of the first apex of the polygon
counterclockwise from the vertical, in degrees.  f may  be  a  floating
point  number.   The  orientation  of  labels  is  not affected by this
attribute.  This attribute is  added  to  the  initial  orientation  of
builtin_polygons.

distortion=f  sets the amount of broadening of the top and narrowing of
the bottom of the polygon  (relative  to  its  orientation).   Floating
point  values  between  -1  and  +1  are  suggested.  This attribute is
ignored by builtin_polygons.

skew=f sets the amount of right-displacement of the top  and  left-dis-
placement  of  the bottom of the polygon (relative to its orientation).
Floating point values between -1 and +1 are suggested.  This  attribute
is ignored by builtin_polygons.

(circo-specific attributes)
root=true/false.  This  specifies  that  the block containing the given
node be treated as the root of the spanning tree in the layout.

(neato- and fdp-specific attributes)
pin=val. If val is true, the node will remain at its initial  position.

Edge Attributes
weight=val where val is the cost of the edge.  For dot, weights must be
non-negative integers.  Values greater than 1 tend to shorten the edge;
weight 0 flat edges are ignored for ordering nodes.  In twopi, a weight
of 0 will cause the edge to be ignored in constructing  the  underlying
spanning tree. For neato and fdp, a heavier weight will put more empha-
sis on the algorithm achieving an edge length closer to that  specified
by the edge's len attribute.

style=solid dashed dotted bold invis

color=colorvalue sets the line color for edges.

color=colorvaluelist  a ':' separated list of colorvalue creates paral-
lel edges, one edge for each color.

dir=forward back both none controls arrow direction.

target="text" is a target string for  client-side  imagemaps  and  SVG,
effective  when  edges  have a URL.  If the target string is empty, the
default, then no target attribute is included in the output.  The  sub-
strings '\T', '\H', '\E' and '\G' are substituted in the same manner as
for the edge label attribute.  Additionally the substring '\L' is  sub-
stituted with the edge label string.

tooltip="text"  is a tooltip string for client-side imagemaps effective
when edges have a URL.  The tooltip string defaults to be the  same  as
the  edge  label  string.  The substrings '\T', '\H', '\E' and '\G' are
substituted in the same manner as for the edge label attribute.   Addi-
tionally  the substring '\L' is substituted with the edge label string.

arrowhead,arrowtail=none, normal, inv, dot, odot, invdot, invodot, tee,
empty,  invempty,  open,  halfopen, diamond, odiamond, box, obox, crow.
Specifies the shape of the glyph occurring where the edge  touches  the
head  or  tail  node,  respectively.  Note that this only specifies the
shape. The dir attribute determines whether or not the glyph is  drawn.

arrowsize=val  specifies  a multiplicative scale factor for the size of

nodes  of  an  edge.   labelfontcolor, labelfontname, labelfontsize for
head and tail labels.  The substrings '\T', '\H',  '\E'  and  '\G'  are
substituted  in the same manner as for the edge label attribute.  Addi-
tionally the substring '\L' is substituted with the edge label  string.

and SVG files.  The substrings '\T', '\H', '\E' and  '\G'  are  substi-
tuted in the same manner as for the edge label attribute.  Additionally
the substring '\L' is substituted with the edge label string.

and  SVG,  effective when edge heads have a URL.  The headtarget string
is used to determine which window of the browser is used for  the  URL.
defaults to the same value as target  for  the  edge.   The  substrings
'\T', '\H', '\E' and '\G' are substituted in the same manner as for the
edge label attribute.  Additionally the substring '\L'  is  substituted
with the edge label string.

headtooltip="tooltip"  is  a  tooltip  string for client-side imagemaps
effective when head ports have a URL.  The tooltip string  defaults  to
be  the  same  as the headlabel string.  The substrings '\T', '\H', and
'\E' are  substituted  in  the  same  manner  as  for  the  edge  label
attribute.   Additionally  the  substring  '\L' is substituted with the
edge label string.

tailhref="url" sets the url for the tail port in  imagemap,  PostScript
and  SVG  files.   The substrings '\T', '\H', '\E' and '\G' are substi-
tuted in the same manner as for the edge label attribute.  Additionally
the substring '\L' is substituted with the edge label string.

tailURL="url" (tailURL is a synonym for tailhref.)

tailtarget="tailtarget"  is  a  target string for client-side imagemaps
and SVG, effective when edge tails have a URL.  The  tailtarget  string
is  used  to determine which window of the browser is used for the URL.
If the  tailtarget  string  is  empty,  the  default,  then  tailtarget
defaults  to  the  same  value  as target for the edge.  The substrings
'\T', '\H', '\E' and '\G' are substituted in the same manner as for the
edge  label  attribute.  Additionally the substring '\L' is substituted
with the edge label string.

tailtooltip="tooltip" is a tooltip  string  for  client-side  imagemaps
effective  when  tail ports have a URL.  The tooltip string defaults to
be the same as the taillabel string.  The substrings '\T',  '\H',  '\E'
and  '\G'  are  substituted  in  the  same manner as for the edge label
attribute.  Additionally the substring '\L'  is  substituted  with  the
edge label string.

labeldistance  and labelangle (in degrees CCW) specify the placement of

decorate draws line from edge to label.

samehead,sametail aim edges having the same value  to  the  same  port,
using the average landing point.

