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curl(1)                            curl Manual                           curl(1)




NAME

       curl - transfer a URL


SYNOPSIS

       curl [options / URLs]


DESCRIPTION

       curl is a tool for transferring data from or to a server. It supports
       these protocols: DICT, FILE, FTP, FTPS, GOPHER, GOPHERS, HTTP, HTTPS,
       IMAP, IMAPS, LDAP, LDAPS, MQTT, POP3, POP3S, RTMP, RTMPS, RTSP, SCP,
       SFTP, SMB, SMBS, SMTP, SMTPS, TELNET, TFTP, WS and WSS. The command is
       designed to work without user interaction.

       curl offers a busload of useful tricks like proxy support, user
       authentication, FTP upload, HTTP post, SSL connections, cookies, file
       transfer resume and more. As you will see below, the number of features
       will make your head spin.

       curl is powered by libcurl for all transfer-related features. See
       libcurl(3) for details.


URL

       The URL syntax is protocol-dependent. You find a detailed description in
       RFC 3986.

       You can specify multiple URLs or parts of URLs by writing part sets
       within braces and quoting the URL as in:

         "http://site.{one,two,three}.com"

       or you can get sequences of alphanumeric series by using [] as in:

         "ftp://ftp.example.com/file[1-100].txt"

         "ftp://ftp.example.com/file[001-100].txt"    (with leading zeros)

         "ftp://ftp.example.com/file[a-z].txt"

       Nested sequences are not supported, but you can use several ones next to
       each other:

         "http://example.com/archive[1996-1999]/vol[1-4]/part{a,b,c}.html"

       You can specify any amount of URLs on the command line. They will be
       fetched in a sequential manner in the specified order. You can specify
       command line options and URLs mixed and in any order on the command line.

       You can specify a step counter for the ranges to get every Nth number or
       letter:

         "http://example.com/file[1-100:10].txt"

         "http://example.com/file[a-z:2].txt"

       When using [] or {} sequences when invoked from a command line prompt,
       you probably have to put the full URL within double quotes to avoid the
       shell from interfering with it. This also goes for other characters
       treated special, like for example '&', '?' and '*'.

       Provide the IPv6 zone index in the URL with an escaped percentage sign
       and the interface name. Like in

         "http://[fe80::3%25eth0]/"

       If you specify URL without protocol:// prefix, curl will attempt to guess
       what protocol you might want. It will then default to HTTP but try other
       protocols based on often-used host name prefixes. For example, for host
       names starting with "ftp." curl will assume you want to speak FTP.

       curl will do its best to use what you pass to it as a URL. It is not
       trying to validate it as a syntactically correct URL by any means but is
       fairly liberal with what it accepts.

       curl will attempt to re-use connections for multiple file transfers, so
       that getting many files from the same server will not do multiple
       connects / handshakes. This improves speed. Of course this is only done
       on files specified on a single command line and cannot be used between
       separate curl invocations.


OUTPUT

       If not told otherwise, curl writes the received data to stdout. It can be
       instructed to instead save that data into a local file, using the
       --output or --remote-name options. If curl is given multiple URLs to
       transfer on the command line, it similarly needs multiple options for
       where to save them.

       curl does not parse or otherwise "understand" the content it gets or
       writes as output. It does no encoding or decoding, unless explicitly
       asked to with dedicated command line options.


PROTOCOLS

       curl supports numerous protocols, or put in URL terms: schemes. Your
       particular build may not support them all.

       DICT   Lets you lookup words using online dictionaries.

       FILE   Read or write local files. curl does not support accessing file://
              URL remotely, but when running on Microsoft Windows using the
              native UNC approach will work.

       FTP(S) curl supports the File Transfer Protocol with a lot of tweaks and
              levers. With or without using TLS.

       GOPHER(S)
              Retrieve files.

       HTTP(S)
              curl supports HTTP with numerous options and variations. It can
              speak HTTP version 0.9, 1.0, 1.1, 2 and 3 depending on build
              options and the correct command line options.

       IMAP(S)
              Using the mail reading protocol, curl can "download" emails for
              you. With or without using TLS.

       LDAP(S)
              curl can do directory lookups for you, with or without TLS.

       MQTT   curl supports MQTT version 3. Downloading over MQTT equals
              "subscribe" to a topic while uploading/posting equals "publish" on
              a topic. MQTT over TLS is not supported (yet).

       POP3(S)
              Downloading from a pop3 server means getting a mail. With or
              without using TLS.

       RTMP(S)
              The Realtime Messaging Protocol is primarily used to server
              streaming media and curl can download it.

       RTSP   curl supports RTSP 1.0 downloads.

       SCP    curl supports SSH version 2 scp transfers.

       SFTP   curl supports SFTP (draft 5) done over SSH version 2.

       SMB(S) curl supports SMB version 1 for upload and download.

       SMTP(S)
              Uploading contents to an SMTP server means sending an email. With
              or without TLS.

       TELNET Telling curl to fetch a telnet URL starts an interactive session
              where it sends what it reads on stdin and outputs what the server
              sends it.

       TFTP   curl can do TFTP downloads and uploads.


PROGRESS METER

       curl normally displays a progress meter during operations, indicating the
       amount of transferred data, transfer speeds and estimated time left, etc.
       The progress meter displays number of bytes and the speeds are in bytes
       per second. The suffixes (k, M, G, T, P) are 1024 based. For example 1k
       is 1024 bytes. 1M is 1048576 bytes.

       curl displays this data to the terminal by default, so if you invoke curl
       to do an operation and it is about to write data to the terminal, it
       disables the progress meter as otherwise it would mess up the output
       mixing progress meter and response data.

       If you want a progress meter for HTTP POST or PUT requests, you need to
       redirect the response output to a file, using shell redirect (>),
       --output or similar.

       This does not apply to FTP upload as that operation does not spit out any
       response data to the terminal.

       If you prefer a progress "bar" instead of the regular meter, --progress-
       bar is your friend. You can also disable the progress meter completely
       with the --silent option.


OPTIONS

       Options start with one or two dashes. Many of the options require an
       additional value next to them.

       The short "single-dash" form of the options, -d for example, may be used
       with or without a space between it and its value, although a space is a
       recommended separator. The long "double-dash" form, --data for example,
       requires a space between it and its value.

       Short version options that do not need any additional values can be used
       immediately next to each other, like for example you can specify all the
       options -O, -L and -v at once as -OLv.

       In general, all boolean options are enabled with --option and yet again
       disabled with --no-option. That is, you use the same option name but
       prefix it with "no-". However, in this list we mostly only list and show
       the --option version of them.

       --abstract-unix-socket <path>
              (HTTP) Connect through an abstract Unix domain socket, instead of
              using the network.  Note: netstat shows the path of an abstract
              socket prefixed with '@', however the <path> argument should not
              have this leading character.

              If --abstract-unix-socket is provided several times, the last set
              value will be used.

              Example:
               curl --abstract-unix-socket socketpath https://example.com

              See also --unix-socket. Added in 7.53.0.

       --alt-svc <file name>
              (HTTPS) This option enables the alt-svc parser in curl. If the
              file name points to an existing alt-svc cache file, that will be
              used. After a completed transfer, the cache will be saved to the
              file name again if it has been modified.

              Specify a "" file name (zero length) to avoid loading/saving and
              make curl just handle the cache in memory.

              If this option is used several times, curl will load contents from
              all the files but the last one will be used for saving.

              --alt-svc can be used several times in a command line

              Example:
               curl --alt-svc svc.txt https://example.com

              See also --resolve and --connect-to. Added in 7.64.1.

       --anyauth
              (HTTP) Tells curl to figure out authentication method by itself,
              and use the most secure one the remote site claims to support.
              This is done by first doing a request and checking the response-
              headers, thus possibly inducing an extra network round-trip. This
              is used instead of setting a specific authentication method, which
              you can do with --basic, --digest, --ntlm, and --negotiate.

              Using --anyauth is not recommended if you do uploads from stdin,
              since it may require data to be sent twice and then the client
              must be able to rewind. If the need should arise when uploading
              from stdin, the upload operation will fail.

              Used together with -u, --user.

              Providing --anyauth multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --anyauth --user me:pwd https://example.com

              See also --proxy-anyauth, --basic and --digest.

       -a, --append
              (FTP SFTP) When used in an upload, this makes curl append to the
              target file instead of overwriting it. If the remote file does not
              exist, it will be created. Note that this flag is ignored by some
              SFTP servers (including OpenSSH).

              Providing --append multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable it
              again with --no-append.

              Example:
               curl --upload-file local --append ftp://example.com/

              See also -r, --range and -C, --continue-at.

       --aws-sigv4 <provider1[:provider2[:region[:service]]]>
              Use AWS V4 signature authentication in the transfer.

              The provider argument is a string that is used by the algorithm
              when creating outgoing authentication headers.

              The region argument is a string that points to a geographic area
              of a resources collection (region-code) when the region name is
              omitted from the endpoint.

              The service argument is a string that points to a function
              provided by a cloud (service-code) when the service name is
              omitted from the endpoint.

              If --aws-sigv4 is provided several times, the last set value will
              be used.

              Example:
               curl --aws-sigv4 "aws:amz:east-2:es" --user "key:secret" https://example.com

              See also --basic and -u, --user. Added in 7.75.0.

       --basic
              (HTTP) Tells curl to use HTTP Basic authentication with the remote
              host. This is the default and this option is usually pointless,
              unless you use it to override a previously set option that sets a
              different authentication method (such as --ntlm, --digest, or
              --negotiate).

              Used together with -u, --user.

              Providing --basic multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl -u name:password --basic https://example.com

              See also --proxy-basic.

       --cacert <file>
              (TLS) Tells curl to use the specified certificate file to verify
              the peer. The file may contain multiple CA certificates. The
              certificate(s) must be in PEM format. Normally curl is built to
              use a default file for this, so this option is typically used to
              alter that default file.

              curl recognizes the environment variable named 'CURL_CA_BUNDLE' if
              it is set, and uses the given path as a path to a CA cert bundle.
              This option overrides that variable.

              The windows version of curl will automatically look for a CA certs
              file named 'curl-ca-bundle.crt', either in the same directory as
              curl.exe, or in the Current Working Directory, or in any folder
              along your PATH.

              If curl is built against the NSS SSL library, the NSS PEM PKCS#11
              module (libnsspem.so) needs to be available for this option to
              work properly.

              (iOS and macOS only) If curl is built against Secure Transport,
              then this option is supported for backward compatibility with
              other SSL engines, but it should not be set. If the option is not
              set, then curl will use the certificates in the system and user
              Keychain to verify the peer, which is the preferred method of
              verifying the peer's certificate chain.

              (Schannel only) This option is supported for Schannel in Windows 7
              or later with libcurl 7.60 or later. This option is supported for
              backward compatibility with other SSL engines; instead it is
              recommended to use Windows' store of root certificates (the
              default for Schannel).

              If --cacert is provided several times, the last set value will be
              used.

              Example:
               curl --cacert CA-file.txt https://example.com

              See also --capath and -k, --insecure.

       --capath <dir>
              (TLS) Tells curl to use the specified certificate directory to
              verify the peer. Multiple paths can be provided by separating them
              with ":" (e.g.  "path1:path2:path3"). The certificates must be in
              PEM format, and if curl is built against OpenSSL, the directory
              must have been processed using the c_rehash utility supplied with
              OpenSSL. Using --capath can allow OpenSSL-powered curl to make
              SSL-connections much more efficiently than using --cacert if the
              --cacert file contains many CA certificates.

              If this option is set, the default capath value will be ignored.

              If --capath is provided several times, the last set value will be
              used.

              Example:
               curl --capath /local/directory https://example.com

              See also --cacert and -k, --insecure.

       --cert-status
              (TLS) Tells curl to verify the status of the server certificate by
              using the Certificate Status Request (aka. OCSP stapling) TLS
              extension.

              If this option is enabled and the server sends an invalid (e.g.
              expired) response, if the response suggests that the server
              certificate has been revoked, or no response at all is received,
              the verification fails.

              This is currently only implemented in the OpenSSL, GnuTLS and NSS
              backends.

              Providing --cert-status multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-cert-status.

              Example:
               curl --cert-status https://example.com

              See also --pinnedpubkey. Added in 7.41.0.

       --cert-type <type>
              (TLS) Tells curl what type the provided client certificate is
              using. PEM, DER, ENG and P12 are recognized types.

              The default type depends on the TLS backend and is usually PEM,
              however for Secure Transport and Schannel it is P12. If --cert is
              a pkcs11: URI then ENG is the default type.

              If --cert-type is provided several times, the last set value will
              be used.

              Example:
               curl --cert-type PEM --cert file https://example.com

              See also -E, --cert, --key and --key-type.

       -E, --cert <certificate[:password]>
              (TLS) Tells curl to use the specified client certificate file when
              getting a file with HTTPS, FTPS or another SSL-based protocol. The
              certificate must be in PKCS#12 format if using Secure Transport,
              or PEM format if using any other engine. If the optional password
              is not specified, it will be queried for on the terminal. Note
              that this option assumes a certificate file that is the private
              key and the client certificate concatenated. See --cert and --key
              to specify them independently.

              In the <certificate> portion of the argument, you must escape the
              character ":" as "\:" so that it is not recognized as the password
              delimiter. Similarly, you must escape the character "\" as "\\" so
              that it is not recognized as an escape character.

              If curl is built against the NSS SSL library then this option can
              tell curl the nickname of the certificate to use within the NSS
              database defined by the environment variable SSL_DIR (or by
              default /etc/pki/nssdb). If the NSS PEM PKCS#11 module
              (libnsspem.so) is available then PEM files may be loaded.

              If you provide a path relative to the current directory, you must
              prefix the path with "./" in order to avoid confusion with an NSS
              database nickname.

              If curl is built against OpenSSL library, and the engine pkcs11 is
              available, then a PKCS#11 URI (RFC 7512) can be used to specify a
              certificate located in a PKCS#11 device. A string beginning with
              "pkcs11:" will be interpreted as a PKCS#11 URI. If a PKCS#11 URI
              is provided, then the --engine option will be set as "pkcs11" if
              none was provided and the --cert-type option will be set as "ENG"
              if none was provided.

              (iOS and macOS only) If curl is built against Secure Transport,
              then the certificate string can either be the name of a
              certificate/private key in the system or user keychain, or the
              path to a PKCS#12-encoded certificate and private key. If you want
              to use a file from the current directory, please precede it with
              "./" prefix, in order to avoid confusion with a nickname.

              (Schannel only) Client certificates must be specified by a path
              expression to a certificate store. (Loading PFX is not supported;
              you can import it to a store first). You can use "<store
              location>\<store name>\<thumbprint>" to refer to a certificate in
              the system certificates store, for example,
              "CurrentUser\MY\934a7ac6f8a5d579285a74fa61e19f23ddfe8d7a".
              Thumbprint is usually a SHA-1 hex string which you can see in
              certificate details. Following store locations are supported:
              CurrentUser, LocalMachine, CurrentService, Services,
              CurrentUserGroupPolicy, LocalMachineGroupPolicy,
              LocalMachineEnterprise.

              If --cert is provided several times, the last set value will be
              used.

              Example:
               curl --cert certfile --key keyfile https://example.com

              See also --cert-type, --key and --key-type.

       --ciphers <list of ciphers>
              (TLS) Specifies which ciphers to use in the connection. The list
              of ciphers must specify valid ciphers. Read up on SSL cipher list
              details on this URL:

               https://curl.se/docs/ssl-ciphers.html

              If --ciphers is provided several times, the last set value will be
              used.

              Example:
               curl --ciphers ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-CCM8 https://example.com

              See also --tlsv1.3.

       --compressed-ssh
              (SCP SFTP) Enables built-in SSH compression.  This is a request,
              not an order; the server may or may not do it.

              Providing --compressed-ssh multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-compressed-ssh.

              Example:
               curl --compressed-ssh sftp://example.com/

              See also --compressed. Added in 7.56.0.

       --compressed
              (HTTP) Request a compressed response using one of the algorithms
              curl supports, and automatically decompress the content. Headers
              are not modified.

              If this option is used and the server sends an unsupported
              encoding, curl will report an error. This is a request, not an
              order; the server may or may not deliver data compressed.

              Providing --compressed multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-compressed.

              Example:
               curl --compressed https://example.com

              See also --compressed-ssh.

       -K, --config <file>
              Specify a text file to read curl arguments from. The command line
              arguments found in the text file will be used as if they were
              provided on the command line.

              Options and their parameters must be specified on the same line in
              the file, separated by whitespace, colon, or the equals sign. Long
              option names can optionally be given in the config file without
              the initial double dashes and if so, the colon or equals
              characters can be used as separators. If the option is specified
              with one or two dashes, there can be no colon or equals character
              between the option and its parameter.

              If the parameter contains whitespace (or starts with : or =), the
              parameter must be enclosed within quotes. Within double quotes,
              the following escape sequences are available: \\, \", \t, \n, \r
              and \v. A backslash preceding any other letter is ignored.

              If the first column of a config line is a '#' character, the rest
              of the line will be treated as a comment.

              Only write one option per physical line in the config file.

              Specify the filename to --config as '-' to make curl read the file
              from stdin.

              Note that to be able to specify a URL in the config file, you need
              to specify it using the --url option, and not by simply writing
              the URL on its own line. So, it could look similar to this:

              url = "https://curl.se/docs/"

               # --- Example file ---
               # this is a comment
               url = "example.com"
               output = "curlhere.html"
               user-agent = "superagent/1.0"

               # and fetch another URL too
               url = "example.com/docs/manpage.html"
               -O
               referer = "http://nowhereatall.example.com/"
               # --- End of example file ---

              When curl is invoked, it (unless --disable is used) checks for a
              default config file and uses it if found, even when --config is
              used. The default config file is checked for in the following
              places in this order:

              1) "$CURL_HOME/.curlrc"

              2) "$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/.curlrc" (Added in 7.73.0)

              3) "$HOME/.curlrc"

              4) Windows: "%USERPROFILE%\.curlrc"

              5) Windows: "%APPDATA%\.curlrc"

              6) Windows: "%USERPROFILE%\Application Data\.curlrc"

              7) Non-Windows: use getpwuid to find the home directory

              8) On Windows, if it finds no .curlrc file in the sequence
              described above, it checks for one in the same dir the curl
              executable is placed.

              On Windows two filenames are checked per location: .curlrc and
              _curlrc, preferring the former. Older versions on Windows checked
              for _curlrc only.

              --config can be used several times in a command line

              Example:
               curl --config file.txt https://example.com

              See also -q, --disable.

       --connect-timeout <fractional seconds>
              Maximum time in seconds that you allow curl's connection to take.
              This only limits the connection phase, so if curl connects within
              the given period it will continue - if not it will exit.  Since
              version 7.32.0, this option accepts decimal values.

              If --connect-timeout is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Examples:
               curl --connect-timeout 20 https://example.com
               curl --connect-timeout 3.14 https://example.com

              See also -m, --max-time.

       --connect-to <HOST1:PORT1:HOST2:PORT2>

              For a request to the given HOST1:PORT1 pair, connect to
              HOST2:PORT2 instead.  This option is suitable to direct requests
              at a specific server, e.g. at a specific cluster node in a cluster
              of servers. This option is only used to establish the network
              connection. It does NOT affect the hostname/port that is used for
              TLS/SSL (e.g. SNI, certificate verification) or for the
              application protocols. "HOST1" and "PORT1" may be the empty
              string, meaning "any host/port". "HOST2" and "PORT2" may also be
              the empty string, meaning "use the request's original host/port".

              A "host" specified to this option is compared as a string, so it
              needs to match the name used in request URL. It can be either
              numerical such as "127.0.0.1" or the full host name such as
              "example.org".

              --connect-to can be used several times in a command line

              Example:
               curl --connect-to example.com:443:example.net:8443 https://example.com

              See also --resolve and -H, --header. Added in 7.49.0.

       -C, --continue-at <offset>
              Continue/Resume a previous file transfer at the given offset. The
              given offset is the exact number of bytes that will be skipped,
              counting from the beginning of the source file before it is
              transferred to the destination. If used with uploads, the FTP
              server command SIZE will not be used by curl.

              Use "-C -" to tell curl to automatically find out where/how to
              resume the transfer. It then uses the given output/input files to
              figure that out.

              If --continue-at is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Examples:
               curl -C - https://example.com
               curl -C 400 https://example.com

              See also -r, --range.

       -c, --cookie-jar <filename>
              (HTTP) Specify to which file you want curl to write all cookies
              after a completed operation. Curl writes all cookies from its in-
              memory cookie storage to the given file at the end of operations.
              If no cookies are known, no data will be written. The file will be
              written using the Netscape cookie file format. If you set the file
              name to a single dash, "-", the cookies will be written to stdout.

              This command line option will activate the cookie engine that
              makes curl record and use cookies. Another way to activate it is
              to use the --cookie option.

