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db_upgrade(1)             BSD General Commands Manual            db_upgrade(1)


NAME

     db_upgrade


SYNOPSIS

     db_upgrade [-NsV] [-h home] [-P password] file ...


DESCRIPTION

     The db_upgrade utility upgrades the Berkeley DB version of one or more
     files and the databases they contain to the current release version.

     The options are as follows:

     -h
        Specify a home directory for the database environment; by default, the
        current working directory is used.

     -N
        Do not acquire shared region mutexes while running. Other problems,
        such as potentially fatal errors in Berkeley DB, will be ignored as
        well. This option is intended only for debugging errors, and should
        not be used under any other circumstances.

     -P
        Specify an environment password. Although Berkeley DB utilities over-
        write password strings as soon as possible, be aware there may be a
        window of vulnerability on systems where unprivileged users can see
        command-line arguments or where utilities are not able to overwrite
        the memory containing the command-line arguments.

     -s
        This flag is only meaningful when upgrading databases from releases
        before the Berkeley DB 3.1 release.

        As part of the upgrade from the Berkeley DB 3.0 release to the 3.1
        release, the on-disk format of duplicate data items changed. To cor-
        rectly upgrade the format requires that applications specify whether
        duplicate data items in the database are sorted or not. Specifying the
        -s flag means that the duplicates are sorted; otherwise, they are
        assumed to be unsorted. Incorrectly specifying the value of this flag
        may lead to database corruption.

        Because the db_upgrade utility upgrades a physical file (including all
        the databases it contains), it is not possible to use db_upgrade to
        upgrade files where some of the databases it includes have sorted
        duplicate data items, and some of the databases it includes have
        unsorted duplicate data items. If the file does not have more than a
        single database, if the databases do not support duplicate data items,
        or if all the databases that support duplicate data items support the
        same style of duplicates (either sorted or unsorted), db_upgrade will
        work correctly as long as the -s flag is correctly specified. Other-
        wise, the file cannot be upgraded using db_upgrade, and must be
        upgraded manually using the db_dump and db_load utilities.

     -V
        Write the library version number to the standard output, and exit.

     It is important to realize that Berkeley DB database upgrades are done in
     place, and so are potentially destructive. This means that if the system
     crashes during the upgrade procedure, or if the upgrade procedure runs
     out of disk space, the databases may be left in an inconsistent and unre-
     coverable state. See Upgrading databases for more information.

     The db_upgrade utility may be used with a Berkeley DB environment (as
     described for the -h option, the environment variable DB_HOME, or because
     the utility was run in a directory containing a Berkeley DB environment).
     In order to avoid environment corruption when using a Berkeley DB envi-
     ronment, db_upgrade should always be given the chance to detach from the
     environment and exit gracefully. To cause db_upgrade to release all envi-
     ronment resources and exit cleanly, send it an interrupt signal (SIGINT).

     The db_upgrade utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.


ENVIRONMENT

     DB_HOME  If the -h option is not specified and the environment variable
              DB_HOME is set, it is used as the path of the database home, as
              described in DB_ENV->open.


SEE ALSO

     db_archive(1), db_checkpoint(1), db_deadlock(1), db_dump(1), db_load(1),
     db_printlog(1), db_recover(1), db_stat(1), db_verify(1)

Darwin                         December 3, 2003                         Darwin

Mac OS X 10.6Server - Generated Wed Apr 14 06:05:00 CDT 2010
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