(dot-specific attributes)
constraint=false causes an edge to be ignored for rank assignment.

minlen=n  where  n is an integer factor that applies to the edge length
(ranks for normal edges, or minimum node separation for flat edges).

xlabel="text" Edge labels in dot are treated as special types of nodes,
with  space  allocated  for them during node layout. This can sometimes
deform the edge routing. If an xlabel is used  instead,  the  label  is
placed  after  all  nodes and edges have been positioned. In turn, this
may mean that there is some overlap among the labels.

(neato and fdp-specific attributes)
len=f sets the optimal length of an edge.  The default is 1.0.

```

COMMAND-LINE OPTIONS

```       -G sets a default graph attribute.
-N sets a default node attribute.
-E sets a default edge attribute.   Example:  -Gsize="7,8"  -Nshape=box
-Efontsize=8

-lfile  loads  custom  PostScript  library files.  Usually these define
custom shapes or styles.  If  -l  is  given  by  itself,  the  standard
library is omitted.

-Tlang sets the output language as described above.

-n[1|2]  (no-op)  If  set,  neato assumes nodes have already been posi-
tioned and all nodes have a pos attribute  giving  the  positions.   It
then  performs  an  optional  adjustment  to  remove node-node overlap,
depending on the value of the overlap attribute, computes the edge lay-
outs,  depending  on  the value of the splines attribute, and emits the
graph in the appropriate format.  If num  is  supplied,  the  following
actions occur:
num = 1
Equivalent to -n.
num > 1
Use node positions as specified, with no adjustment to remove node-node
overlaps, and use  any  edge  layouts  already  specified  by  the  pos
attribute.   neato  computes  an edge layout for any edge that does not
have a pos attribute.  As usual, edge layout is guided by  the  splines
attribute.

-Klayout  override  the  default  layout  engine implied by the command
name.

-O automatically generate output filenames based on the input  filename
and the -T format.

-P generate a graph of the currently available plugins.

-v (verbose) prints various information useful for debugging.

-c configure plugins.

-m memory test (observe no growth with top, kill when done).

-qlevel set level of message suppression. The default is 1.

-sfscale scale input by fscale, the default is 72.

-y invert y coordinate in output.

-V (version) prints version information and exits.

-? prints the usage and exits.

A  complete  description  of  the available command-line options can be
found at http://www.graphviz.org/content/command-line-invocation.

```

EXAMPLES

```       digraph test123 {
a -> b -> c;
a -> {x y};
b [shape=box];
c [label="hello\nworld",color=blue,fontsize=24,
fontname="Palatino-Italic",fontcolor=red,style=filled];
a -> z [label="hi", weight=100];
x -> z [label="multi-line\nlabel"];
edge [style=dashed,color=red];
b -> x;
{rank=same; b x}
}

graph test123 {
a -- b -- c;
a -- {x y};
x -- c [w=10.0];
x -- y [w=5.0,len=3];
}

```

CAVEATS

```       Edge splines can overlap unintentionally.

Flat edge labels are slightly broken.   Intercluster  edge  labels  are
totally broken.

Because unconstrained optimization is employed, node boxes can possibly
overlap or touch unrelated edges.  All existing spring  embedders  seem
to have this limitation.

Apparently  reasonable attempts to pin nodes or adjust edge lengths and
weights can cause instability.

```

AUTHORS

```       Stephen C. North <north@research.att.com>
Emden R. Gansner <erg@graphviz.org>
John C. Ellson <ellson@research.att.com>
Yifan Hu <yifanhu@yahoo.com>

The  bitmap   driver   (PNG,   GIF   etc)   is   by   Thomas   Boutell,
<http://www.boutell.com/gd>

The  Truetype font renderer is from the Freetype Project (David Turner,
Robert  Wilhelm,  and  Werner  Lemberg)  (who  can  be   contacted   at
freetype-devel@lists.lrz-muenchen.de).

```

```       This  man  page contains only a small amount of the information related
to the Graphviz layout programs. The most complete information  can  be
found  at  http://www.graphviz.org/Documentation.php, especially in the
on-line reference pages. Most of these documents are also available  in
the doc and doc/info subtrees in the source and binary distributions.

dotty(1)
dot(1)
xcolors(1)
libcgraph(3)

E.  R.  Gansner,  S.  C.  North,   K.  P.  Vo, "DAG - A Program to Draw
Directed Graphs", Software - Practice and Experience 17(1),  1988,  pp.
1047-1062.
E.  R. Gansner, E. Koutsofios, S. C. North,  K. P. Vo, "A Technique for
Drawing Directed Graphs," IEEE Trans. on Soft. Eng.  19(3),  1993,  pp.
214-230.
S.  North  and  E.  Koutsofios,  "Applications of graph visualization",
Graphics Interface 94, pp. 234-245.
E. R. Gansner and E. Koutsofios and S. C. North, "Drawing  Graphs  with
dot," Available at http://www.graphviz.org/pdf/dotguide.pdf.
S.      C.     North,     "NEATO     User's     Manual".      Available
http://www.graphviz.org/pdf/neatoguide.pdf.
E. R. Gansner and Y. Hu, "Efficient, Proximity-Preserving Node  Overlap
Removal", J. Graph Algorithms Appl., 14(1) pp. 53-74, 2010.

12 January 2015                         dot(1)
```

graphviz 2.40.1 - Generated Sat Jan 7 10:37:51 CST 2017
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