              If the cookie jar cannot be created or written to, the whole curl
              operation will not fail or even report an error clearly. Using
              --verbose will get a warning displayed, but that is the only
              visible feedback you get about this possibly lethal situation.

              If --cookie-jar is provided several times, the last set value will
              be used.

              Examples:
               curl -c store-here.txt https://example.com
               curl -c store-here.txt -b read-these https://example.com

              See also -b, --cookie.

       -b, --cookie <data|filename>
              (HTTP) Pass the data to the HTTP server in the Cookie header. It
              is supposedly the data previously received from the server in a
              "Set-Cookie:" line. The data should be in the format
              "NAME1=VALUE1; NAME2=VALUE2". This makes curl use the cookie
              header with this content explicitly in all outgoing request(s). If
              multiple requests are done due to authentication, followed
              redirects or similar, they will all get this cookie passed on.

              If no '=' symbol is used in the argument, it is instead treated as
              a filename to read previously stored cookie from. This option also
              activates the cookie engine which will make curl record incoming
              cookies, which may be handy if you are using this in combination
              with the --location option or do multiple URL transfers on the
              same invoke. If the file name is exactly a minus ("-"), curl will
              instead read the contents from stdin.

              The file format of the file to read cookies from should be plain
              HTTP headers (Set-Cookie style) or the Netscape/Mozilla cookie
              file format.

              The file specified with --cookie is only used as input. No cookies
              will be written to the file. To store cookies, use the --cookie-
              jar option.

              If you use the Set-Cookie file format and do not specify a domain
              then the cookie is not sent since the domain will never match. To
              address this, set a domain in Set-Cookie line (doing that will
              include sub-domains) or preferably: use the Netscape format.

              Users often want to both read cookies from a file and write
              updated cookies back to a file, so using both --cookie and
              --cookie-jar in the same command line is common.

              --cookie can be used several times in a command line

              Examples:
               curl -b cookiefile https://example.com
               curl -b cookiefile -c cookiefile https://example.com

              See also -c, --cookie-jar and -j, --junk-session-cookies.

       --create-dirs
              When used in conjunction with the --output option, curl will
              create the necessary local directory hierarchy as needed. This
              option creates the directories mentioned with the --output option,
              nothing else. If the --output file name uses no directory, or if
              the directories it mentions already exist, no directories will be
              created.

              Created dirs are made with mode 0750 on unix style file systems.

              To create remote directories when using FTP or SFTP, try --ftp-
              create-dirs.

              Providing --create-dirs multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-create-dirs.

              Example:
               curl --create-dirs --output local/dir/file https://example.com

              See also --ftp-create-dirs and --output-dir.

       --create-file-mode <mode>
              (SFTP SCP FILE) When curl is used to create files remotely using
              one of the supported protocols, this option allows the user to set
              which 'mode' to set on the file at creation time, instead of the
              default 0644.

              This option takes an octal number as argument.

              If --create-file-mode is provided several times, the last set
              value will be used.

              Example:
               curl --create-file-mode 0777 -T localfile sftp://example.com/new

              See also --ftp-create-dirs. Added in 7.75.0.

       --crlf (FTP SMTP) Convert LF to CRLF in upload. Useful for MVS (OS/390).

              (SMTP added in 7.40.0)

              Providing --crlf multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable it
              again with --no-crlf.

              Example:
               curl --crlf -T file ftp://example.com/

              See also -B, --use-ascii.

       --crlfile <file>
              (TLS) Provide a file using PEM format with a Certificate
              Revocation List that may specify peer certificates that are to be
              considered revoked.

              If --crlfile is provided several times, the last set value will be
              used.

              Example:
               curl --crlfile rejects.txt https://example.com

              See also --cacert and --capath.

       --curves <algorithm list>
              (TLS) Tells curl to request specific curves to use during SSL
              session establishment according to RFC 8422, 5.1.  Multiple
              algorithms can be provided by separating them with ":" (e.g.
              "X25519:P-521").  The parameter is available identically in the
              "openssl s_client/s_server" utilities.

              --curves allows a OpenSSL powered curl to make SSL-connections
              with exactly the (EC) curve requested by the client, avoiding
              nontransparent client/server negotiations.

              If this option is set, the default curves list built into openssl
              will be ignored.

              If --curves is provided several times, the last set value will be
              used.

              Example:
               curl --curves X25519 https://example.com

              See also --ciphers. Added in 7.73.0.

       --data-ascii <data>
              (HTTP) This is just an alias for -d, --data.

              --data-ascii can be used several times in a command line

              Example:
               curl --data-ascii @file https://example.com

              See also --data-binary, --data-raw and --data-urlencode.

       --data-binary <data>
              (HTTP) This posts data exactly as specified with no extra
              processing whatsoever.

              If you start the data with the letter @, the rest should be a
              filename. Data is posted in a similar manner as --data does,
              except that newlines and carriage returns are preserved and
              conversions are never done.

              Like --data the default content-type sent to the server is
              application/x-www-form-urlencoded. If you want the data to be
              treated as arbitrary binary data by the server then set the
              content-type to octet-stream: -H "Content-Type: application/octet-
              stream".

              If this option is used several times, the ones following the first
              will append data as described in -d, --data.

              --data-binary can be used several times in a command line

              Example:
               curl --data-binary @filename https://example.com

              See also --data-ascii.

       --data-raw <data>
              (HTTP) This posts data similarly to --data but without the special
              interpretation of the @ character.

              --data-raw can be used several times in a command line

              Examples:
               curl --data-raw "hello" https://example.com
               curl --data-raw "@at@at@" https://example.com

              See also -d, --data. Added in 7.43.0.

       --data-urlencode <data>
              (HTTP) This posts data, similar to the other --data options with
              the exception that this performs URL-encoding.

              To be CGI-compliant, the <data> part should begin with a name
              followed by a separator and a content specification. The <data>
              part can be passed to curl using one of the following syntaxes:

              content
                     This will make curl URL-encode the content and pass that
                     on. Just be careful so that the content does not contain
                     any = or @ symbols, as that will then make the syntax match
                     one of the other cases below!

              =content
                     This will make curl URL-encode the content and pass that
                     on. The preceding = symbol is not included in the data.

              name=content
                     This will make curl URL-encode the content part and pass
                     that on. Note that the name part is expected to be URL-
                     encoded already.

              @filename
                     This will make curl load data from the given file
                     (including any newlines), URL-encode that data and pass it
                     on in the POST.

              name@filename
                     This will make curl load data from the given file
                     (including any newlines), URL-encode that data and pass it
                     on in the POST. The name part gets an equal sign appended,
                     resulting in name=urlencoded-file-content. Note that the
                     name is expected to be URL-encoded already.

       --data-urlencode can be used several times in a command line

       Examples:
        curl --data-urlencode name=val https://example.com
        curl --data-urlencode =encodethis https://example.com
        curl --data-urlencode name@file https://example.com
        curl --data-urlencode @fileonly https://example.com

       See also -d, --data and --data-raw.

       -d, --data <data>
              (HTTP MQTT) Sends the specified data in a POST request to the HTTP
              server, in the same way that a browser does when a user has filled
              in an HTML form and presses the submit button. This will cause
              curl to pass the data to the server using the content-type
              application/x-www-form-urlencoded. Compare to -F, --form.

              --data-raw is almost the same but does not have a special
              interpretation of the @ character. To post data purely binary, you
              should instead use the --data-binary option. To URL-encode the
              value of a form field you may use --data-urlencode.

              If any of these options is used more than once on the same command
              line, the data pieces specified will be merged with a separating
              &-symbol. Thus, using '-d name=daniel -d skill=lousy' would
              generate a post chunk that looks like 'name=daniel&skill=lousy'.

              If you start the data with the letter @, the rest should be a file
              name to read the data from, or - if you want curl to read the data
              from stdin. Posting data from a file named 'foobar' would thus be
              done with -d, --data @foobar. When --data is told to read from a
              file like that, carriage returns and newlines will be stripped
              out. If you do not want the @ character to have a special
              interpretation use --data-raw instead.

              --data can be used several times in a command line

              Examples:
               curl -d "name=curl" https://example.com
               curl -d "name=curl" -d "tool=cmdline" https://example.com
               curl -d @filename https://example.com

              See also --data-binary, --data-urlencode and --data-raw. This
              option is mutually exclusive to -F, --form and -I, --head and -T,
              --upload-file.

       --delegation <LEVEL>
              (GSS/kerberos) Set LEVEL to tell the server what it is allowed to
              delegate when it comes to user credentials.

              none   Do not allow any delegation.

              policy Delegates if and only if the OK-AS-DELEGATE flag is set in
                     the Kerberos service ticket, which is a matter of realm
                     policy.

              always Unconditionally allow the server to delegate.

       If --delegation is provided several times, the last set value will be
       used.

       Example:
        curl --delegation "none" https://example.com

       See also -k, --insecure and --ssl.

       --digest
              (HTTP) Enables HTTP Digest authentication. This is an
              authentication scheme that prevents the password from being sent
              over the wire in clear text. Use this in combination with the
              normal --user option to set user name and password.

              Providing --digest multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable it
              again with --no-digest.

              Example:
               curl -u name:password --digest https://example.com

              See also -u, --user, --proxy-digest and --anyauth. This option is
              mutually exclusive to --basic and --ntlm and --negotiate.

       --disable-eprt
              (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use of the EPRT and LPRT commands
              when doing active FTP transfers. Curl will normally always first
              attempt to use EPRT, then LPRT before using PORT, but with this
              option, it will use PORT right away. EPRT and LPRT are extensions
              to the original FTP protocol, and may not work on all servers, but
              they enable more functionality in a better way than the
              traditional PORT command.

              --eprt can be used to explicitly enable EPRT again and --no-eprt
              is an alias for --disable-eprt.

              If the server is accessed using IPv6, this option will have no
              effect as EPRT is necessary then.

              Disabling EPRT only changes the active behavior. If you want to
              switch to passive mode you need to not use --ftp-port or force it
              with --ftp-pasv.

              Providing --disable-eprt multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-disable-eprt.

              Example:
               curl --disable-eprt ftp://example.com/

              See also --disable-epsv and -P, --ftp-port.

       --disable-epsv
              (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use of the EPSV command when doing
              passive FTP transfers. Curl will normally always first attempt to
              use EPSV before PASV, but with this option, it will not try using
              EPSV.

              --epsv can be used to explicitly enable EPSV again and --no-epsv
              is an alias for --disable-epsv.

              If the server is an IPv6 host, this option will have no effect as
              EPSV is necessary then.

              Disabling EPSV only changes the passive behavior. If you want to
              switch to active mode you need to use -P, --ftp-port.

              Providing --disable-epsv multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-disable-epsv.

              Example:
               curl --disable-epsv ftp://example.com/

              See also --disable-eprt and -P, --ftp-port.

       -q, --disable
              If used as the first parameter on the command line, the curlrc
              config file will not be read and used. See the --config for
              details on the default config file search path.

              Providing --disable multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable
              it again with --no-disable.

              Example:
               curl -q https://example.com

              See also -K, --config.

       --disallow-username-in-url
              (HTTP) This tells curl to exit if passed a URL containing a
              username. This is probably most useful when the URL is being
              provided at runtime or similar.

              Providing --disallow-username-in-url multiple times has no extra
              effect.  Disable it again with --no-disallow-username-in-url.

              Example:
               curl --disallow-username-in-url https://example.com

              See also --proto. Added in 7.61.0.

       --dns-interface <interface>
              (DNS) Tell curl to send outgoing DNS requests through <interface>.
              This option is a counterpart to --interface (which does not affect
              DNS). The supplied string must be an interface name (not an
              address).

              If --dns-interface is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --dns-interface eth0 https://example.com

              See also --dns-ipv4-addr and --dns-ipv6-addr. --dns-interface
              requires that the underlying libcurl was built to support c-ares.
              Added in 7.33.0.

       --dns-ipv4-addr <address>
              (DNS) Tell curl to bind to <ip-address> when making IPv4 DNS
              requests, so that the DNS requests originate from this address.
              The argument should be a single IPv4 address.

              If --dns-ipv4-addr is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --dns-ipv4-addr 10.1.2.3 https://example.com

              See also --dns-interface and --dns-ipv6-addr. --dns-ipv4-addr
              requires that the underlying libcurl was built to support c-ares.
              Added in 7.33.0.

       --dns-ipv6-addr <address>
              (DNS) Tell curl to bind to <ip-address> when making IPv6 DNS
              requests, so that the DNS requests originate from this address.
              The argument should be a single IPv6 address.

              If --dns-ipv6-addr is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --dns-ipv6-addr 2a04:4e42::561 https://example.com

              See also --dns-interface and --dns-ipv4-addr. --dns-ipv6-addr
              requires that the underlying libcurl was built to support c-ares.
              Added in 7.33.0.

       --dns-servers <addresses>
              Set the list of DNS servers to be used instead of the system
              default.  The list of IP addresses should be separated with
              commas. Port numbers may also optionally be given as :<port-
              number> after each IP address.

              If --dns-servers is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --dns-servers 192.168.0.1,192.168.0.2 https://example.com

              See also --dns-interface and --dns-ipv4-addr. --dns-servers
              requires that the underlying libcurl was built to support c-ares.
              Added in 7.33.0.

       --doh-cert-status
              Same as --cert-status but used for DoH (DNS-over-HTTPS).

              Providing --doh-cert-status multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-doh-cert-status.

              Example:
               curl --doh-cert-status --doh-url https://doh.example https://example.com

              See also --doh-insecure. Added in 7.76.0.

       --doh-insecure
              Same as --insecure but used for DoH (DNS-over-HTTPS).

              Providing --doh-insecure multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-doh-insecure.

              Example:
               curl --doh-insecure --doh-url https://doh.example https://example.com

              See also --doh-url. Added in 7.76.0.

       --doh-url <URL>
              Specifies which DNS-over-HTTPS (DoH) server to use to resolve
              hostnames, instead of using the default name resolver mechanism.
              The URL must be HTTPS.

              Some SSL options that you set for your transfer will apply to DoH
              since the name lookups take place over SSL. However, the
              certificate verification settings are not inherited and can be
              controlled separately via --doh-insecure and --doh-cert-status.

              This option is unset if an empty string "" is used as the URL.
              (Added in 7.85.0)

              If --doh-url is provided several times, the last set value will be
              used.

              Example:
               curl --doh-url https://doh.example https://example.com

              See also --doh-insecure. Added in 7.62.0.

       -D, --dump-header <filename>
              (HTTP FTP) Write the received protocol headers to the specified
              file. If no headers are received, the use of this option will
              create an empty file.

              When used in FTP, the FTP server response lines are considered
              being "headers" and thus are saved there.

              If --dump-header is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --dump-header store.txt https://example.com

              See also -o, --output.

       --egd-file <file>
              (TLS) Deprecated option. This option is ignored by curl since
              7.84.0. Prior to that it only had an effect on curl if built to
              use old versions of OpenSSL.

              Specify the path name to the Entropy Gathering Daemon socket. The
              socket is used to seed the random engine for SSL connections.

              If --egd-file is provided several times, the last set value will
              be used.

              Example:
               curl --egd-file /random/here https://example.com

              See also --random-file.

       --engine <name>
              (TLS) Select the OpenSSL crypto engine to use for cipher
              operations. Use --engine list to print a list of build-time
              supported engines. Note that not all (and possibly none) of the
              engines may be available at runtime.

              If --engine is provided several times, the last set value will be
              used.

              Example:
               curl --engine flavor https://example.com

              See also --ciphers and --curves.

       --etag-compare <file>
              (HTTP) This option makes a conditional HTTP request for the
              specific ETag read from the given file by sending a custom If-
              None-Match header using the stored ETag.

              For correct results, make sure that the specified file contains
              only a single line with the desired ETag. An empty file is parsed
              as an empty ETag.

              Use the option --etag-save to first save the ETag from a response,
              and then use this option to compare against the saved ETag in a
              subsequent request.

              If --etag-compare is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --etag-compare etag.txt https://example.com

              See also --etag-save and -z, --time-cond. Added in 7.68.0.

       --etag-save <file>
              (HTTP) This option saves an HTTP ETag to the specified file. An
              ETag is a caching related header, usually returned in a response.

              If no ETag is sent by the server, an empty file is created.

              If --etag-save is provided several times, the last set value will
              be used.

              Example:
               curl --etag-save storetag.txt https://example.com

              See also --etag-compare. Added in 7.68.0.

       --expect100-timeout <seconds>
              (HTTP) Maximum time in seconds that you allow curl to wait for a
              100-continue response when curl emits an Expects: 100-continue
              header in its request. By default curl will wait one second. This
              option accepts decimal values! When curl stops waiting, it will
              continue as if the response has been received.

              If --expect100-timeout is provided several times, the last set
              value will be used.

              Example:
               curl --expect100-timeout 2.5 -T file https://example.com

              See also --connect-timeout. Added in 7.47.0.

       --fail-early
              Fail and exit on the first detected transfer error.

              When curl is used to do multiple transfers on the command line, it
              will attempt to operate on each given URL, one by one. By default,
              it will ignore errors if there are more URLs given and the last
              URL's success will determine the error code curl returns. So early
              failures will be "hidden" by subsequent successful transfers.

              Using this option, curl will instead return an error on the first
              transfer that fails, independent of the amount of URLs that are
              given on the command line. This way, no transfer failures go
              undetected by scripts and similar.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of -:, --next.

              This option does not imply -f, --fail, which causes transfers to
              fail due to the server's HTTP status code. You can combine the two
              options, however note --fail is not global and is therefore
              contained by -:, --next.

              Providing --fail-early multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-fail-early.

              Example:
               curl --fail-early https://example.com https://two.example

              See also -f, --fail and --fail-with-body. Added in 7.52.0.

       --fail-with-body
              (HTTP) Return an error on server errors where the HTTP response
              code is 400 or greater). In normal cases when an HTTP server fails
              to deliver a document, it returns an HTML document stating so
              (which often also describes why and more). This flag will still
              allow curl to output and save that content but also to return
              error 22.

              This is an alternative option to --fail which makes curl fail for
              the same circumstances but without saving the content.

              Providing --fail-with-body multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-fail-with-body.

              Example:
               curl --fail-with-body https://example.com

              See also -f, --fail. This option is mutually exclusive to -f,
              --fail. Added in 7.76.0.

       -f, --fail
              (HTTP) Fail fast with no output at all on server errors. This is
              useful to enable scripts and users to better deal with failed
              attempts. In normal cases when an HTTP server fails to deliver a
              document, it returns an HTML document stating so (which often also
              describes why and more). This flag will prevent curl from
              outputting that and return error 22.

              This method is not fail-safe and there are occasions where non-
              successful response codes will slip through, especially when
              authentication is involved (response codes 401 and 407).

              Providing --fail multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable it
              again with --no-fail.

              Example:
               curl --fail https://example.com

              See also --fail-with-body. This option is mutually exclusive to
              --fail-with-body.

       --false-start
              (TLS) Tells curl to use false start during the TLS handshake.
              False start is a mode where a TLS client will start sending
              application data before verifying the server's Finished message,
              thus saving a round trip when performing a full handshake.

              This is currently only implemented in the NSS and Secure Transport
              (on iOS 7.0 or later, or OS X 10.9 or later) backends.

              Providing --false-start multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-false-start.

              Example:
               curl --false-start https://example.com

              See also --tcp-fastopen. Added in 7.42.0.

       --form-escape
              (HTTP) Tells curl to pass on names of multipart form fields and
              files using backslash-escaping instead of percent-encoding.

              If --form-escape is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --form-escape -F 'field\name=curl' -F 'file=@load"this' https://example.com

              See also -F, --form. Added in 7.81.0.

       --form-string <name=string>
              (HTTP SMTP IMAP) Similar to --form except that the value string
              for the named parameter is used literally. Leading '@' and '<'
              characters, and the ';type=' string in the value have no special
              meaning. Use this in preference to --form if there's any
              possibility that the string value may accidentally trigger the '@'
              or '<' features of -F, --form.

              --form-string can be used several times in a command line

              Example:
               curl --form-string "data" https://example.com

              See also -F, --form.

       -F, --form <name=content>
              (HTTP SMTP IMAP) For HTTP protocol family, this lets curl emulate
              a filled-in form in which a user has pressed the submit button.
              This causes curl to POST data using the Content-Type
              multipart/form-data according to RFC 2388.

              For SMTP and IMAP protocols, this is the means to compose a
              multipart mail message to transmit.

              This enables uploading of binary files etc. To force the 'content'
              part to be a file, prefix the file name with an @ sign. To just
              get the content part from a file, prefix the file name with the
              symbol <. The difference between @ and < is then that @ makes a
              file get attached in the post as a file upload, while the < makes
              a text field and just get the contents for that text field from a
              file.

              Tell curl to read content from stdin instead of a file by using -
              as filename. This goes for both @ and < constructs. When stdin is
              used, the contents is buffered in memory first by curl to
              determine its size and allow a possible resend. Defining a part's
              data from a named non-regular file (such as a named pipe or
              similar) is unfortunately not subject to buffering and will be
              effectively read at transmission time; since the full size is
              unknown before the transfer starts, such data is sent as chunks by
              HTTP and rejected by IMAP.

              Example: send an image to an HTTP server, where 'profile' is the
              name of the form-field to which the file portrait.jpg will be the
              input:

               curl -F profile=@portrait.jpg https://example.com/upload.cgi

              Example: send your name and shoe size in two text fields to the
              server:

               curl -F name=John -F shoesize=11 https://example.com/

              Example: send your essay in a text field to the server. Send it as
              a plain text field, but get the contents for it from a local file:

               curl -F "story=<hugefile.txt" https://example.com/

              You can also tell curl what Content-Type to use by using 'type=',
              in a manner similar to:

               curl -F "web=@index.html;type=text/html" example.com

              or

               curl -F "name=daniel;type=text/foo" example.com

              You can also explicitly change the name field of a file upload
              part by setting filename=, like this:

               curl -F "file=@localfile;filename=nameinpost" example.com

              If filename/path contains ',' or ';', it must be quoted by double-
              quotes like:

               curl -F "file=@\"local,file\";filename=\"name;in;post\"" example.com

              or

               curl -F 'file=@"local,file";filename="name;in;post"' example.com

              Note that if a filename/path is quoted by double-quotes, any
              double-quote or backslash within the filename must be escaped by
              backslash.

              Quoting must also be applied to non-file data if it contains
              semicolons, leading/trailing spaces or leading double quotes:

               curl -F 'colors="red; green; blue";type=text/x-myapp' example.com

              You can add custom headers to the field by setting headers=, like

                curl -F "submit=OK;headers=\"X-submit-type: OK\"" example.com

              or

                curl -F "submit=OK;headers=@headerfile" example.com

              The headers= keyword may appear more that once and above notes
              about quoting apply. When headers are read from a file, Empty
              lines and lines starting with '#' are comments and ignored; each
              header can be folded by splitting between two words and starting
              the continuation line with a space; embedded carriage-returns and
              trailing spaces are stripped.  Here is an example of a header file
              contents:

                # This file contain two headers.
                X-header-1: this is a header

                # The following header is folded.
                X-header-2: this is
                 another header

              To support sending multipart mail messages, the syntax is extended
              as follows:
              - name can be omitted: the equal sign is the first character of
              the argument,
              - if data starts with '(', this signals to start a new multipart:
              it can be followed by a content type specification.
              - a multipart can be terminated with a '=)' argument.

              Example: the following command sends an SMTP mime email consisting
              in an inline part in two alternative formats: plain text and HTML.
              It attaches a text file:

               curl -F '=(;type=multipart/alternative' \
                    -F '=plain text message' \
                    -F '= <body>HTML message</body>;type=text/html' \
                    -F '=)' -F '=@textfile.txt' ...  smtp://example.com

              Data can be encoded for transfer using encoder=. Available
              encodings are binary and 8bit that do nothing else than adding the
              corresponding Content-Transfer-Encoding header, 7bit that only
              rejects 8-bit characters with a transfer error, quoted-printable
              and base64 that encodes data according to the corresponding
              schemes, limiting lines length to 76 characters.

              Example: send multipart mail with a quoted-printable text message
              and a base64 attached file:

               curl -F '=text message;encoder=quoted-printable' \
                    -F '=@localfile;encoder=base64' ... smtp://example.com

              See further examples and details in the MANUAL.

              --form can be used several times in a command line

              Example:
               curl --form "name=curl" --form "file=@loadthis" https://example.com

              See also -d, --data, --form-string and --form-escape. This option
              is mutually exclusive to -d, --data and -I, --head and -T,
              --upload-file.

       --ftp-account <data>
              (FTP) When an FTP server asks for "account data" after user name
              and password has been provided, this data is sent off using the
              ACCT command.

              If --ftp-account is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --ftp-account "mr.robot" ftp://example.com/

              See also -u, --user.

       --ftp-alternative-to-user <command>
              (FTP) If authenticating with the USER and PASS commands fails,
              send this command.  When connecting to Tumbleweed's Secure
              Transport server over FTPS using a client certificate, using "SITE
              AUTH" will tell the server to retrieve the username from the
              certificate.

              If --ftp-alternative-to-user is provided several times, the last
              set value will be used.

              Example:
               curl --ftp-alternative-to-user "U53r" ftp://example.com

              See also --ftp-account and -u, --user.

       --ftp-create-dirs
              (FTP SFTP) When an FTP or SFTP URL/operation uses a path that does
              not currently exist on the server, the standard behavior of curl
              is to fail. Using this option, curl will instead attempt to create
              missing directories.

              Providing --ftp-create-dirs multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-ftp-create-dirs.

              Example:
               curl --ftp-create-dirs -T file ftp://example.com/remote/path/file

              See also --create-dirs.

       --ftp-method <method>
              (FTP) Control what method curl should use to reach a file on an
              FTP(S) server. The method argument should be one of the following
              alternatives:

              multicwd
                     curl does a single CWD operation for each path part in the
                     given URL. For deep hierarchies this means many commands.
                     This is how RFC 1738 says it should be done. This is the
                     default but the slowest behavior.

              nocwd  curl does no CWD at all. curl will do SIZE, RETR, STOR etc
                     and give a full path to the server for all these commands.
                     This is the fastest behavior.

              singlecwd
                     curl does one CWD with the full target directory and then
                     operates on the file "normally" (like in the multicwd
                     case). This is somewhat more standards compliant than
                     'nocwd' but without the full penalty of 'multicwd'.

       If --ftp-method is provided several times, the last set value will be
       used.

       Examples:
        curl --ftp-method multicwd ftp://example.com/dir1/dir2/file
        curl --ftp-method nocwd ftp://example.com/dir1/dir2/file
        curl --ftp-method singlecwd ftp://example.com/dir1/dir2/file

       See also -l, --list-only.

       --ftp-pasv
              (FTP) Use passive mode for the data connection. Passive is the
              internal default behavior, but using this option can be used to
              override a previous --ftp-port option.

              Reversing an enforced passive really is not doable but you must
              then instead enforce the correct --ftp-port again.

              Passive mode means that curl will try the EPSV command first and
              then PASV, unless --disable-epsv is used.

              Providing --ftp-pasv multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable
              it again with --no-ftp-pasv.

              Example:
               curl --ftp-pasv ftp://example.com/

              See also --disable-epsv.

       -P, --ftp-port <address>
              (FTP) Reverses the default initiator/listener roles when
              connecting with FTP. This option makes curl use active mode. curl
              then tells the server to connect back to the client's specified
              address and port, while passive mode asks the server to setup an
              IP address and port for it to connect to. <address> should be one
              of:

              interface
                     e.g. "eth0" to specify which interface's IP address you
                     want to use (Unix only)

              IP address
                     e.g. "192.168.10.1" to specify the exact IP address

              host name
                     e.g. "my.host.domain" to specify the machine

              -      make curl pick the same IP address that is already used for
                     the control connection

       Disable the use of PORT with --ftp-pasv. Disable the attempt to use the
       EPRT command instead of PORT by using --disable-eprt. EPRT is really
       PORT++.

       You can also append ":[start]-[end]" to the right of the address, to tell
       curl what TCP port range to use. That means you specify a port range,
       from a lower to a higher number. A single number works as well, but do
       note that it increases the risk of failure since the port may not be
       available.


       If --ftp-port is provided several times, the last set value will be used.

       Examples:
        curl -P - ftp:/example.com
        curl -P eth0 ftp:/example.com
        curl -P 192.168.0.2 ftp:/example.com

       See also --ftp-pasv and --disable-eprt.

       --ftp-pret
              (FTP) Tell curl to send a PRET command before PASV (and EPSV).
              Certain FTP servers, mainly drftpd, require this non-standard
              command for directory listings as well as up and downloads in PASV
              mode.

              Providing --ftp-pret multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable
              it again with --no-ftp-pret.

              Example:
               curl --ftp-pret ftp://example.com/

              See also -P, --ftp-port and --ftp-pasv.

       --ftp-skip-pasv-ip
              (FTP) Tell curl to not use the IP address the server suggests in
              its response to curl's PASV command when curl connects the data
              connection. Instead curl will re-use the same IP address it
              already uses for the control connection.

              Since curl 7.74.0 this option is enabled by default.

              This option has no effect if PORT, EPRT or EPSV is used instead of
              PASV.

              Providing --ftp-skip-pasv-ip multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-ftp-skip-pasv-ip.

              Example:
               curl --ftp-skip-pasv-ip ftp://example.com/

              See also --ftp-pasv.

       --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode <active/passive>
              (FTP) Sets the CCC mode. The passive mode will not initiate the
              shutdown, but instead wait for the server to do it, and will not
              reply to the shutdown from the server. The active mode initiates
              the shutdown and waits for a reply from the server.

              Providing --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-ftp-ssl-ccc-mode.

              Example:
               curl --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode active --ftp-ssl-ccc ftps://example.com/

              See also --ftp-ssl-ccc.

       --ftp-ssl-ccc
              (FTP) Use CCC (Clear Command Channel) Shuts down the SSL/TLS layer
              after authenticating. The rest of the control channel
              communication will be unencrypted. This allows NAT routers to
              follow the FTP transaction. The default mode is passive.

              Providing --ftp-ssl-ccc multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-ftp-ssl-ccc.

              Example:
               curl --ftp-ssl-ccc ftps://example.com/

              See also --ssl and --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode.

       --ftp-ssl-control
              (FTP) Require SSL/TLS for the FTP login, clear for transfer.
              Allows secure authentication, but non-encrypted data transfers for
              efficiency.  Fails the transfer if the server does not support
              SSL/TLS.

              Providing --ftp-ssl-control multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-ftp-ssl-control.

              Example:
               curl --ftp-ssl-control ftp://example.com

              See also --ssl.

       -G, --get
              When used, this option will make all data specified with -d,
              --data, --data-binary or --data-urlencode to be used in an HTTP
              GET request instead of the POST request that otherwise would be
              used. The data will be appended to the URL with a '?' separator.

              If used in combination with -I, --head, the POST data will instead
              be appended to the URL with a HEAD request.

              Providing --get multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable it
              again with --no-get.

              Examples:
               curl --get https://example.com
               curl --get -d "tool=curl" -d "age=old" https://example.com
               curl --get -I -d "tool=curl" https://example.com

              See also -d, --data and -X, --request.

       -g, --globoff
              This option switches off the "URL globbing parser". When you set
              this option, you can specify URLs that contain the letters {}[]
              without having curl itself interpret them. Note that these letters
              are not normal legal URL contents but they should be encoded
              according to the URI standard.

              Providing --globoff multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable
              it again with --no-globoff.

              Example:
               curl -g "https://example.com/{[]}}}}"

              See also -K, --config and -q, --disable.

       --happy-eyeballs-timeout-ms <milliseconds>
              Happy Eyeballs is an algorithm that attempts to connect to both
              IPv4 and IPv6 addresses for dual-stack hosts, giving IPv6 a head-
              start of the specified number of milliseconds. If the IPv6 address
              cannot be connected to within that time, then a connection attempt
              is made to the IPv4 address in parallel. The first connection to
              be established is the one that is used.

              The range of suggested useful values is limited. Happy Eyeballs
              RFC 6555 says "It is RECOMMENDED that connection attempts be paced
              150-250 ms apart to balance human factors against network load."
              libcurl currently defaults to 200 ms. Firefox and Chrome currently
              default to 300 ms.

              If --happy-eyeballs-timeout-ms is provided several times, the last
              set value will be used.

              Example:
               curl --happy-eyeballs-timeout-ms 500 https://example.com

              See also -m, --max-time and --connect-timeout. Added in 7.59.0.

       --haproxy-protocol
              (HTTP) Send a HAProxy PROXY protocol v1 header at the beginning of
              the connection. This is used by some load balancers and reverse
              proxies to indicate the client's true IP address and port.

              This option is primarily useful when sending test requests to a
              service that expects this header.

              Providing --haproxy-protocol multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-haproxy-protocol.

              Example:
               curl --haproxy-protocol https://example.com

              See also -x, --proxy. Added in 7.60.0.

       -I, --head
              (HTTP FTP FILE) Fetch the headers only! HTTP-servers feature the
              command HEAD which this uses to get nothing but the header of a
              document. When used on an FTP or FILE file, curl displays the file
              size and last modification time only.

              Providing --head multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable it
              again with --no-head.

              Example:
               curl -I https://example.com

              See also -G, --get, -v, --verbose and --trace-ascii.

       -H, --header <header/@file>
              (HTTP IMAP SMTP) Extra header to include in information sent. When
              used within an HTTP request, it is added to the regular request
              headers.

              For an IMAP or SMTP MIME uploaded mail built with --form options,
              it is prepended to the resulting MIME document, effectively
              including it at the mail global level. It does not affect raw
              uploaded mails (Added in 7.56.0).

              You may specify any number of extra headers. Note that if you
              should add a custom header that has the same name as one of the
              internal ones curl would use, your externally set header will be
              used instead of the internal one.  This allows you to make even
              trickier stuff than curl would normally do. You should not replace
              internally set headers without knowing perfectly well what you are
              doing. Remove an internal header by giving a replacement without
              content on the right side of the colon, as in: -H "Host:". If you
              send the custom header with no-value then its header must be
              terminated with a semicolon, such as -H "X-Custom-Header;" to send
              "X-Custom-Header:".

              curl will make sure that each header you add/replace is sent with
              the proper end-of-line marker, you should thus not add that as a
              part of the header content: do not add newlines or carriage
              returns, they will only mess things up for you.

              This option can take an argument in @filename style, which then
              adds a header for each line in the input file. Using @- will make
              curl read the header file from stdin. Added in 7.55.0.

              Please note that most anti-spam utilities check the presence and
              value of several MIME mail headers: these are "From:", "To:",
              "Date:" and "Subject:" among others and should be added with this
              option.

              You need --proxy-header to send custom headers intended for an
              HTTP proxy. Added in 7.37.0.

              Passing on a "Transfer-Encoding: chunked" header when doing an
              HTTP request with a request body, will make curl send the data
              using chunked encoding.

              WARNING: headers set with this option will be set in all HTTP
              requests - even after redirects are followed, like when told with
              -L, --location. This can lead to the header being sent to other
              hosts than the original host, so sensitive headers should be used
              with caution combined with following redirects.

              --header can be used several times in a command line

              Examples:
               curl -H "X-First-Name: Joe" https://example.com
               curl -H "User-Agent: yes-please/2000" https://example.com
               curl -H "Host:" https://example.com

              See also -A, --user-agent and -e, --referer.

       -h, --help <category>
              Usage help. This lists all commands of the <category>.  If no arg
              was provided, curl will display the most important command line
              arguments.  If the argument "all" was provided, curl will display
              all options available.  If the argument "category" was provided,
              curl will display all categories and their meanings.

              Providing --help multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable it
              again with --no-help.

              Example:
               curl --help all

              See also -v, --verbose.

       --hostpubmd5 <md5>
              (SFTP SCP) Pass a string containing 32 hexadecimal digits. The
              string should be the 128 bit MD5 checksum of the remote host's
              public key, curl will refuse the connection with the host unless
              the md5sums match.

              If --hostpubmd5 is provided several times, the last set value will
              be used.

              Example:
               curl --hostpubmd5 e5c1c49020640a5ab0f2034854c321a8 sftp://example.com/

              See also --hostpubsha256.

       --hostpubsha256 <sha256>
              (SFTP SCP) Pass a string containing a Base64-encoded SHA256 hash
              of the remote host's public key. Curl will refuse the connection
              with the host unless the hashes match.

              If --hostpubsha256 is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --hostpubsha256 NDVkMTQxMGQ1ODdmMjQ3MjczYjAyOTY5MmRkMjVmNDQ= sftp://example.com/

              See also --hostpubmd5. Added in 7.80.0.

       --hsts <file name>
              (HTTPS) This option enables HSTS for the transfer. If the file
              name points to an existing HSTS cache file, that will be used.
              After a completed transfer, the cache will be saved to the file
              name again if it has been modified.

              Specify a "" file name (zero length) to avoid loading/saving and
              make curl just handle HSTS in memory.

              If this option is used several times, curl will load contents from
              all the files but the last one will be used for saving.

              --hsts can be used several times in a command line

              Example:
               curl --hsts cache.txt https://example.com

              See also --proto. Added in 7.74.0.

       --http0.9
              (HTTP) Tells curl to be fine with HTTP version 0.9 response.

              HTTP/0.9 is a completely headerless response and therefore you can
              also connect with this to non-HTTP servers and still get a
              response since curl will simply transparently downgrade - if
              allowed.

              Since curl 7.66.0, HTTP/0.9 is disabled by default.

              Providing --http0.9 multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable
              it again with --no-http0.9.

              Example:
               curl --http0.9 https://example.com

              See also --http1.1, --http2 and --http3. Added in 7.64.0.

       -0, --http1.0
              (HTTP) Tells curl to use HTTP version 1.0 instead of using its
              internally preferred HTTP version.

              Providing --http1.0 multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --http1.0 https://example.com

              See also --http0.9 and --http1.1. This option is mutually
              exclusive to --http1.1 and --http2 and --http2-prior-knowledge and
              --http3.

       --http1.1
              (HTTP) Tells curl to use HTTP version 1.1.

              Providing --http1.1 multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --http1.1 https://example.com

              See also -0, --http1.0 and --http0.9. This option is mutually
              exclusive to -0, --http1.0 and --http2 and --http2-prior-knowledge
              and --http3. Added in 7.33.0.

       --http2-prior-knowledge
              (HTTP) Tells curl to issue its non-TLS HTTP requests using HTTP/2
              without HTTP/1.1 Upgrade. It requires prior knowledge that the
              server supports HTTP/2 straight away. HTTPS requests will still do
              HTTP/2 the standard way with negotiated protocol version in the
              TLS handshake.

              Providing --http2-prior-knowledge multiple times has no extra
              effect.  Disable it again with --no-http2-prior-knowledge.

              Example:
               curl --http2-prior-knowledge https://example.com

              See also --http2 and --http3. --http2-prior-knowledge requires
              that the underlying libcurl was built to support HTTP/2. This
              option is mutually exclusive to --http1.1 and -0, --http1.0 and
              --http2 and --http3. Added in 7.49.0.

       --http2
              (HTTP) Tells curl to use HTTP version 2.

              For HTTPS, this means curl will attempt to negotiate HTTP/2 in the
              TLS handshake. curl does this by default.

              For HTTP, this means curl will attempt to upgrade the request to
              HTTP/2 using the Upgrade: request header.

              When curl uses HTTP/2 over HTTPS, it does not itself insist on TLS
              1.2 or higher even though that is required by the specification. A
              user can add this version requirement with --tlsv1.2.

              Providing --http2 multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --http2 https://example.com

              See also --http1.1 and --http3. --http2 requires that the
              underlying libcurl was built to support HTTP/2. This option is
              mutually exclusive to --http1.1 and -0, --http1.0 and
              --http2-prior-knowledge and --http3. Added in 7.33.0.

       --http3
              (HTTP) **WARNING**: this option is experimental. Do not use in
              production.

              Tells curl to use HTTP version 3 directly to the host and port
              number used in the URL. A normal HTTP/3 transaction will be done
              to a host and then get redirected via Alt-Svc, but this option
              allows a user to circumvent that when you know that the target
              speaks HTTP/3 on the given host and port.

              This option will make curl fail if a QUIC connection cannot be
              established, it cannot fall back to a lower HTTP version on its
              own.

              Providing --http3 multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --http3 https://example.com

              See also --http1.1 and --http2. --http3 requires that the
              underlying libcurl was built to support HTTP/3. This option is
              mutually exclusive to --http1.1 and -0, --http1.0 and --http2 and
              --http2-prior-knowledge. Added in 7.66.0.

       --ignore-content-length
              (FTP HTTP) For HTTP, Ignore the Content-Length header. This is
              particularly useful for servers running Apache 1.x, which will
              report incorrect Content-Length for files larger than 2 gigabytes.

              For FTP (since 7.46.0), skip the RETR command to figure out the
              size before downloading a file.

              This option does not work for HTTP if libcurl was built to use
              hyper.

              Providing --ignore-content-length multiple times has no extra
              effect.  Disable it again with --no-ignore-content-length.

              Example:
               curl --ignore-content-length https://example.com

              See also --ftp-skip-pasv-ip.

       -i, --include
              Include the HTTP response headers in the output. The HTTP response
              headers can include things like server name, cookies, date of the
              document, HTTP version and more...

              To view the request headers, consider the --verbose option.

              Providing --include multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable
              it again with --no-include.

              Example:
               curl -i https://example.com

              See also -v, --verbose.

       -k, --insecure
              (TLS SFTP SCP) By default, every secure connection curl makes is
              verified to be secure before the transfer takes place. This option
              makes curl skip the verification step and proceed without
              checking.

              When this option is not used for protocols using TLS, curl
              verifies the server's TLS certificate before it continues: that
              the certificate contains the right name which matches the host
              name used in the URL and that the certificate has been signed by a
              CA certificate present in the cert store.  See this online
              resource for further details:
               https://curl.se/docs/sslcerts.html

              For SFTP and SCP, this option makes curl skip the known_hosts
              verification.  known_hosts is a file normally stored in the user's
              home directory in the ".ssh" subdirectory, which contains host
              names and their public keys.

              WARNING: using this option makes the transfer insecure.

              Providing --insecure multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable
              it again with --no-insecure.

              Example:
               curl --insecure https://example.com

              See also --proxy-insecure, --cacert and --capath.

       --interface <name>
              Perform an operation using a specified interface. You can enter
              interface name, IP address or host name. An example could look
              like:

               curl --interface eth0:1 https://www.example.com/

              On Linux it can be used to specify a VRF, but the binary needs to
              either have CAP_NET_RAW or to be run as root. More information
              about Linux VRF:
              https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/networking/vrf.txt

              If --interface is provided several times, the last set value will
              be used.

              Example:
               curl --interface eth0 https://example.com

              See also --dns-interface.

       -4, --ipv4
              This option tells curl to use IPv4 addresses only, and not for
              example try IPv6.

              Providing --ipv4 multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable it
              again with --no-ipv4.

              Example:
               curl --ipv4 https://example.com

              See also --http1.1 and --http2. This option is mutually exclusive
              to -6, --ipv6.

       -6, --ipv6
              This option tells curl to use IPv6 addresses only, and not for
              example try IPv4.

              Providing --ipv6 multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable it
              again with --no-ipv6.

              Example:
               curl --ipv6 https://example.com

              See also --http1.1 and --http2. This option is mutually exclusive
              to -4, --ipv4.

       --json <data>
              (HTTP) Sends the specified JSON data in a POST request to the HTTP
              server. --json works as a shortcut for passing on these three
              options:

               --data [arg]
               --header "Content-Type: application/json"
               --header "Accept: application/json"

              There is no verification that the passed in data is actual JSON or
              that the syntax is correct.

              If you start the data with the letter @, the rest should be a file
              name to read the data from, or a single dash (-) if you want curl
              to read the data from stdin. Posting data from a file named
              'foobar' would thus be done with --json @foobar and to instead
              read the data from stdin, use --json @-.

              If this option is used more than once on the same command line,
              the additional data pieces will be concatenated to the previous
              before sending.

              The headers this option sets can be overridden with --header as
              usual.

              --json can be used several times in a command line

              Examples:
               curl --json '{ "drink": "coffe" }' https://example.com
               curl --json '{ "drink":' --json ' "coffe" }' https://example.com
               curl --json @prepared https://example.com
               curl --json @- https://example.com < json.txt

              See also --data-binary and --data-raw. This option is mutually
              exclusive to -F, --form and -I, --head and -T, --upload-file.
              Added in 7.82.0.

       -j, --junk-session-cookies
              (HTTP) When curl is told to read cookies from a given file, this
              option will make it discard all "session cookies". This will
              basically have the same effect as if a new session is started.
              Typical browsers always discard session cookies when they are
              closed down.

              Providing --junk-session-cookies multiple times has no extra
              effect.  Disable it again with --no-junk-session-cookies.

              Example:
               curl --junk-session-cookies -b cookies.txt https://example.com

              See also -b, --cookie and -c, --cookie-jar.

       --keepalive-time <seconds>
              This option sets the time a connection needs to remain idle before
              sending keepalive probes and the time between individual keepalive
              probes. It is currently effective on operating systems offering
              the TCP_KEEPIDLE and TCP_KEEPINTVL socket options (meaning Linux,
              recent AIX, HP-UX and more).  Keepalives are used by the TCP stack
              to detect broken networks on idle connections. The number of
              missed keepalive probes before declaring the connection down is OS
              dependent and is commonly 9 or 10. This option has no effect if
              --no-keepalive is used.

              If unspecified, the option defaults to 60 seconds.

              If --keepalive-time is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --keepalive-time 20 https://example.com

              See also --no-keepalive and -m, --max-time.

       --key-type <type>
              (TLS) Private key file type. Specify which type your --key
              provided private key is. DER, PEM, and ENG are supported. If not
              specified, PEM is assumed.

              If --key-type is provided several times, the last set value will
              be used.

              Example:
               curl --key-type DER --key here https://example.com

              See also --key.

       --key <key>
              (TLS SSH) Private key file name. Allows you to provide your
              private key in this separate file. For SSH, if not specified, curl
              tries the following candidates in order: '~/.ssh/id_rsa',
              '~/.ssh/id_dsa', './id_rsa', './id_dsa'.

              If curl is built against OpenSSL library, and the engine pkcs11 is
              available, then a PKCS#11 URI (RFC 7512) can be used to specify a
              private key located in a PKCS#11 device. A string beginning with
              "pkcs11:" will be interpreted as a PKCS#11 URI. If a PKCS#11 URI
              is provided, then the --engine option will be set as "pkcs11" if
              none was provided and the --key-type option will be set as "ENG"
              if none was provided.

              If curl is built against Secure Transport or Schannel then this
              option is ignored for TLS protocols (HTTPS, etc). Those backends
              expect the private key to be already present in the keychain or
              PKCS#12 file containing the certificate.

              If --key is provided several times, the last set value will be
              used.

              Example:
               curl --cert certificate --key here https://example.com

              See also --key-type and -E, --cert.

       --krb <level>
              (FTP) Enable Kerberos authentication and use. The level must be
              entered and should be one of 'clear', 'safe', 'confidential', or
              'private'. Should you use a level that is not one of these,
              'private' will instead be used.

              If --krb is provided several times, the last set value will be
              used.

              Example:
               curl --krb clear ftp://example.com/

              See also --delegation and --ssl. --krb requires that the
              underlying libcurl was built to support Kerberos.

       --libcurl <file>
              Append this option to any ordinary curl command line, and you will
              get libcurl-using C source code written to the file that does the
              equivalent of what your command-line operation does!

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of -:, --next.

              If --libcurl is provided several times, the last set value will be
              used.

              Example:
               curl --libcurl client.c https://example.com

              See also -v, --verbose.

       --limit-rate <speed>
              Specify the maximum transfer rate you want curl to use - for both
              downloads and uploads. This feature is useful if you have a
              limited pipe and you would like your transfer not to use your
              entire bandwidth. To make it slower than it otherwise would be.

              The given speed is measured in bytes/second, unless a suffix is
              appended.  Appending 'k' or 'K' will count the number as
              kilobytes, 'm' or 'M' makes it megabytes, while 'g' or 'G' makes
              it gigabytes. The suffixes (k, M, G, T, P) are 1024 based. For
              example 1k is 1024. Examples: 200K, 3m and 1G.

              The rate limiting logic works on averaging the transfer speed to
              no more than the set threshold over a period of multiple seconds.

              If you also use the --speed-limit option, that option will take
              precedence and might cripple the rate-limiting slightly, to help
              keeping the speed-limit logic working.

              If --limit-rate is provided several times, the last set value will
              be used.

              Examples:
               curl --limit-rate 100K https://example.com
               curl --limit-rate 1000 https://example.com
               curl --limit-rate 10M https://example.com

              See also -Y, --speed-limit and -y, --speed-time.

       -l, --list-only
              (FTP POP3) (FTP) When listing an FTP directory, this switch forces
              a name-only view. This is especially useful if the user wants to
              machine-parse the contents of an FTP directory since the normal
              directory view does not use a standard look or format. When used
              like this, the option causes an NLST command to be sent to the
              server instead of LIST.

              Note: Some FTP servers list only files in their response to NLST;
              they do not include sub-directories and symbolic links.

              (POP3) When retrieving a specific email from POP3, this switch
              forces a LIST command to be performed instead of RETR. This is
              particularly useful if the user wants to see if a specific
              message-id exists on the server and what size it is.

              Note: When combined with -X, --request, this option can be used to
              send a UIDL command instead, so the user may use the email's
              unique identifier rather than its message-id to make the request.

              Providing --list-only multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable
              it again with --no-list-only.

              Example:
               curl --list-only ftp://example.com/dir/

              See also -Q, --quote and -X, --request.

       --local-port <num/range>
              Set a preferred single number or range (FROM-TO) of local port
              numbers to use for the connection(s).  Note that port numbers by
              nature are a scarce resource that will be busy at times so setting
              this range to something too narrow might cause unnecessary
              connection setup failures.

              If --local-port is provided several times, the last set value will
              be used.

              Example:
               curl --local-port 1000-3000 https://example.com

              See also -g, --globoff.

       --location-trusted
              (HTTP) Like -L, --location, but will allow sending the name +
              password to all hosts that the site may redirect to. This may or
              may not introduce a security breach if the site redirects you to a
              site to which you will send your authentication info (which is
              plaintext in the case of HTTP Basic authentication).

              Providing --location-trusted multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-location-trusted.

              Example:
               curl --location-trusted -u user:password https://example.com

              See also -u, --user.

       -L, --location
              (HTTP) If the server reports that the requested page has moved to
              a different location (indicated with a Location: header and a 3XX
              response code), this option will make curl redo the request on the
              new place. If used together with --include or -I, --head, headers
              from all requested pages will be shown. When authentication is
              used, curl only sends its credentials to the initial host. If a
              redirect takes curl to a different host, it will not be able to
              intercept the user+password. See also --location-trusted on how to
              change this. You can limit the amount of redirects to follow by
              using the --max-redirs option.

              When curl follows a redirect and if the request is a POST, it will
              send the following request with a GET if the HTTP response was
              301, 302, or 303. If the response code was any other 3x code,
              curl will re-send the following request using the same unmodified
              method.

              You can tell curl to not change POST requests to GET after a 30x
              response by using the dedicated options for that: --post301,
              --post302 and --post303.

              The method set with --request overrides the method curl would
              otherwise select to use.

              Providing --location multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable
              it again with --no-location.

              Example:
               curl -L https://example.com

              See also --resolve and --alt-svc.

       --login-options <options>
              (IMAP LDAP POP3 SMTP) Specify the login options to use during
              server authentication.

              You can use login options to specify protocol specific options
              that may be used during authentication. At present only IMAP, POP3
              and SMTP support login options. For more information about login
              options please see RFC 2384, RFC 5092 and IETF draft draft-
              earhart-url-smtp-00.txt

              If --login-options is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --login-options 'AUTH=*' imap://example.com

              See also -u, --user. Added in 7.34.0.

       --mail-auth <address>
              (SMTP) Specify a single address. This will be used to specify the
              authentication address (identity) of a submitted message that is
              being relayed to another server.

              If --mail-auth is provided several times, the last set value will
              be used.

              Example:
               curl --mail-auth user@example.come -T mail smtp://example.com/

              See also --mail-rcpt and --mail-from.

       --mail-from <address>
              (SMTP) Specify a single address that the given mail should get
              sent from.

              If --mail-from is provided several times, the last set value will
              be used.

              Example:
               curl --mail-from user@example.com -T mail smtp://example.com/

              See also --mail-rcpt and --mail-auth.

       --mail-rcpt-allowfails
              (SMTP) When sending data to multiple recipients, by default curl
              will abort SMTP conversation if at least one of the recipients
              causes RCPT TO command to return an error.

              The default behavior can be changed by passing --mail-rcpt-
              allowfails command-line option which will make curl ignore errors
              and proceed with the remaining valid recipients.

              If all recipients trigger RCPT TO failures and this flag is
              specified, curl will still abort the SMTP conversation and return
              the error received from to the last RCPT TO command.

              Providing --mail-rcpt-allowfails multiple times has no extra
              effect.  Disable it again with --no-mail-rcpt-allowfails.

              Example:
               curl --mail-rcpt-allowfails --mail-rcpt dest@example.com smtp://example.com

              See also --mail-rcpt. Added in 7.69.0.

       --mail-rcpt <address>
              (SMTP) Specify a single email address, user name or mailing list
              name. Repeat this option several times to send to multiple
              recipients.

              When performing an address verification (VRFY command), the
              recipient should be specified as the user name or user name and
              domain (as per Section 3.5 of RFC5321). (Added in 7.34.0)

              When performing a mailing list expand (EXPN command), the
              recipient should be specified using the mailing list name, such as
              "Friends" or "London-Office".  (Added in 7.34.0)

              --mail-rcpt can be used several times in a command line

              Example:
               curl --mail-rcpt user@example.net smtp://example.com

              See also --mail-rcpt-allowfails.

       -M, --manual
              Manual. Display the huge help text.

              Providing --manual multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable it
              again with --no-manual.

              Example:
               curl --manual

              See also -v, --verbose, --libcurl and --trace.

       --max-filesize <bytes>
              (FTP HTTP MQTT) Specify the maximum size (in bytes) of a file to
              download. If the file requested is larger than this value, the
              transfer will not start and curl will return with exit code 63.

              A size modifier may be used. For example, Appending 'k' or 'K'
              will count the number as kilobytes, 'm' or 'M' makes it megabytes,
              while 'g' or 'G' makes it gigabytes. Examples: 200K, 3m and 1G.
              (Added in 7.58.0)

              NOTE: The file size is not always known prior to download, and for
              such files this option has no effect even if the file transfer
              ends up being larger than this given limit.  If --max-filesize is
              provided several times, the last set value will be used.

              Example:
               curl --max-filesize 100K https://example.com

              See also --limit-rate.

       --max-redirs <num>
              (HTTP) Set maximum number of redirections to follow. When
              --location is used, to prevent curl from following too many
              redirects, by default, the limit is set to 50 redirects. Set this
              option to -1 to make it unlimited.

              If --max-redirs is provided several times, the last set value will
              be used.

              Example:
               curl --max-redirs 3 --location https://example.com

              See also -L, --location.

       -m, --max-time <fractional seconds>
              Maximum time in seconds that you allow each transfer to take.
              This is useful for preventing your batch jobs from hanging for
              hours due to slow networks or links going down.  Since 7.32.0,
              this option accepts decimal values, but the actual timeout will
              decrease in accuracy as the specified timeout increases in decimal
              precision.

              If you enable retrying the transfer (--retry) then the maximum
              time counter is reset each time the transfer is retried. You can
              use --retry-max-time to limit the retry time.

              If --max-time is provided several times, the last set value will
              be used.

              Examples:
               curl --max-time 10 https://example.com
               curl --max-time 2.92 https://example.com

              See also --connect-timeout and --retry-max-time.

       --metalink
              This option was previously used to specify a metalink resource.
              Metalink support has been disabled in curl since 7.78.0 for
              security reasons.

              If --metalink is provided several times, the last set value will
              be used.

              Example:
               curl --metalink file https://example.com

              See also -Z, --parallel.

       --negotiate
              (HTTP) Enables Negotiate (SPNEGO) authentication.

              This option requires a library built with GSS-API or SSPI support.
              Use --version to see if your curl supports GSS-API/SSPI or SPNEGO.

              When using this option, you must also provide a fake --user option
              to activate the authentication code properly. Sending a '-u :' is
              enough as the user name and password from the --user option are
              not actually used.

              If this option is used several times, only the first one is used.

              Providing --negotiate multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --negotiate -u : https://example.com

              See also --basic, --ntlm, --anyauth and --proxy-negotiate.

       --netrc-file <filename>
              This option is similar to -n, --netrc, except that you provide the
              path (absolute or relative) to the netrc file that curl should
              use. You can only specify one netrc file per invocation.

              It will abide by --netrc-optional if specified.

              If --netrc-file is provided several times, the last set value will
              be used.

              Example:
               curl --netrc-file netrc https://example.com

              See also -n, --netrc, -u, --user and -K, --config. This option is
              mutually exclusive to -n, --netrc.

       --netrc-optional
              Similar to -n, --netrc, but this option makes the .netrc usage
              optional and not mandatory as the --netrc option does.

              Providing --netrc-optional multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-netrc-optional.

              Example:
               curl --netrc-optional https://example.com

              See also --netrc-file. This option is mutually exclusive to -n,
              --netrc.

       -n, --netrc
              Makes curl scan the .netrc (_netrc on Windows) file in the user's
              home directory for login name and password. This is typically used
              for FTP on Unix. If used with HTTP, curl will enable user
              authentication. See netrc(5) and ftp(1) for details on the file
              format. Curl will not complain if that file does not have the
              right permissions (it should be neither world- nor group-
              readable). The environment variable "HOME" is used to find the
              home directory.

              A quick and simple example of how to setup a .netrc to allow curl
              to FTP to the machine host.domain.com with user name 'myself' and
              password 'secret' could look similar to:

               machine host.domain.com
               login myself
               password secret

              Providing --netrc multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable it
              again with --no-netrc.

              Example:
               curl --netrc https://example.com

              See also --netrc-file, -K, --config and -u, --user.

       -:, --next
              Tells curl to use a separate operation for the following URL and
              associated options. This allows you to send several URL requests,
              each with their own specific options, for example, such as
              different user names or custom requests for each.

              --next will reset all local options and only global ones will have
              their values survive over to the operation following the --next
              instruction. Global options include -v, --verbose, --trace,
              --trace-ascii and --fail-early.

              For example, you can do both a GET and a POST in a single command
              line:

               curl www1.example.com --next -d postthis www2.example.com

              --next can be used several times in a command line

              Examples:
               curl https://example.com --next -d postthis www2.example.com
               curl -I https://example.com --next https://example.net/

              See also -Z, --parallel and -K, --config. Added in 7.36.0.

       --no-alpn
              (HTTPS) Disable the ALPN TLS extension. ALPN is enabled by default
              if libcurl was built with an SSL library that supports ALPN. ALPN
              is used by a libcurl that supports HTTP/2 to negotiate HTTP/2
              support with the server during https sessions.

              Providing --no-alpn multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable
              it again with --alpn.

              Example:
               curl --no-alpn https://example.com

              See also --no-npn and --http2. --no-alpn requires that the
              underlying libcurl was built to support TLS. Added in 7.36.0.

       -N, --no-buffer
              Disables the buffering of the output stream. In normal work
              situations, curl will use a standard buffered output stream that
              will have the effect that it will output the data in chunks, not
              necessarily exactly when the data arrives.  Using this option will
              disable that buffering.

              Providing --no-buffer multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable
              it again with --buffer.

              Example:
               curl --no-buffer https://example.com

              See also -#, --progress-bar.

       --no-clobber
              When used in conjunction with the -o, --output, -J, --remote-
              header-name, -O, --remote-name, or --remote-name-all options, curl
              avoids overwriting files that already exist. Instead, a dot and a
              number gets appended to the name of the file that would be
              created, up to filename.100 after which it will not create any
              file.

              Note that this is the negated option name documented.  You can
              thus use --clobber to enforce the clobbering, even if --remote-
              header-name or -J is specified.

              Providing --no-clobber multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --clobber.

              Example:
               curl --no-clobber --output local/dir/file https://example.com

              See also -o, --output and -O, --remote-name. Added in 7.83.0.

       --no-keepalive
              Disables the use of keepalive messages on the TCP connection. curl
              otherwise enables them by default.

              Note that this is the negated option name documented. You can thus
              use --keepalive to enforce keepalive.

              Providing --no-keepalive multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --keepalive.

              Example:
               curl --no-keepalive https://example.com

              See also --keepalive-time.

       --no-npn
              (HTTPS) In curl 7.86.0 and later, curl never uses NPN.

              Disable the NPN TLS extension. NPN is enabled by default if
              libcurl was built with an SSL library that supports NPN. NPN is
              used by a libcurl that supports HTTP/2 to negotiate HTTP/2 support
              with the server during https sessions.

              Providing --no-npn multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable it
              again with --npn.

              Example:
               curl --no-npn https://example.com

              See also --no-alpn and --http2. --no-npn requires that the
              underlying libcurl was built to support TLS. Added in 7.36.0.

       --no-progress-meter
              Option to switch off the progress meter output without muting or
              otherwise affecting warning and informational messages like
              --silent does.

              Note that this is the negated option name documented. You can thus
              use --progress-meter to enable the progress meter again.

              Providing --no-progress-meter multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --progress-meter.

              Example:
               curl --no-progress-meter -o store https://example.com

              See also -v, --verbose and -s, --silent. Added in 7.67.0.

       --no-sessionid
              (TLS) Disable curl's use of SSL session-ID caching. By default all
              transfers are done using the cache. Note that while nothing should
              ever get hurt by attempting to reuse SSL session-IDs, there seem
              to be broken SSL implementations in the wild that may require you
              to disable this in order for you to succeed.

              Note that this is the negated option name documented. You can thus
              use --sessionid to enforce session-ID caching.

              Providing --no-sessionid multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --sessionid.

              Example:
               curl --no-sessionid https://example.com

              See also -k, --insecure.

       --noproxy <no-proxy-list>
              Comma-separated list of hosts for which not to use a proxy, if one
              is specified. The only wildcard is a single * character, which
              matches all hosts, and effectively disables the proxy. Each name
              in this list is matched as either a domain which contains the
              hostname, or the hostname itself. For example, local.com would
              match local.com, local.com:80, and www.local.com, but not
              www.notlocal.com.

              Since 7.53.0, This option overrides the environment variables that
              disable the proxy ('no_proxy' and 'NO_PROXY'). If there's an
              environment variable disabling a proxy, you can set the noproxy
              list to "" to override it.

              If --noproxy is provided several times, the last set value will be
              used.

              Example:
               curl --noproxy "www.example" https://example.com

              See also -x, --proxy.

       --ntlm-wb
              (HTTP) Enables NTLM much in the style --ntlm does, but hand over
              the authentication to the separate binary ntlmauth application
              that is executed when needed.

              Providing --ntlm-wb multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --ntlm-wb -u user:password https://example.com

              See also --ntlm and --proxy-ntlm.

       --ntlm (HTTP) Enables NTLM authentication. The NTLM authentication method
              was designed by Microsoft and is used by IIS web servers. It is a
              proprietary protocol, reverse-engineered by clever people and
              implemented in curl based on their efforts. This kind of behavior
              should not be endorsed, you should encourage everyone who uses
              NTLM to switch to a public and documented authentication method
              instead, such as Digest.

              If you want to enable NTLM for your proxy authentication, then use
              --proxy-ntlm.

              If this option is used several times, only the first one is used.

              Providing --ntlm multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --ntlm -u user:password https://example.com

              See also --proxy-ntlm. --ntlm requires that the underlying libcurl
              was built to support TLS. This option is mutually exclusive to
              --basic and --negotiate and --digest and --anyauth.

       --oauth2-bearer <token>
              (IMAP LDAP POP3 SMTP HTTP) Specify the Bearer Token for OAUTH 2.0
              server authentication. The Bearer Token is used in conjunction
              with the user name which can be specified as part of the --url or
              --user options.

              The Bearer Token and user name are formatted according to RFC
              6750.

              If --oauth2-bearer is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --oauth2-bearer "mF_9.B5f-4.1JqM" https://example.com

              See also --basic, --ntlm and --digest. Added in 7.33.0.

       --output-dir <dir>
              This option specifies the directory in which files should be
              stored, when --remote-name or --output are used.

              The given output directory is used for all URLs and output options
              on the command line, up until the first -:, --next.

              If the specified target directory does not exist, the operation
              will fail unless --create-dirs is also used.

              If --output-dir is provided several times, the last set value will
              be used.

              Example:
               curl --output-dir "tmp" -O https://example.com

              See also -O, --remote-name and -J, --remote-header-name. Added in
              7.73.0.

       -o, --output <file>
              Write output to <file> instead of stdout. If you are using {} or
              [] to fetch multiple documents, you should quote the URL and you
              can use '#' followed by a number in the <file> specifier. That
              variable will be replaced with the current string for the URL
              being fetched. Like in:

               curl "http://{one,two}.example.com" -o "file_#1.txt"

              or use several variables like:

               curl "http://{site,host}.host[1-5].com" -o "#1_#2"

              You may use this option as many times as the number of URLs you
              have. For example, if you specify two URLs on the same command
              line, you can use it like this:

                curl -o aa example.com -o bb example.net

              and the order of the -o options and the URLs does not matter, just
              that the first -o is for the first URL and so on, so the above
              command line can also be written as

                curl example.com example.net -o aa -o bb

              See also the --create-dirs option to create the local directories
              dynamically. Specifying the output as '-' (a single dash) will
              force the output to be done to stdout.

              To suppress response bodies, you can redirect output to /dev/null:

                curl example.com -o /dev/null

              Or for Windows use nul:

                curl example.com -o nul

              --output can be used several times in a command line

              Examples:
               curl -o file https://example.com
               curl "http://{one,two}.example.com" -o "file_#1.txt"
               curl "http://{site,host}.host[1-5].com" -o "#1_#2"
               curl -o file https://example.com -o file2 https://example.net

              See also -O, --remote-name, --remote-name-all and -J, --remote-
              header-name.

       --parallel-immediate
              When doing parallel transfers, this option will instruct curl that
              it should rather prefer opening up more connections in parallel at
              once rather than waiting to see if new transfers can be added as
              multiplexed streams on another connection.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of -:, --next.

              Providing --parallel-immediate multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-parallel-immediate.

              Example:
               curl --parallel-immediate -Z https://example.com -o file1 https://example.com -o file2

              See also -Z, --parallel and --parallel-max. Added in 7.68.0.

       --parallel-max <num>
              When asked to do parallel transfers, using -Z, --parallel, this
              option controls the maximum amount of transfers to do
              simultaneously.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of -:, --next.

              The default is 50.

              If --parallel-max is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --parallel-max 100 -Z https://example.com ftp://example.com/

              See also -Z, --parallel. Added in 7.66.0.

       -Z, --parallel
              Makes curl perform its transfers in parallel as compared to the
              regular serial manner.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of -:, --next.

              Providing --parallel multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable
              it again with --no-parallel.

              Example:
               curl --parallel https://example.com -o file1 https://example.com -o file2

              See also -:, --next and -v, --verbose. Added in 7.66.0.

       --pass <phrase>
              (SSH TLS) Passphrase for the private key.

              If --pass is provided several times, the last set value will be
              used.

              Example:
               curl --pass secret --key file https://example.com

              See also --key and -u, --user.

       --path-as-is
              Tell curl to not handle sequences of /../ or /./ in the given URL
              path. Normally curl will squash or merge them according to
              standards but with this option set you tell it not to do that.

              Providing --path-as-is multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-path-as-is.

              Example:
               curl --path-as-is https://example.com/../../etc/passwd

              See also --request-target. Added in 7.42.0.

       --pinnedpubkey <hashes>
              (TLS) Tells curl to use the specified public key file (or hashes)
              to verify the peer. This can be a path to a file which contains a
              single public key in PEM or DER format, or any number of base64
              encoded sha256 hashes preceded by 'sha256//' and separated by ';'.

              When negotiating a TLS or SSL connection, the server sends a
              certificate indicating its identity. A public key is extracted
              from this certificate and if it does not exactly match the public
              key provided to this option, curl will abort the connection before
              sending or receiving any data.

              PEM/DER support:

              7.39.0: OpenSSL, GnuTLS and GSKit

              7.43.0: NSS and wolfSSL

              7.47.0: mbedtls

              sha256 support:

              7.44.0: OpenSSL, GnuTLS, NSS and wolfSSL

              7.47.0: mbedtls

              Other SSL backends not supported.

              If --pinnedpubkey is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Examples:
               curl --pinnedpubkey keyfile https://example.com
               curl --pinnedpubkey 'sha256//ce118b51897f4452dc' https://example.com

              See also --hostpubsha256. Added in 7.39.0.

       --post301
              (HTTP) Tells curl to respect RFC 7231/6.4.2 and not convert POST
              requests into GET requests when following a 301 redirection. The
              non-RFC behavior is ubiquitous in web browsers, so curl does the
              conversion by default to maintain consistency. However, a server
              may require a POST to remain a POST after such a redirection. This
              option is meaningful only when using -L, --location.

              Providing --post301 multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable
              it again with --no-post301.

              Example:
               curl --post301 --location -d "data" https://example.com

              See also --post302, --post303 and -L, --location.

       --post302
              (HTTP) Tells curl to respect RFC 7231/6.4.3 and not convert POST
              requests into GET requests when following a 302 redirection. The
              non-RFC behavior is ubiquitous in web browsers, so curl does the
              conversion by default to maintain consistency. However, a server
              may require a POST to remain a POST after such a redirection. This
              option is meaningful only when using -L, --location.

              Providing --post302 multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable
              it again with --no-post302.

              Example:
               curl --post302 --location -d "data" https://example.com

              See also --post301, --post303 and -L, --location.

       --post303
              (HTTP) Tells curl to violate RFC 7231/6.4.4 and not convert POST
              requests into GET requests when following 303 redirections. A
              server may require a POST to remain a POST after a 303
              redirection. This option is meaningful only when using -L,
              --location.

              Providing --post303 multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable
              it again with --no-post303.

              Example:
               curl --post303 --location -d "data" https://example.com

              See also --post302, --post301 and -L, --location.

       --preproxy [protocol://]host[:port]
              Use the specified SOCKS proxy before connecting to an HTTP or
              HTTPS -x, --proxy. In such a case curl first connects to the SOCKS
              proxy and then connects (through SOCKS) to the HTTP or HTTPS
              proxy. Hence pre proxy.

              The pre proxy string should be specified with a protocol:// prefix
              to specify alternative proxy protocols. Use socks4://, socks4a://,
              socks5:// or socks5h:// to request the specific SOCKS version to
              be used. No protocol specified will make curl default to SOCKS4.

              If the port number is not specified in the proxy string, it is
              assumed to be 1080.

              User and password that might be provided in the proxy string are
              URL decoded by curl. This allows you to pass in special characters
              such as @ by using %40 or pass in a colon with %3a.

              If --preproxy is provided several times, the last set value will
              be used.

              Example:
               curl --preproxy socks5://proxy.example -x http://http.example https://example.com

              See also -x, --proxy and --socks5. Added in 7.52.0.

       -#, --progress-bar
              Make curl display transfer progress as a simple progress bar
              instead of the standard, more informational, meter.

              This progress bar draws a single line of '#' characters across the
              screen and shows a percentage if the transfer size is known. For
              transfers without a known size, there will be space ship (-=o=-)
              that moves back and forth but only while data is being
              transferred, with a set of flying hash sign symbols on top.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of -:, --next.

              Providing --progress-bar multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-progress-bar.

              Example:
               curl -# -O https://example.com

              See also --styled-output.

       --proto-default <protocol>
              Tells curl to use protocol for any URL missing a scheme name.

              An unknown or unsupported protocol causes error
              CURLE_UNSUPPORTED_PROTOCOL (1).

              This option does not change the default proxy protocol (http).

              Without this option set, curl guesses protocol based on the host
              name, see --url for details.

              If --proto-default is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --proto-default https ftp.example.com

              See also --proto and --proto-redir. Added in 7.45.0.

       --proto-redir <protocols>
              Tells curl to limit what protocols it may use on redirect.
              Protocols denied by --proto are not overridden by this option. See
              --proto for how protocols are represented.

              Example, allow only HTTP and HTTPS on redirect:

               curl --proto-redir -all,http,https http://example.com

              By default curl will only allow HTTP, HTTPS, FTP and FTPS on
              redirect (since 7.65.2). Specifying all or +all enables all
              protocols on redirects, which is not good for security.

              If --proto-redir is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --proto-redir =http,https https://example.com

              See also --proto.

       --proto <protocols>
              Tells curl to limit what protocols it may use for transfers.
              Protocols are evaluated left to right, are comma separated, and
              are each a protocol name or 'all', optionally prefixed by zero or
              more modifiers. Available modifiers are:

              +  Permit this protocol in addition to protocols already permitted
                 (this is the default if no modifier is used).

              -  Deny this protocol, removing it from the list of protocols
                 already permitted.

              =  Permit only this protocol (ignoring the list already
                 permitted), though subject to later modification by subsequent
                 entries in the comma separated list.

              For example:

              --proto -ftps  uses the default protocols, but disables ftps

              --proto -all,https,+http
                             only enables http and https

              --proto =http,https
                             also only enables http and https

              Unknown and disabled protocols produce a warning. This allows
              scripts to safely rely on being able to disable potentially
              dangerous protocols, without relying upon support for that
              protocol being built into curl to avoid an error.

              This option can be used multiple times, in which case the effect
              is the same as concatenating the protocols into one instance of
              the option.

              If --proto is provided several times, the last set value will be
              used.

              Example:
               curl --proto =http,https,sftp https://example.com

              See also --proto-redir and --proto-default.

       --proxy-anyauth
              Tells curl to pick a suitable authentication method when
              communicating with the given HTTP proxy. This might cause an extra
              request/response round-trip.

              Providing --proxy-anyauth multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-anyauth --proxy-user user:passwd -x proxy https://example.com

              See also -x, --proxy, --proxy-basic and --proxy-digest.

       --proxy-basic
              Tells curl to use HTTP Basic authentication when communicating
              with the given proxy. Use --basic for enabling HTTP Basic with a
              remote host. Basic is the default authentication method curl uses
              with proxies.

              Providing --proxy-basic multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-basic --proxy-user user:passwd -x proxy https://example.com

              See also -x, --proxy, --proxy-anyauth and --proxy-digest.

       --proxy-cacert <file>
              Same as --cacert but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              If --proxy-cacert is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-cacert CA-file.txt -x https://proxy https://example.com

              See also --proxy-capath, --cacert, --capath and -x, --proxy. Added
              in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-capath <dir>
              Same as --capath but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              If --proxy-capath is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-capath /local/directory -x https://proxy https://example.com

              See also --proxy-cacert, -x, --proxy and --capath. Added in
              7.52.0.

       --proxy-cert-type <type>
              Same as --cert-type but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              If --proxy-cert-type is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-cert-type PEM --proxy-cert file -x https://proxy https://example.com

              See also --proxy-cert. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-cert <cert[:passwd]>
              Same as --cert but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              If --proxy-cert is provided several times, the last set value will
              be used.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-cert file -x https://proxy https://example.com

              See also --proxy-cert-type. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-ciphers <list>
              Same as --ciphers but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              If --proxy-ciphers is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-ciphers ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-CCM8 -x https://proxy https://example.com

              See also --ciphers, --curves and -x, --proxy. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-crlfile <file>
              Same as --crlfile but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              If --proxy-crlfile is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-crlfile rejects.txt -x https://proxy https://example.com

              See also --crlfile and -x, --proxy. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-digest
              Tells curl to use HTTP Digest authentication when communicating
              with the given proxy. Use --digest for enabling HTTP Digest with a
              remote host.

              Providing --proxy-digest multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-digest --proxy-user user:passwd -x proxy https://example.com

              See also -x, --proxy, --proxy-anyauth and --proxy-basic.

       --proxy-header <header/@file>
              (HTTP) Extra header to include in the request when sending HTTP to
              a proxy. You may specify any number of extra headers. This is the
              equivalent option to --header but is for proxy communication only
              like in CONNECT requests when you want a separate header sent to
              the proxy to what is sent to the actual remote host.

              curl will make sure that each header you add/replace is sent with
              the proper end-of-line marker, you should thus not add that as a
              part of the header content: do not add newlines or carriage
              returns, they will only mess things up for you.

              Headers specified with this option will not be included in
              requests that curl knows will not be sent to a proxy.

              Starting in 7.55.0, this option can take an argument in @filename
              style, which then adds a header for each line in the input file.
              Using @- will make curl read the header file from stdin.

              This option can be used multiple times to add/replace/remove
              multiple headers.

              --proxy-header can be used several times in a command line

              Examples:
               curl --proxy-header "X-First-Name: Joe" -x http://proxy https://example.com
               curl --proxy-header "User-Agent: surprise" -x http://proxy https://example.com
               curl --proxy-header "Host:" -x http://proxy https://example.com

              See also -x, --proxy. Added in 7.37.0.

       --proxy-insecure
              Same as --insecure but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Providing --proxy-insecure multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-proxy-insecure.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-insecure -x https://proxy https://example.com

              See also -x, --proxy and -k, --insecure. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-key-type <type>
              Same as --key-type but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              If --proxy-key-type is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-key-type DER --proxy-key here -x https://proxy https://example.com

              See also --proxy-key and -x, --proxy. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-key <key>
              Same as --key but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              If --proxy-key is provided several times, the last set value will
              be used.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-key here -x https://proxy https://example.com

              See also --proxy-key-type and -x, --proxy. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-negotiate
              Tells curl to use HTTP Negotiate (SPNEGO) authentication when
              communicating with the given proxy. Use --negotiate for enabling
              HTTP Negotiate (SPNEGO) with a remote host.

              Providing --proxy-negotiate multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-negotiate --proxy-user user:passwd -x proxy https://example.com

              See also --proxy-anyauth and --proxy-basic.

       --proxy-ntlm
              Tells curl to use HTTP NTLM authentication when communicating with
              the given proxy. Use --ntlm for enabling NTLM with a remote host.

              Providing --proxy-ntlm multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-ntlm --proxy-user user:passwd -x http://proxy https://example.com

              See also --proxy-negotiate and --proxy-anyauth.

       --proxy-pass <phrase>
              Same as --pass but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              If --proxy-pass is provided several times, the last set value will
              be used.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-pass secret --proxy-key here -x https://proxy https://example.com

              See also -x, --proxy and --proxy-key. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-pinnedpubkey <hashes>
              (TLS) Tells curl to use the specified public key file (or hashes)
              to verify the proxy. This can be a path to a file which contains a
              single public key in PEM or DER format, or any number of base64
              encoded sha256 hashes preceded by 'sha256//' and separated by ';'.

              When negotiating a TLS or SSL connection, the server sends a
              certificate indicating its identity. A public key is extracted
              from this certificate and if it does not exactly match the public
              key provided to this option, curl will abort the connection before
              sending or receiving any data.

              If --proxy-pinnedpubkey is provided several times, the last set
              value will be used.

              Examples:
               curl --proxy-pinnedpubkey keyfile https://example.com
               curl --proxy-pinnedpubkey 'sha256//ce118b51897f4452dc' https://example.com

              See also --pinnedpubkey and -x, --proxy. Added in 7.59.0.

       --proxy-service-name <name>
              This option allows you to change the service name for proxy
              negotiation.

              If --proxy-service-name is provided several times, the last set
              value will be used.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-service-name "shrubbery" -x proxy https://example.com

              See also --service-name and -x, --proxy. Added in 7.43.0.

       --proxy-ssl-allow-beast
              Same as --ssl-allow-beast but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Providing --proxy-ssl-allow-beast multiple times has no extra
              effect.  Disable it again with --no-proxy-ssl-allow-beast.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-ssl-allow-beast -x https://proxy https://example.com

              See also --ssl-allow-beast and -x, --proxy. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-ssl-auto-client-cert
              Same as --ssl-auto-client-cert but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Providing --proxy-ssl-auto-client-cert multiple times has no extra
              effect.  Disable it again with --no-proxy-ssl-auto-client-cert.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-ssl-auto-client-cert -x https://proxy https://example.com

              See also --ssl-auto-client-cert and -x, --proxy. Added in 7.77.0.

       --proxy-tls13-ciphers <ciphersuite list>
              (TLS) Specifies which cipher suites to use in the connection to
              your HTTPS proxy when it negotiates TLS 1.3. The list of ciphers
              suites must specify valid ciphers. Read up on TLS 1.3 cipher suite
              details on this URL:

               https://curl.se/docs/ssl-ciphers.html

              This option is currently used only when curl is built to use
              OpenSSL 1.1.1 or later. If you are using a different SSL backend
              you can try setting TLS 1.3 cipher suites by using the --proxy-
              ciphers option.

              If --proxy-tls13-ciphers is provided several times, the last set
              value will be used.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-tls13-ciphers TLS_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 -x proxy https://example.com

              See also --tls13-ciphers and --curves. Added in 7.61.0.

       --proxy-tlsauthtype <type>
              Same as --tlsauthtype but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              If --proxy-tlsauthtype is provided several times, the last set
              value will be used.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-tlsauthtype SRP -x https://proxy https://example.com

              See also -x, --proxy and --proxy-tlsuser. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-tlspassword <string>
              Same as --tlspassword but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              If --proxy-tlspassword is provided several times, the last set
              value will be used.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-tlspassword passwd -x https://proxy https://example.com

              See also -x, --proxy and --proxy-tlsuser. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-tlsuser <name>
              Same as --tlsuser but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              If --proxy-tlsuser is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-tlsuser smith -x https://proxy https://example.com

              See also -x, --proxy and --proxy-tlspassword. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-tlsv1
              Same as --tlsv1 but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Providing --proxy-tlsv1 multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-tlsv1 -x https://proxy https://example.com

              See also -x, --proxy. Added in 7.52.0.

       -U, --proxy-user <user:password>
              Specify the user name and password to use for proxy
              authentication.

              If you use a Windows SSPI-enabled curl binary and do either
              Negotiate or NTLM authentication then you can tell curl to select
              the user name and password from your environment by specifying a
              single colon with this option: "-U :".

              On systems where it works, curl will hide the given option
              argument from process listings. This is not enough to protect
              credentials from possibly getting seen by other users on the same
              system as they will still be visible for a moment before cleared.
              Such sensitive data should be retrieved from a file instead or
              similar and never used in clear text in a command line.

              If --proxy-user is provided several times, the last set value will
              be used.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-user name:pwd -x proxy https://example.com

              See also --proxy-pass.

       -x, --proxy [protocol://]host[:port]
              Use the specified proxy.

              The proxy string can be specified with a protocol:// prefix. No
              protocol specified or http:// will be treated as HTTP proxy. Use
              socks4://, socks4a://, socks5:// or socks5h:// to request a
              specific SOCKS version to be used.


              Unix domain sockets are supported for socks proxy. Set localhost
              for the host part. e.g. socks5h://localhost/path/to/socket.sock

              HTTPS proxy support via https:// protocol prefix was added in
              7.52.0 for OpenSSL, GnuTLS and NSS.

              Unrecognized and unsupported proxy protocols cause an error since
              7.52.0.  Prior versions may ignore the protocol and use http://
              instead.

              If the port number is not specified in the proxy string, it is
              assumed to be 1080.

              This option overrides existing environment variables that set the
              proxy to use. If there's an environment variable setting a proxy,
              you can set proxy to "" to override it.

              All operations that are performed over an HTTP proxy will
              transparently be converted to HTTP. It means that certain protocol
              specific operations might not be available. This is not the case
              if you can tunnel through the proxy, as one with the --proxytunnel
              option.

              User and password that might be provided in the proxy string are
              URL decoded by curl. This allows you to pass in special characters
              such as @ by using %40 or pass in a colon with %3a.

              The proxy host can be specified the same way as the proxy
              environment variables, including the protocol prefix (http://) and
              the embedded user + password.

              If --proxy is provided several times, the last set value will be
              used.

              Example:
               curl --proxy http://proxy.example https://example.com

              See also --socks5 and --proxy-basic.

       --proxy1.0 <host[:port]>
              Use the specified HTTP 1.0 proxy. If the port number is not
              specified, it is assumed at port 1080.

              The only difference between this and the HTTP proxy option -x,
              --proxy, is that attempts to use CONNECT through the proxy will
              specify an HTTP 1.0 protocol instead of the default HTTP 1.1.

              Providing --proxy1.0 multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --proxy1.0 -x http://proxy https://example.com

              See also -x, --proxy, --socks5 and --preproxy.

       -p, --proxytunnel
              When an HTTP proxy is used -x, --proxy, this option will make curl
              tunnel through the proxy. The tunnel approach is made with the
              HTTP proxy CONNECT request and requires that the proxy allows
              direct connect to the remote port number curl wants to tunnel
              through to.

              To suppress proxy CONNECT response headers when curl is set to
              output headers use --suppress-connect-headers.

              Providing --proxytunnel multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-proxytunnel.

              Example:
               curl --proxytunnel -x http://proxy https://example.com

              See also -x, --proxy.

       --pubkey <key>
              (SFTP SCP) Public key file name. Allows you to provide your public
              key in this separate file.

              (As of 7.39.0, curl attempts to automatically extract the public
              key from the private key file, so passing this option is generally
              not required. Note that this public key extraction requires
              libcurl to be linked against a copy of libssh2 1.2.8 or higher
              that is itself linked against OpenSSL.)

              If --pubkey is provided several times, the last set value will be
              used.

              Example:
               curl --pubkey file.pub sftp://example.com/

              See also --pass.

       -Q, --quote <command>
              (FTP SFTP) Send an arbitrary command to the remote FTP or SFTP
              server. Quote commands are sent BEFORE the transfer takes place
              (just after the initial PWD command in an FTP transfer, to be
              exact). To make commands take place after a successful transfer,
              prefix them with a dash '-'.

              (FTP only) To make commands be sent after curl has changed the
              working directory, just before the file transfer command(s),
              prefix the command with a '+'. This is not performed when a
              directory listing is performed.

              You may specify any number of commands.

              By default curl will stop at first failure. To make curl continue
              even if the command fails, prefix the command with an asterisk
              (*). Otherwise, if the server returns failure for one of the
              commands, the entire operation will be aborted.

              You must send syntactically correct FTP commands as RFC 959
              defines to FTP servers, or one of the commands listed below to
              SFTP servers.

              This option can be used multiple times.

              SFTP is a binary protocol. Unlike for FTP, curl interprets SFTP
              quote commands itself before sending them to the server. File
              names may be quoted shell-style to embed spaces or special
              characters. Following is the list of all supported SFTP quote
              commands:

              atime date file
                     The atime command sets the last access time of the file
                     named by the file operand. The <date expression> can be all
                     sorts of date strings, see the curl_getdate(3) man page for
                     date expression details. (Added in 7.73.0)

              chgrp group file
                     The chgrp command sets the group ID of the file named by
                     the file operand to the group ID specified by the group
                     operand. The group operand is a decimal integer group ID.

              chmod mode file
                     The chmod command modifies the file mode bits of the
                     specified file. The mode operand is an octal integer mode
                     number.

              chown user file
                     The chown command sets the owner of the file named by the
                     file operand to the user ID specified by the user operand.
                     The user operand is a decimal integer user ID.

              ln source_file target_file
                     The ln and symlink commands create a symbolic link at the
                     target_file location pointing to the source_file location.

              mkdir directory_name
                     The mkdir command creates the directory named by the
                     directory_name operand.

              mtime date file
                     The mtime command sets the last modification time of the
                     file named by the file operand. The <date expression> can
                     be all sorts of date strings, see the curl_getdate(3) man
                     page for date expression details. (Added in 7.73.0)

              pwd    The pwd command returns the absolute pathname of the
                     current working directory.

              rename source target
                     The rename command renames the file or directory named by
                     the source operand to the destination path named by the
                     target operand.

              rm file
                     The rm command removes the file specified by the file
                     operand.

              rmdir directory
                     The rmdir command removes the directory entry specified by
                     the directory operand, provided it is empty.

              symlink source_file target_file
                     See ln.

       --quote can be used several times in a command line

       Example:
        curl --quote "DELE file" ftp://example.com/foo

       See also -X, --request.

       --random-file <file>
              Deprecated option. This option is ignored by curl since 7.84.0.
              Prior to that it only had an effect on curl if built to use old
              versions of OpenSSL.

              Specify the path name to file containing what will be considered
              as random data. The data may be used to seed the random engine for
              SSL connections.

              If --random-file is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --random-file rubbish https://example.com

              See also --egd-file.

       -r, --range <range>
              (HTTP FTP SFTP FILE) Retrieve a byte range (i.e. a partial
              document) from an HTTP/1.1, FTP or SFTP server or a local FILE.
              Ranges can be specified in a number of ways.

              0-499     specifies the first 500 bytes

              500-999   specifies the second 500 bytes

              -500      specifies the last 500 bytes

              9500-     specifies the bytes from offset 9500 and forward

              0-0,-1    specifies the first and last byte only(*)(HTTP)

              100-199,500-599
                        specifies two separate 100-byte ranges(*) (HTTP)

              (*) = NOTE that this will cause the server to reply with a
              multipart response, which will be returned as-is by curl! Parsing
              or otherwise transforming this response is the responsibility of
              the caller.

              Only digit characters (0-9) are valid in the 'start' and 'stop'
              fields of the 'start-stop' range syntax. If a non-digit character
              is given in the range, the server's response will be unspecified,
              depending on the server's configuration.

              You should also be aware that many HTTP/1.1 servers do not have
              this feature enabled, so that when you attempt to get a range, you
              will instead get the whole document.

              FTP and SFTP range downloads only support the simple 'start-stop'
              syntax (optionally with one of the numbers omitted). FTP use
              depends on the extended FTP command SIZE.

              If --range is provided several times, the last set value will be
              used.

              Example:
               curl --range 22-44 https://example.com

              See also -C, --continue-at and -a, --append.

       --rate <max request rate>
              Specify the maximum transfer frequency you allow curl to use - in
              number of transfer starts per time unit (sometimes called request
              rate). Without this option, curl will start the next transfer as
              fast as possible.

              If given several URLs and a transfer completes faster than the
              allowed rate, curl will wait until the next transfer is started to
              maintain the requested rate. This option has no effect when
              --parallel is used.

              The request rate is provided as "N/U" where N is an integer number
              and U is a time unit. Supported units are 's' (second), 'm'
              (minute), 'h' (hour) and 'd' /(day, as in a 24 hour unit). The
              default time unit, if no "/U" is provided, is number of transfers
              per hour.

              If curl is told to allow 10 requests per minute, it will not start
              the next request until 6 seconds have elapsed since the previous
              transfer was started.

              This function uses millisecond resolution. If the allowed
              frequency is set more than 1000 per second, it will instead run
              unrestricted.

              When retrying transfers, enabled with --retry, the separate retry
              delay logic is used and not this setting.

              If --rate is provided several times, the last set value will be
              used.

              Examples:
               curl --rate 2/s https://example.com
               curl --rate 3/h https://example.com
               curl --rate 14/m https://example.com

              See also --limit-rate and --retry-delay. Added in 7.84.0.

       --raw  (HTTP) When used, it disables all internal HTTP decoding of
              content or transfer encodings and instead makes them passed on
              unaltered, raw.

              Providing --raw multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable it
              again with --no-raw.

              Example:
               curl --raw https://example.com

              See also --tr-encoding.

       -e, --referer <URL>
              (HTTP) Sends the "Referrer Page" information to the HTTP server.
              This can also be set with the --header flag of course. When used
              with --location you can append ";auto" to the --referer URL to
              make curl automatically set the previous URL when it follows a
              Location: header. The ";auto" string can be used alone, even if
              you do not set an initial -e, --referer.

              If --referer is provided several times, the last set value will be
              used.

              Examples:
               curl --referer "https://fake.example" https://example.com
               curl --referer "https://fake.example;auto" -L https://example.com
               curl --referer ";auto" -L https://example.com

              See also -A, --user-agent and -H, --header.

       -J, --remote-header-name
              (HTTP) This option tells the --remote-name option to use the
              server-specified Content-Disposition filename instead of
              extracting a filename from the URL. If the server-provided file
              name contains a path, that will be stripped off before the file
              name is used.

              The file is saved in the current directory, or in the directory
              specified with --output-dir.

              If the server specifies a file name and a file with that name
              already exists in the destination directory, it will not be
              overwritten and an error will occur. If the server does not
              specify a file name then this option has no effect.

              There's no attempt to decode %-sequences (yet) in the provided
              file name, so this option may provide you with rather unexpected
              file names.

              WARNING: Exercise judicious use of this option, especially on
              Windows. A rogue server could send you the name of a DLL or other
              file that could be loaded automatically by Windows or some third
              party software.

              Providing --remote-header-name multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-remote-header-name.

              Example:
               curl -OJ https://example.com/file

              See also -O, --remote-name.

       --remote-name-all
              This option changes the default action for all given URLs to be
              dealt with as if --remote-name were used for each one. So if you
              want to disable that for a specific URL after --remote-name-all
              has been used, you must use "-o -" or --no-remote-name.

              Providing --remote-name-all multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-remote-name-all.

              Example:
               curl --remote-name-all ftp://example.com/file1 ftp://example.com/file2

              See also -O, --remote-name.

       -O, --remote-name
              Write output to a local file named like the remote file we get.
              (Only the file part of the remote file is used, the path is cut
              off.)

              The file will be saved in the current working directory. If you
              want the file saved in a different directory, make sure you change
              the current working directory before invoking curl with this
              option or use --output-dir.

              The remote file name to use for saving is extracted from the given
              URL, nothing else, and if it already exists it will be
              overwritten. If you want the server to be able to choose the file
              name refer to --remote-header-name which can be used in addition
              to this option. If the server chooses a file name and that name
              already exists it will not be overwritten.

              There is no URL decoding done on the file name. If it has %20 or
              other URL encoded parts of the name, they will end up as-is as
              file name.

              You may use this option as many times as the number of URLs you
              have.

              --remote-name can be used several times in a command line

              Example:
               curl -O https://example.com/filename

              See also --remote-name-all, --output-dir and -J, --remote-header-
              name.

       -R, --remote-time
              When used, this will make curl attempt to figure out the timestamp
              of the remote file, and if that is available make the local file
              get that same timestamp.

              Providing --remote-time multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-remote-time.

              Example:
               curl --remote-time -o foo https://example.com

              See also -O, --remote-name and -z, --time-cond.

       --remove-on-error
              When curl returns an error when told to save output in a local
              file, this option removes that saved file before exiting. This
              prevents curl from leaving a partial file in the case of an error
              during transfer.

              If the output is not a file, this option has no effect.

              Providing --remove-on-error multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-remove-on-error.

              Example:
               curl --remove-on-error -o output https://example.com

              See also -f, --fail. Added in 7.83.0.

       --request-target <path>
              (HTTP) Tells curl to use an alternative "target" (path) instead of
              using the path as provided in the URL. Particularly useful when
              wanting to issue HTTP requests without leading slash or other data
              that does not follow the regular URL pattern, like "OPTIONS *".

              If --request-target is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --request-target "*" -X OPTIONS https://example.com

              See also -X, --request. Added in 7.55.0.

       -X, --request <method>
              (HTTP) Specifies a custom request method to use when communicating
              with the HTTP server. The specified request method will be used
              instead of the method otherwise used (which defaults to GET). Read
              the HTTP 1.1 specification for details and explanations. Common
              additional HTTP requests include PUT and DELETE, but related
              technologies like WebDAV offers PROPFIND, COPY, MOVE and more.

              Normally you do not need this option. All sorts of GET, HEAD, POST
              and PUT requests are rather invoked by using dedicated command
              line options.

              This option only changes the actual word used in the HTTP request,
              it does not alter the way curl behaves. So for example if you want
              to make a proper HEAD request, using -X HEAD will not suffice. You
              need to use the --head option.

              The method string you set with --request will be used for all
              requests, which if you for example use --location may cause
              unintended side-effects when curl does not change request method
              according to the HTTP 30x response codes - and similar.

              (FTP) Specifies a custom FTP command to use instead of LIST when
              doing file lists with FTP.

              (POP3) Specifies a custom POP3 command to use instead of LIST or
              RETR.


              (IMAP) Specifies a custom IMAP command to use instead of LIST.
              (Added in 7.30.0)

              (SMTP) Specifies a custom SMTP command to use instead of HELP or
              VRFY. (Added in 7.34.0)

              If --request is provided several times, the last set value will be
              used.

              Examples:
               curl -X "DELETE" https://example.com
               curl -X NLST ftp://example.com/

              See also --request-target.

       --resolve <[+]host:port:addr[,addr]...>
              Provide a custom address for a specific host and port pair. Using
              this, you can make the curl requests(s) use a specified address
              and prevent the otherwise normally resolved address to be used.
              Consider it a sort of /etc/hosts alternative provided on the
              command line. The port number should be the number used for the
              specific protocol the host will be used for. It means you need
              several entries if you want to provide address for the same host
              but different ports.

              By specifying '*' as host you can tell curl to resolve any host
              and specific port pair to the specified address. Wildcard is
              resolved last so any --resolve with a specific host and port will
              be used first.

              The provided address set by this option will be used even if
              --ipv4 or --ipv6 is set to make curl use another IP version.

              By prefixing the host with a '+' you can make the entry time out
              after curl's default timeout (1 minute). Note that this will only
              make sense for long running parallel transfers with a lot of
              files. In such cases, if this option is used curl will try to
              resolve the host as it normally would once the timeout has
              expired.

              Support for providing the IP address within [brackets] was added
              in 7.57.0.

              Support for providing multiple IP addresses per entry was added in
              7.59.0.

              Support for resolving with wildcard was added in 7.64.0.

              Support for the '+' prefix was was added in 7.75.0.

              This option can be used many times to add many host names to
              resolve.

              --resolve can be used several times in a command line

              Example:
               curl --resolve example.com:443:127.0.0.1 https://example.com

              See also --connect-to and --alt-svc.

       --retry-all-errors
              Retry on any error. This option is used together with --retry.

              This option is the "sledgehammer" of retrying. Do not use this
              option by default (eg in curlrc), there may be unintended
              consequences such as sending or receiving duplicate data. Do not
              use with redirected input or output. You'd be much better off
              handling your unique problems in shell script. Please read the
              example below.

              WARNING: For server compatibility curl attempts to retry failed
              flaky transfers as close as possible to how they were started, but
              this is not possible with redirected input or output. For example,
              before retrying it removes output data from a failed partial
              transfer that was written to an output file. However this is not
              true of data redirected to a | pipe or > file, which are not
              reset. We strongly suggest you do not parse or record output via
              redirect in combination with this option, since you may receive
              duplicate data.

              By default curl will not error on an HTTP response code that
              indicates an HTTP error, if the transfer was successful. For
              example, if a server replies 404 Not Found and the reply is fully
              received then that is not an error. When --retry is used then curl
              will retry on some HTTP response codes that indicate transient
              HTTP errors, but that does not include most 4xx response codes
              such as 404. If you want to retry on all response codes that
              indicate HTTP errors (4xx and 5xx) then combine with -f, --fail.

              Providing --retry-all-errors multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-retry-all-errors.

              Example:
               curl --retry 5 --retry-all-errors https://example.com

              See also --retry. Added in 7.71.0.

       --retry-connrefused
              In addition to the other conditions, consider ECONNREFUSED as a
              transient error too for --retry. This option is used together with
              --retry.

              Providing --retry-connrefused multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-retry-connrefused.

              Example:
               curl --retry-connrefused --retry https://example.com

              See also --retry and --retry-all-errors. Added in 7.52.0.

       --retry-delay <seconds>
              Make curl sleep this amount of time before each retry when a
              transfer has failed with a transient error (it changes the default
              backoff time algorithm between retries). This option is only
              interesting if --retry is also used. Setting this delay to zero
              will make curl use the default backoff time.

              If --retry-delay is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --retry-delay 5 --retry https://example.com

              See also --retry.

       --retry-max-time <seconds>
              The retry timer is reset before the first transfer attempt.
              Retries will be done as usual (see --retry) as long as the timer
              has not reached this given limit. Notice that if the timer has not
              reached the limit, the request will be made and while performing,
              it may take longer than this given time period. To limit a single
              request's maximum time, use -m, --max-time. Set this option to
              zero to not timeout retries.

              If --retry-max-time is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --retry-max-time 30 --retry 10 https://example.com

              See also --retry.

       --retry <num>
              If a transient error is returned when curl tries to perform a
              transfer, it will retry this number of times before giving up.
              Setting the number to 0 makes curl do no retries (which is the
              default). Transient error means either: a timeout, an FTP 4xx
              response code or an HTTP 408, 429, 500, 502, 503 or 504 response
              code.

              When curl is about to retry a transfer, it will first wait one
              second and then for all forthcoming retries it will double the
              waiting time until it reaches 10 minutes which then will be the
              delay between the rest of the retries. By using --retry-delay you
              disable this exponential backoff algorithm. See also --retry-max-
              time to limit the total time allowed for retries.

              Since curl 7.66.0, curl will comply with the Retry-After: response
              header if one was present to know when to issue the next retry.

              If --retry is provided several times, the last set value will be
              used.

              Example:
               curl --retry 7 https://example.com

              See also --retry-max-time.

       --sasl-authzid <identity>
              Use this authorization identity (authzid), during SASL PLAIN
              authentication, in addition to the authentication identity
              (authcid) as specified by -u, --user.

              If the option is not specified, the server will derive the authzid
              from the authcid, but if specified, and depending on the server
              implementation, it may be used to access another user's inbox,
              that the user has been granted access to, or a shared mailbox for
              example.

              If --sasl-authzid is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --sasl-authzid zid imap://example.com/

              See also --login-options. Added in 7.66.0.

       --sasl-ir
              Enable initial response in SASL authentication.

              Providing --sasl-ir multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable
              it again with --no-sasl-ir.

              Example:
               curl --sasl-ir imap://example.com/

              See also --sasl-authzid. Added in 7.31.0.

       --service-name <name>
              This option allows you to change the service name for SPNEGO.

              Examples: --negotiate --service-name sockd would use sockd/server-
              name.

              If --service-name is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --service-name sockd/server https://example.com

              See also --negotiate and --proxy-service-name. Added in 7.43.0.

       -S, --show-error
              When used with -s, --silent, it makes curl show an error message
              if it fails.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of -:, --next.

              Providing --show-error multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-show-error.

              Example:
               curl --show-error --silent https://example.com

              See also --no-progress-meter.

       -s, --silent
              Silent or quiet mode. Do not show progress meter or error
              messages. Makes Curl mute. It will still output the data you ask
              for, potentially even to the terminal/stdout unless you redirect
              it.

              Use --show-error in addition to this option to disable progress
              meter but still show error messages.

              Providing --silent multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable it
              again with --no-silent.

              Example:
               curl -s https://example.com

              See also -v, --verbose, --stderr and --no-progress-meter.

       --socks4 <host[:port]>
              Use the specified SOCKS4 proxy. If the port number is not
              specified, it is assumed at port 1080. Using this socket type make
              curl resolve the host name and passing the address on to the
              proxy.

              To specify proxy on a unix domain socket, use localhost for host,
              e.g.  socks4://localhost/path/to/socket.sock

              This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they are
              mutually exclusive.

              This option is superfluous since you can specify a socks4 proxy
              with --proxy using a socks4:// protocol prefix.

              Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a SOCKS proxy at
              the same time --proxy is used with an HTTP/HTTPS proxy. In such a
              case curl first connects to the SOCKS proxy and then connects
              (through SOCKS) to the HTTP or HTTPS proxy.

              If --socks4 is provided several times, the last set value will be
              used.

              Example:
               curl --socks4 hostname:4096 https://example.com

              See also --socks4a, --socks5 and --socks5-hostname.

       --socks4a <host[:port]>
              Use the specified SOCKS4a proxy. If the port number is not
              specified, it is assumed at port 1080. This asks the proxy to
              resolve the host name.

              To specify proxy on a unix domain socket, use localhost for host,
              e.g.  socks4a://localhost/path/to/socket.sock

              This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they are
              mutually exclusive.

              This option is superfluous since you can specify a socks4a proxy
              with --proxy using a socks4a:// protocol prefix.

              Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a SOCKS proxy at
              the same time --proxy is used with an HTTP/HTTPS proxy. In such a
              case curl first connects to the SOCKS proxy and then connects
              (through SOCKS) to the HTTP or HTTPS proxy.

              If --socks4a is provided several times, the last set value will be
              used.

              Example:
               curl --socks4a hostname:4096 https://example.com

              See also --socks4, --socks5 and --socks5-hostname.

       --socks5-basic
              Tells curl to use username/password authentication when connecting
              to a SOCKS5 proxy.  The username/password authentication is
              enabled by default.  Use --socks5-gssapi to force GSS-API
              authentication to SOCKS5 proxies.

              Providing --socks5-basic multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --socks5-basic --socks5 hostname:4096 https://example.com

              See also --socks5. Added in 7.55.0.

       --socks5-gssapi-nec
              As part of the GSS-API negotiation a protection mode is
              negotiated. RFC 1961 says in section 4.3/4.4 it should be
              protected, but the NEC reference implementation does not. The
              option --socks5-gssapi-nec allows the unprotected exchange of the
              protection mode negotiation.

              Providing --socks5-gssapi-nec multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-socks5-gssapi-nec.

              Example:
               curl --socks5-gssapi-nec --socks5 hostname:4096 https://example.com

              See also --socks5.

       --socks5-gssapi-service <name>
              The default service name for a socks server is rcmd/server-fqdn.
              This option allows you to change it.

              Examples: --socks5 proxy-name --socks5-gssapi-service sockd would
              use sockd/proxy-name --socks5 proxy-name --socks5-gssapi-service
              sockd/real-name would use sockd/real-name for cases where the
              proxy-name does not match the principal name.

              If --socks5-gssapi-service is provided several times, the last set
              value will be used.

              Example:
               curl --socks5-gssapi-service sockd --socks5 hostname:4096 https://example.com

              See also --socks5.

       --socks5-gssapi
              Tells curl to use GSS-API authentication when connecting to a
              SOCKS5 proxy.  The GSS-API authentication is enabled by default
              (if curl is compiled with GSS-API support).  Use --socks5-basic to
              force username/password authentication to SOCKS5 proxies.

              Providing --socks5-gssapi multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-socks5-gssapi.

              Example:
               curl --socks5-gssapi --socks5 hostname:4096 https://example.com

              See also --socks5. Added in 7.55.0.

       --socks5-hostname <host[:port]>
              Use the specified SOCKS5 proxy (and let the proxy resolve the host
              name). If the port number is not specified, it is assumed at port
              1080.

              To specify proxy on a unix domain socket, use localhost for host,
              e.g.  socks5h://localhost/path/to/socket.sock

              This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they are
              mutually exclusive.

              This option is superfluous since you can specify a socks5 hostname
              proxy with --proxy using a socks5h:// protocol prefix.

              Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a SOCKS proxy at
              the same time --proxy is used with an HTTP/HTTPS proxy. In such a
              case curl first connects to the SOCKS proxy and then connects
              (through SOCKS) to the HTTP or HTTPS proxy.

              If --socks5-hostname is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --socks5-hostname proxy.example:7000 https://example.com

              See also --socks5 and --socks4a.

       --socks5 <host[:port]>
              Use the specified SOCKS5 proxy - but resolve the host name
              locally. If the port number is not specified, it is assumed at
              port 1080.

              To specify proxy on a unix domain socket, use localhost for host,
              e.g.  socks5://localhost/path/to/socket.sock

              This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they are
              mutually exclusive.

              This option is superfluous since you can specify a socks5 proxy
              with --proxy using a socks5:// protocol prefix.

              Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a SOCKS proxy at
              the same time --proxy is used with an HTTP/HTTPS proxy. In such a
              case curl first connects to the SOCKS proxy and then connects
              (through SOCKS) to the HTTP or HTTPS proxy.

              This option (as well as --socks4) does not work with IPV6, FTPS or
              LDAP.

              If --socks5 is provided several times, the last set value will be
              used.

              Example:
               curl --socks5 proxy.example:7000 https://example.com

              See also --socks5-hostname and --socks4a.

       -Y, --speed-limit <speed>
              If a transfer is slower than this given speed (in bytes per
              second) for speed-time seconds it gets aborted. speed-time is set
              with --speed-time and is 30 if not set.

              If --speed-limit is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --speed-limit 300 --speed-time 10 https://example.com

              See also -y, --speed-time, --limit-rate and -m, --max-time.

       -y, --speed-time <seconds>
              If a transfer runs slower than speed-limit bytes per second during
              a speed-time period, the transfer is aborted. If speed-time is
              used, the default speed-limit will be 1 unless set with -Y,
              --speed-limit.

              This option controls transfers (in both directions) but will not
              affect slow connects etc. If this is a concern for you, try the
              --connect-timeout option.

              If --speed-time is provided several times, the last set value will
              be used.

              Example:
               curl --speed-limit 300 --speed-time 10 https://example.com

              See also -Y, --speed-limit and --limit-rate.

       --ssl-allow-beast
              This option tells curl to not work around a security flaw in the
              SSL3 and TLS1.0 protocols known as BEAST.  If this option is not
              used, the SSL layer may use workarounds known to cause
              interoperability problems with some older SSL implementations.

              WARNING: this option loosens the SSL security, and by using this
              flag you ask for exactly that.

              Providing --ssl-allow-beast multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-ssl-allow-beast.

              Example:
               curl --ssl-allow-beast https://example.com

              See also --proxy-ssl-allow-beast and -k, --insecure.

       --ssl-auto-client-cert
              Tell libcurl to automatically locate and use a client certificate
              for authentication, when requested by the server. This option is
              only supported for Schannel (the native Windows SSL library).
              Prior to 7.77.0 this was the default behavior in libcurl with
              Schannel. Since the server can request any certificate that
              supports client authentication in the OS certificate store it
              could be a privacy violation and unexpected.

              Providing --ssl-auto-client-cert multiple times has no extra
              effect.  Disable it again with --no-ssl-auto-client-cert.

              Example:
               curl --ssl-auto-client-cert https://example.com

              See also --proxy-ssl-auto-client-cert. Added in 7.77.0.

       --ssl-no-revoke
              (Schannel) This option tells curl to disable certificate
              revocation checks.  WARNING: this option loosens the SSL security,
              and by using this flag you ask for exactly that.

              Providing --ssl-no-revoke multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-ssl-no-revoke.

              Example:
               curl --ssl-no-revoke https://example.com

              See also --crlfile. Added in 7.44.0.

       --ssl-reqd
              (FTP IMAP POP3 SMTP LDAP) Require SSL/TLS for the connection.
              Terminates the connection if the server does not support SSL/TLS.

              This option is handled in LDAP since version 7.81.0. It is fully
              supported by the OpenLDAP backend and rejected by the generic ldap
              backend if explicit TLS is required.

              This option was formerly known as --ftp-ssl-reqd.

              Providing --ssl-reqd multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable
              it again with --no-ssl-reqd.

              Example:
               curl --ssl-reqd ftp://example.com

              See also --ssl and -k, --insecure.

       --ssl-revoke-best-effort
              (Schannel) This option tells curl to ignore certificate revocation
              checks when they failed due to missing/offline distribution points
              for the revocation check lists.

              Providing --ssl-revoke-best-effort multiple times has no extra
              effect.  Disable it again with --no-ssl-revoke-best-effort.

              Example:
               curl --ssl-revoke-best-effort https://example.com

              See also --crlfile and -k, --insecure. Added in 7.70.0.

       --ssl  (FTP IMAP POP3 SMTP LDAP) Warning: this is considered an insecure
              option. Consider using --ssl-reqd instead to be sure curl upgrades
              to a secure connection.

              Try to use SSL/TLS for the connection. Reverts to a non-secure
              connection if the server does not support SSL/TLS. See also --ftp-
              ssl-control and --ssl-reqd for different levels of encryption
              required.

              This option is handled in LDAP since version 7.81.0. It is fully
              supported by the OpenLDAP backend and ignored by the generic ldap
              backend.

              Please note that a server may close the connection if the
              negotiation does not succeed.

              This option was formerly known as --ftp-ssl. That option name can
              still be used but will be removed in a future version.

              Providing --ssl multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable it
              again with --no-ssl.

              Example:
               curl --ssl pop3://example.com/

              See also --ssl-reqd, -k, --insecure and --ciphers.

       -2, --sslv2
              (SSL) This option previously asked curl to use SSLv2, but starting
              in curl 7.77.0 this instruction is ignored. SSLv2 is widely
              considered insecure (see RFC 6176).

              Providing --sslv2 multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --sslv2 https://example.com

              See also --http1.1 and --http2. -2, --sslv2 requires that the
              underlying libcurl was built to support TLS. This option is
              mutually exclusive to -3, --sslv3 and -1, --tlsv1 and --tlsv1.1
              and --tlsv1.2.

       -3, --sslv3
              (SSL) This option previously asked curl to use SSLv3, but starting
              in curl 7.77.0 this instruction is ignored. SSLv3 is widely
              considered insecure (see RFC 7568).

              Providing --sslv3 multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --sslv3 https://example.com

              See also --http1.1 and --http2. -3, --sslv3 requires that the
              underlying libcurl was built to support TLS. This option is
              mutually exclusive to -2, --sslv2 and -1, --tlsv1 and --tlsv1.1
              and --tlsv1.2.

       --stderr <file>
              Redirect all writes to stderr to the specified file instead. If
              the file name is a plain '-', it is instead written to stdout.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of -:, --next.

              If --stderr is provided several times, the last set value will be
              used.

              Example:
               curl --stderr output.txt https://example.com

              See also -v, --verbose and -s, --silent.

       --styled-output
              Enables the automatic use of bold font styles when writing HTTP
              headers to the terminal. Use --no-styled-output to switch them
              off.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of -:, --next.

              Providing --styled-output multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-styled-output.

              Example:
               curl --styled-output -I https://example.com

              See also -I, --head and -v, --verbose. Added in 7.61.0.

       --suppress-connect-headers
              When --proxytunnel is used and a CONNECT request is made do not
              output proxy CONNECT response headers. This option is meant to be
              used with --dump-header or --include which are used to show
              protocol headers in the output. It has no effect on debug options
              such as --verbose or --trace, or any statistics.

              Providing --suppress-connect-headers multiple times has no extra
              effect.  Disable it again with --no-suppress-connect-headers.

              Example:
               curl --suppress-connect-headers --include -x proxy https://example.com

              See also -D, --dump-header, -i, --include and -p, --proxytunnel.
              Added in 7.54.0.

       --tcp-fastopen
              Enable use of TCP Fast Open (RFC7413).

              Providing --tcp-fastopen multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-tcp-fastopen.

              Example:
               curl --tcp-fastopen https://example.com

              See also --false-start. Added in 7.49.0.

       --tcp-nodelay
              Turn on the TCP_NODELAY option. See the curl_easy_setopt(3) man
              page for details about this option.

              Since 7.50.2, curl sets this option by default and you need to
              explicitly switch it off if you do not want it on.

              Providing --tcp-nodelay multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-tcp-nodelay.

              Example:
               curl --tcp-nodelay https://example.com

              See also -N, --no-buffer.

       -t, --telnet-option <opt=val>
              Pass options to the telnet protocol. Supported options are:

              TTYPE=<term> Sets the terminal type.

              XDISPLOC=<X display> Sets the X display location.

              NEW_ENV=<var,val> Sets an environment variable.

              --telnet-option can be used several times in a command line

              Example:
               curl -t TTYPE=vt100 telnet://example.com/

              See also -K, --config.

       --tftp-blksize <value>
              (TFTP) Set TFTP BLKSIZE option (must be >512). This is the block
              size that curl will try to use when transferring data to or from a
              TFTP server. By default 512 bytes will be used.

              If --tftp-blksize is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --tftp-blksize 1024 tftp://example.com/file

              See also --tftp-no-options.

       --tftp-no-options
              (TFTP) Tells curl not to send TFTP options requests.

              This option improves interop with some legacy servers that do not
              acknowledge or properly implement TFTP options. When this option
              is used --tftp-blksize is ignored.

              Providing --tftp-no-options multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-tftp-no-options.

              Example:
               curl --tftp-no-options tftp://192.168.0.1/

              See also --tftp-blksize. Added in 7.48.0.

       -z, --time-cond <time>
              (HTTP FTP) Request a file that has been modified later than the
              given time and date, or one that has been modified before that
              time. The <date expression> can be all sorts of date strings or if
              it does not match any internal ones, it is taken as a filename and
              tries to get the modification date (mtime) from <file> instead.
              See the curl_getdate(3) man pages for date expression details.

              Start the date expression with a dash (-) to make it request for a
              document that is older than the given date/time, default is a
              document that is newer than the specified date/time.

              If --time-cond is provided several times, the last set value will
              be used.

              Examples:
               curl -z "Wed 01 Sep 2021 12:18:00" https://example.com
               curl -z "-Wed 01 Sep 2021 12:18:00" https://example.com
               curl -z file https://example.com

              See also --etag-compare and -R, --remote-time.

       --tls-max <VERSION>
              (SSL) VERSION defines maximum supported TLS version. The minimum
              acceptable version is set by tlsv1.0, tlsv1.1, tlsv1.2 or tlsv1.3.

              If the connection is done without TLS, this option has no effect.
              This includes QUIC-using (HTTP/3) transfers.


              default
                     Use up to recommended TLS version.

              1.0    Use up to TLSv1.0.

              1.1    Use up to TLSv1.1.

              1.2    Use up to TLSv1.2.

              1.3    Use up to TLSv1.3.

       If --tls-max is provided several times, the last set value will be used.

       Examples:
        curl --tls-max 1.2 https://example.com
        curl --tls-max 1.3 --tlsv1.2 https://example.com

       See also --tlsv1.0, --tlsv1.1, --tlsv1.2 and --tlsv1.3. --tls-max
       requires that the underlying libcurl was built to support TLS. Added in
       7.54.0.

       --tls13-ciphers <ciphersuite list>
              (TLS) Specifies which cipher suites to use in the connection if it
              negotiates TLS 1.3. The list of ciphers suites must specify valid
              ciphers. Read up on TLS 1.3 cipher suite details on this URL:

               https://curl.se/docs/ssl-ciphers.html

              This option is currently used only when curl is built to use
              OpenSSL 1.1.1 or later. If you are using a different SSL backend
              you can try setting TLS 1.3 cipher suites by using the --ciphers
              option.

              If --tls13-ciphers is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --tls13-ciphers TLS_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 https://example.com

              See also --ciphers and --curves. Added in 7.61.0.

       --tlsauthtype <type>
              Set TLS authentication type. Currently, the only supported option
              is "SRP", for TLS-SRP (RFC 5054). If --tlsuser and --tlspassword
              are specified but --tlsauthtype is not, then this option defaults
              to "SRP". This option works only if the underlying libcurl is
              built with TLS-SRP support, which requires OpenSSL or GnuTLS with
              TLS-SRP support.

              If --tlsauthtype is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --tlsauthtype SRP https://example.com

              See also --tlsuser.

       --tlspassword <string>
              Set password for use with the TLS authentication method specified
              with --tlsauthtype. Requires that --tlsuser also be set.

              This option does not work with TLS 1.3.

              If --tlspassword is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --tlspassword pwd --tlsuser user https://example.com

              See also --tlsuser.

       --tlsuser <name>
              Set username for use with the TLS authentication method specified
              with --tlsauthtype. Requires that --tlspassword also is set.

              This option does not work with TLS 1.3.

              If --tlsuser is provided several times, the last set value will be
              used.

              Example:
               curl --tlspassword pwd --tlsuser user https://example.com

              See also --tlspassword.

       --tlsv1.0
              (TLS) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.0 or later when connecting
              to a remote TLS server.

              In old versions of curl this option was documented to allow _only_
              TLS 1.0.  That behavior was inconsistent depending on the TLS
              library. Use --tls-max if you want to set a maximum TLS version.

              Providing --tlsv1.0 multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --tlsv1.0 https://example.com

              See also --tlsv1.3. Added in 7.34.0.

       --tlsv1.1
              (TLS) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.1 or later when connecting
              to a remote TLS server.

              In old versions of curl this option was documented to allow _only_
              TLS 1.1.  That behavior was inconsistent depending on the TLS
              library. Use --tls-max if you want to set a maximum TLS version.

              Providing --tlsv1.1 multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --tlsv1.1 https://example.com

              See also --tlsv1.3 and --tls-max. Added in 7.34.0.

       --tlsv1.2
              (TLS) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.2 or later when connecting
              to a remote TLS server.

              In old versions of curl this option was documented to allow _only_
              TLS 1.2.  That behavior was inconsistent depending on the TLS
              library. Use --tls-max if you want to set a maximum TLS version.

              Providing --tlsv1.2 multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --tlsv1.2 https://example.com

              See also --tlsv1.3 and --tls-max. Added in 7.34.0.

       --tlsv1.3
              (TLS) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.3 or later when connecting
              to a remote TLS server.

              If the connection is done without TLS, this option has no effect.
              This includes QUIC-using (HTTP/3) transfers.

              Note that TLS 1.3 is not supported by all TLS backends.

              Providing --tlsv1.3 multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --tlsv1.3 https://example.com

              See also --tlsv1.2 and --tls-max. Added in 7.52.0.

       -1, --tlsv1
              (SSL) Tells curl to use at least TLS version 1.x when negotiating
              with a remote TLS server. That means TLS version 1.0 or higher

              Providing --tlsv1 multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --tlsv1 https://example.com

              See also --http1.1 and --http2. -1, --tlsv1 requires that the
              underlying libcurl was built to support TLS. This option is
              mutually exclusive to --tlsv1.1 and --tlsv1.2 and --tlsv1.3.

       --tr-encoding
              (HTTP) Request a compressed Transfer-Encoding response using one
              of the algorithms curl supports, and uncompress the data while
              receiving it.

              Providing --tr-encoding multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-tr-encoding.

              Example:
               curl --tr-encoding https://example.com

              See also --compressed.

       --trace-ascii <file>
              Enables a full trace dump of all incoming and outgoing data,
              including descriptive information, to the given output file. Use
              "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout.

              This is similar to --trace, but leaves out the hex part and only
              shows the ASCII part of the dump. It makes smaller output that
              might be easier to read for untrained humans.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of -:, --next.

              If --trace-ascii is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --trace-ascii log.txt https://example.com

              See also -v, --verbose and --trace. This option is mutually
              exclusive to --trace and -v, --verbose.

       --trace-time
              Prepends a time stamp to each trace or verbose line that curl
              displays.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of -:, --next.

              Providing --trace-time multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-trace-time.

              Example:
               curl --trace-time --trace-ascii output https://example.com

              See also --trace and -v, --verbose.

       --trace <file>
              Enables a full trace dump of all incoming and outgoing data,
              including descriptive information, to the given output file. Use
              "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout. Use "%" as
              filename to have the output sent to stderr.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of -:, --next.

              If --trace is provided several times, the last set value will be
              used.

              Example:
               curl --trace log.txt https://example.com

              See also --trace-ascii and --trace-time. This option is mutually
              exclusive to -v, --verbose and --trace-ascii.

       --unix-socket <path>
              (HTTP) Connect through this Unix domain socket, instead of using
              the network.

              If --unix-socket is provided several times, the last set value
              will be used.

              Example:
               curl --unix-socket socket-path https://example.com

              See also --abstract-unix-socket. Added in 7.40.0.

       -T, --upload-file <file>
              This transfers the specified local file to the remote URL. If
              there is no file part in the specified URL, curl will append the
              local file name. NOTE that you must use a trailing / on the last
              directory to really prove to Curl that there is no file name or
              curl will think that your last directory name is the remote file
              name to use. That will most likely cause the upload operation to
              fail. If this is used on an HTTP(S) server, the PUT command will
              be used.

              Use the file name "-" (a single dash) to use stdin instead of a
              given file.  Alternately, the file name "." (a single period) may
              be specified instead of "-" to use stdin in non-blocking mode to
              allow reading server output while stdin is being uploaded.

              You can specify one --upload-file for each URL on the command
              line. Each -T, --upload-file + URL pair specifies what to upload
              and to where. curl also supports "globbing" of the --upload-file
              argument, meaning that you can upload multiple files to a single
              URL by using the same URL globbing style supported in the URL.

              When uploading to an SMTP server: the uploaded data is assumed to
              be RFC 5322 formatted. It has to feature the necessary set of
              headers and mail body formatted correctly by the user as curl will
              not transcode nor encode it further in any way.

              --upload-file can be used several times in a command line

              Examples:
               curl -T file https://example.com
               curl -T "img[1-1000].png" ftp://ftp.example.com/
               curl --upload-file "{file1,file2}" https://example.com

              See also -G, --get and -I, --head.

       --url <url>
              Specify a URL to fetch. This option is mostly handy when you want
              to specify URL(s) in a config file.

              If the given URL is missing a scheme name (such as "http://" or
              "ftp://" etc) then curl will make a guess based on the host. If
              the outermost sub-domain name matches DICT, FTP, IMAP, LDAP, POP3
              or SMTP then that protocol will be used, otherwise HTTP will be
              used. Since 7.45.0 guessing can be disabled by setting a default
              protocol, see --proto-default for details.

              To control where this URL is written, use the --output or the
              --remote-name options.

              WARNING: On Windows, particular file:// accesses can be converted
              to network accesses by the operating system. Beware!

              --url can be used several times in a command line

              Example:
               curl --url https://example.com

              See also -:, --next and -K, --config.

       -B, --use-ascii
              (FTP LDAP) Enable ASCII transfer. For FTP, this can also be
              enforced by using a URL that ends with ";type=A". This option
              causes data sent to stdout to be in text mode for win32 systems.

              Providing --use-ascii multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable
              it again with --no-use-ascii.

              Example:
               curl -B ftp://example.com/README

              See also --crlf and --data-ascii.

       -A, --user-agent <name>
              (HTTP) Specify the User-Agent string to send to the HTTP server.
              To encode blanks in the string, surround the string with single
              quote marks. This header can also be set with the --header or the
              --proxy-header options.

              If you give an empty argument to -A, --user-agent (""), it will
              remove the header completely from the request. If you prefer a
              blank header, you can set it to a single space (" ").

              If --user-agent is provided several times, the last set value will
              be used.

              Example:
               curl -A "Agent 007" https://example.com

              See also -H, --header and --proxy-header.

       -u, --user <user:password>
              Specify the user name and password to use for server
              authentication. Overrides --netrc and --netrc-optional.

              If you simply specify the user name, curl will prompt for a
              password.

              The user name and passwords are split up on the first colon, which
              makes it impossible to use a colon in the user name with this
              option. The password can, still.

              On systems where it works, curl will hide the given option
              argument from process listings. This is not enough to protect
              credentials from possibly getting seen by other users on the same
              system as they will still be visible for a moment before cleared.
              Such sensitive data should be retrieved from a file instead or
              similar and never used in clear text in a command line.

              When using Kerberos V5 with a Windows based server you should
              include the Windows domain name in the user name, in order for the
              server to successfully obtain a Kerberos Ticket. If you do not,
              then the initial authentication handshake may fail.

              When using NTLM, the user name can be specified simply as the user
              name, without the domain, if there is a single domain and forest
              in your setup for example.

              To specify the domain name use either Down-Level Logon Name or UPN
              (User Principal Name) formats. For example, EXAMPLE\user and
              user@example.com respectively.

              If you use a Windows SSPI-enabled curl binary and perform Kerberos
              V5, Negotiate, NTLM or Digest authentication then you can tell
              curl to select the user name and password from your environment by
              specifying a single colon with this option: "-u :".

              If --user is provided several times, the last set value will be
              used.

              Example:
               curl -u user:secret https://example.com

              See also -n, --netrc and -K, --config.

       -v, --verbose
              Makes curl verbose during the operation. Useful for debugging and
              seeing what's going on "under the hood". A line starting with '>'
              means "header data" sent by curl, '<' means "header data" received
              by curl that is hidden in normal cases, and a line starting with
              '*' means additional info provided by curl.

              If you only want HTTP headers in the output, --include might be
              the option you are looking for.

              If you think this option still does not give you enough details,
              consider using --trace or --trace-ascii instead.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of -:, --next.

              Use --silent to make curl really quiet.

              Providing --verbose multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable
              it again with --no-verbose.

              Example:
               curl --verbose https://example.com

              See also -i, --include. This option is mutually exclusive to
              --trace and --trace-ascii.

       -V, --version
              Displays information about curl and the libcurl version it uses.

              The first line includes the full version of curl, libcurl and
              other 3rd party libraries linked with the executable.

              The second line (starts with "Protocols:") shows all protocols
              that libcurl reports to support.

              The third line (starts with "Features:") shows specific features
              libcurl reports to offer. Available features include:

              alt-svc
                     Support for the Alt-Svc: header is provided.

              AsynchDNS
                     This curl uses asynchronous name resolves. Asynchronous
                     name resolves can be done using either the c-ares or the
                     threaded resolver backends.

              brotli Support for automatic brotli compression over HTTP(S).

              CharConv
                     curl was built with support for character set conversions
                     (like EBCDIC)

              Debug  This curl uses a libcurl built with Debug. This enables
                     more error-tracking and memory debugging etc. For curl-
                     developers only!

              gsasl  The built-in SASL authentication includes extensions to
                     support SCRAM because libcurl was built with libgsasl.

              GSS-API
                     GSS-API is supported.

              HSTS   HSTS support is present.

              HTTP2  HTTP/2 support has been built-in.

              HTTP3  HTTP/3 support has been built-in.

              HTTPS-proxy
                     This curl is built to support HTTPS proxy.

              IDN    This curl supports IDN - international domain names.

              IPv6   You can use IPv6 with this.

              Kerberos
                     Kerberos V5 authentication is supported.

              Largefile
                     This curl supports transfers of large files, files larger
                     than 2GB.

              libz   Automatic decompression (via gzip, deflate) of compressed
                     files over HTTP is supported.

              MultiSSL
                     This curl supports multiple TLS backends.

              NTLM   NTLM authentication is supported.

              NTLM_WB
                     NTLM delegation to winbind helper is supported.

              PSL    PSL is short for Public Suffix List and means that this
                     curl has been built with knowledge about "public suffixes".

              SPNEGO SPNEGO authentication is supported.

              SSL    SSL versions of various protocols are supported, such as
                     HTTPS, FTPS, POP3S and so on.

              SSPI   SSPI is supported.

              TLS-SRP
                     SRP (Secure Remote Password) authentication is supported
                     for TLS.

              TrackMemory
                     Debug memory tracking is supported.

              Unicode
                     Unicode support on Windows.

              UnixSockets
                     Unix sockets support is provided.

              zstd   Automatic decompression (via zstd) of compressed files over
                     HTTP is supported.

       Providing --version multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable it again
       with --no-version.

       Example:
        curl --version

       See also -h, --help and -M, --manual.

       -w, --write-out <format>
              Make curl display information on stdout after a completed
              transfer. The format is a string that may contain plain text mixed
              with any number of variables. The format can be specified as a
              literal "string", or you can have curl read the format from a file
              with "@filename" and to tell curl to read the format from stdin
              you write "@-".

              The variables present in the output format will be substituted by
              the value or text that curl thinks fit, as described below. All
              variables are specified as %{variable_name} and to output a normal
              % you just write them as %%. You can output a newline by using \n,
              a carriage return with \r and a tab space with \t.

              The output will be written to standard output, but this can be
              switched to standard error by using %{stderr}.

              Output HTTP headers from the most recent request by using
              %header{name} where name is the case insensitive name of the
              header (without the trailing colon). The header contents are
              exactly as sent over the network, with leading and trailing
              whitespace trimmed. Added in curl 7.84.0.

              NOTE: The %-symbol is a special symbol in the win32-environment,
              where all occurrences of % must be doubled when using this option.

              The variables available are:

              content_type   The Content-Type of the requested document, if
                             there was any.

              errormsg       The error message. (Added in 7.75.0)

              exitcode       The numerical exitcode of the transfer. (Added in
                             7.75.0)

              filename_effective
                             The ultimate filename that curl writes out to. This
                             is only meaningful if curl is told to write to a
                             file with the --remote-name or --output option.
                             It's most useful in combination with the --remote-
                             header-name option.

              ftp_entry_path The initial path curl ended up in when logging on
                             to the remote FTP server.

              header_json    A JSON object with all HTTP response headers from
                             the recent transfer. Values are provided as arrays,
                             since in the case of multiple headers there can be
                             multiple values.

                             The header names provided in lowercase, listed in
                             order of appearance over the wire. Except for
                             duplicated headers. They are grouped on the first
                             occurrence of that header, each value is presented
                             in the JSON array.

              http_code      The numerical response code that was found in the
                             last retrieved HTTP(S) or FTP(s) transfer.

              http_connect   The numerical code that was found in the last
                             response (from a proxy) to a curl CONNECT request.

              http_version   The http version that was effectively used. (Added
                             in 7.50.0)

              json           A JSON object with all available keys.

              local_ip       The IP address of the local end of the most
                             recently done connection - can be either IPv4 or
                             IPv6.

              local_port     The local port number of the most recently done
                             connection.

              method         The http method used in the most recent HTTP
                             request. (Added in 7.72.0)

              num_connects   Number of new connects made in the recent transfer.

              num_headers    The number of response headers in the most recent
                             request (restarted at each redirect). Note that the
                             status line IS NOT a header. (Added in 7.73.0)

              num_redirects  Number of redirects that were followed in the
                             request.

              onerror        The rest of the output is only shown if the
                             transfer returned a non-zero error (Added in
                             7.75.0)

              proxy_ssl_verify_result
                             The result of the HTTPS proxy's SSL peer
                             certificate verification that was requested. 0
                             means the verification was successful. (Added in
                             7.52.0)

              redirect_url   When an HTTP request was made without --location to
                             follow redirects (or when --max-redirs is met),
                             this variable will show the actual URL a redirect
                             would have gone to.

              referer        The Referer: header, if there was any. (Added in
                             7.76.0)

              remote_ip      The remote IP address of the most recently done
                             connection - can be either IPv4 or IPv6.

              remote_port    The remote port number of the most recently done
                             connection.

              response_code  The numerical response code that was found in the
                             last transfer (formerly known as "http_code").

              scheme         The URL scheme (sometimes called protocol) that was
                             effectively used. (Added in 7.52.0)

              size_download  The total amount of bytes that were downloaded.
                             This is the size of the body/data that was
                             transferred, excluding headers.

              size_header    The total amount of bytes of the downloaded
                             headers.

              size_request   The total amount of bytes that were sent in the
                             HTTP request.

              size_upload    The total amount of bytes that were uploaded. This
                             is the size of the body/data that was transferred,
                             excluding headers.

              speed_download The average download speed that curl measured for
                             the complete download. Bytes per second.

              speed_upload   The average upload speed that curl measured for the
                             complete upload. Bytes per second.

              ssl_verify_result
                             The result of the SSL peer certificate verification
                             that was requested. 0 means the verification was
                             successful.

              stderr         From this point on, the --write-out output will be
                             written to standard error. (Added in 7.63.0)

              stdout         From this point on, the --write-out output will be
                             written to standard output.  This is the default,
                             but can be used to switch back after switching to
                             stderr.  (Added in 7.63.0)

              time_appconnect
                             The time, in seconds, it took from the start until
                             the SSL/SSH/etc connect/handshake to the remote
                             host was completed.

              time_connect   The time, in seconds, it took from the start until
                             the TCP connect to the remote host (or proxy) was
                             completed.

              time_namelookup
                             The time, in seconds, it took from the start until
                             the name resolving was completed.

              time_pretransfer
                             The time, in seconds, it took from the start until
                             the file transfer was just about to begin. This
                             includes all pre-transfer commands and negotiations
                             that are specific to the particular protocol(s)
                             involved.

              time_redirect  The time, in seconds, it took for all redirection
                             steps including name lookup, connect, pretransfer
                             and transfer before the final transaction was
                             started. time_redirect shows the complete execution
                             time for multiple redirections.

              time_starttransfer
                             The time, in seconds, it took from the start until
                             the first byte was just about to be transferred.
                             This includes time_pretransfer and also the time
                             the server needed to calculate the result.

              time_total     The total time, in seconds, that the full operation
                             lasted.

              url            The URL that was fetched. (Added in 7.75.0)

              urlnum         The URL index number of this transfer, 0-indexed.
                             De-globbed URLs share the same index number as the
                             origin globbed URL. (Added in 7.75.0)

              url_effective  The URL that was fetched last. This is most
                             meaningful if you have told curl to follow
                             location: headers.


              If --write-out is provided several times, the last set value will
              be used.

              Example:
               curl -w '%{http_code}\n' https://example.com

              See also -v, --verbose and -I, --head.

       --xattr
              When saving output to a file, this option tells curl to store
              certain file metadata in extended file attributes. Currently, the
              URL is stored in the xdg.origin.url attribute and, for HTTP, the
              content type is stored in the mime_type attribute. If the file
              system does not support extended attributes, a warning is issued.

              Providing --xattr multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable it
              again with --no-xattr.

              Example:
               curl --xattr -o storage https://example.com

              See also -R, --remote-time, -w, --write-out and -v, --verbose.


FILES

       ~/.curlrc
              Default config file, see --config for details.


ENVIRONMENT

       The environment variables can be specified in lower case or upper case.
       The lower case version has precedence. http_proxy is an exception as it
       is only available in lower case.

       Using an environment variable to set the proxy has the same effect as
       using the --proxy option.


       http_proxy [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets the proxy server to use for HTTP.

       HTTPS_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets the proxy server to use for HTTPS.

       [url-protocol]_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets the proxy server to use for [url-protocol], where the
              protocol is a protocol that curl supports and as specified in a
              URL. FTP, FTPS, POP3, IMAP, SMTP, LDAP, etc.

       ALL_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets the proxy server to use if no protocol-specific proxy is set.

       NO_PROXY <comma-separated list of hosts/domains>
              list of host names that should not go through any proxy. If set to
              an asterisk '*' only, it matches all hosts. Each name in this list
              is matched as either a domain name which contains the hostname, or
              the hostname itself.

              This environment variable disables use of the proxy even when
              specified with the --proxy option. That is
              NO_PROXY=direct.example.com curl -x http://proxy.example.com
              http://direct.example.com accesses the target URL directly, and
              NO_PROXY=direct.example.com curl -x http://proxy.example.com
              http://somewhere.example.com accesses the target URL through the
              proxy.

              The list of host names can also be include numerical IP addresses,
              and IPv6 versions should then be given without enclosing brackets.

              IPv6 numerical addresses are compared as strings, so they will
              only match if the representations are the same: "::1" is the same
              as "::0:1" but they do not match.

       APPDATA <dir>
              On Windows, this variable is used when trying to find the home
              directory. If the primary home variable are all unset.

       COLUMNS <terminal width>
              If set, the specified number of characters will be used as the
              terminal width when the alternative progress-bar is shown. If not
              set, curl will try to figure it out using other ways.

       CURL_CA_BUNDLE <file>
              If set, will be used as the --cacert value.

       CURL_HOME <dir>
              If set, is the first variable curl checks when trying to find its
              home directory. If not set, it continues to check XDG_CONFIG_HOME.

       CURL_SSL_BACKEND <TLS backend>
              If curl was built with support for "MultiSSL", meaning that it has
              built-in support for more than one TLS backend, this environment
              variable can be set to the case insensitive name of the particular
              backend to use when curl is invoked. Setting a name that is not a
              built-in alternative will make curl stay with the default.

              SSL backend names (case-insensitive): bearssl, gnutls, gskit,
              mbedtls, nss, openssl, rustls, schannel, secure-transport, wolfssl

       HOME <dir>
              If set, this is used to find the home directory when that is
              needed. Like when looking for the default .curlrc. CURL_HOME and
              XDG_CONFIG_HOME have preference.

       QLOGDIR <directory name>
              If curl was built with HTTP/3 support, setting this environment
              variable to a local directory will make curl produce qlogs in that
              directory, using file names named after the destination connection
              id (in hex). Do note that these files can become rather large.
              Works with both QUIC backends.

       SHELL  Used on VMS when trying to detect if using a DCL or a "unix"
              shell.

       SSL_CERT_DIR <dir>
              If set, will be used as the --capath value.

       SSL_CERT_FILE <path>
              If set, will be used as the --cacert value.

       SSLKEYLOGFILE <file name>
              If you set this environment variable to a file name, curl will
              store TLS secrets from its connections in that file when invoked
              to enable you to analyze the TLS traffic in real time using
              network analyzing tools such as Wireshark. This works with the
              following TLS backends: OpenSSL, libressl, BoringSSL, GnuTLS, NSS
              and wolfSSL.

       USERPROFILE <dir>
              On Windows, this variable is used when trying to find the home
              directory. If the other, primary, variable are all unset. If set,
              curl will use the path "$USERPROFILE\Application Data".

       XDG_CONFIG_HOME <dir>
              If CURL_HOME is not set, this variable is checked when looking for
              a default .curlrc file.


PROXY PROTOCOL PREFIXES

       The proxy string may be specified with a protocol:// prefix to specify
       alternative proxy protocols.

       If no protocol is specified in the proxy string or if the string does not
       match a supported one, the proxy will be treated as an HTTP proxy.

       The supported proxy protocol prefixes are as follows:

       http://
              Makes it use it as an HTTP proxy. The default if no scheme prefix
              is used.

       https://
              Makes it treated as an HTTPS proxy.

       socks4://
              Makes it the equivalent of --socks4

       socks4a://
              Makes it the equivalent of --socks4a

       socks5://
              Makes it the equivalent of --socks5

       socks5h://
              Makes it the equivalent of --socks5-hostname


EXIT CODES

       There are a bunch of different error codes and their corresponding error
       messages that may appear under error conditions. At the time of this
       writing, the exit codes are:

       0      Success. The operation completed successfully according to the
              instructions.

       1      Unsupported protocol. This build of curl has no support for this
              protocol.

       2      Failed to initialize.

       3      URL malformed. The syntax was not correct.

       4      A feature or option that was needed to perform the desired request
              was not enabled or was explicitly disabled at build-time. To make
              curl able to do this, you probably need another build of libcurl.

       5      Could not resolve proxy. The given proxy host could not be
              resolved.

       6      Could not resolve host. The given remote host could not be
              resolved.

       7      Failed to connect to host.

       8      Weird server reply. The server sent data curl could not parse.

       9      FTP access denied. The server denied login or denied access to the
              particular resource or directory you wanted to reach. Most often
              you tried to change to a directory that does not exist on the
              server.

       10     FTP accept failed. While waiting for the server to connect back
              when an active FTP session is used, an error code was sent over
              the control connection or similar.

       11     FTP weird PASS reply. Curl could not parse the reply sent to the
              PASS request.

       12     During an active FTP session while waiting for the server to
              connect back to curl, the timeout expired.

       13     FTP weird PASV reply, Curl could not parse the reply sent to the
              PASV request.

       14     FTP weird 227 format. Curl could not parse the 227-line the server
              sent.

       15     FTP cannot use host. Could not resolve the host IP we got in the
              227-line.

       16     HTTP/2 error. A problem was detected in the HTTP2 framing layer.
              This is somewhat generic and can be one out of several problems,
              see the error message for details.

       17     FTP could not set binary. Could not change transfer method to
              binary.

       18     Partial file. Only a part of the file was transferred.

       19     FTP could not download/access the given file, the RETR (or
              similar) command failed.

       21     FTP quote error. A quote command returned error from the server.

       22     HTTP page not retrieved. The requested URL was not found or
              returned another error with the HTTP error code being 400 or
              above. This return code only appears if --fail is used.

       23     Write error. Curl could not write data to a local filesystem or
              similar.

       25     FTP could not STOR file. The server denied the STOR operation,
              used for FTP uploading.

       26     Read error. Various reading problems.

       27     Out of memory. A memory allocation request failed.

       28     Operation timeout. The specified time-out period was reached
              according to the conditions.

       30     FTP PORT failed. The PORT command failed. Not all FTP servers
              support the PORT command, try doing a transfer using PASV instead!

       31     FTP could not use REST. The REST command failed. This command is
              used for resumed FTP transfers.

       33     HTTP range error. The range "command" did not work.

       34     HTTP post error. Internal post-request generation error.

       35     SSL connect error. The SSL handshaking failed.

       36     Bad download resume. Could not continue an earlier aborted
              download.

       37     FILE could not read file. Failed to open the file. Permissions?

       38     LDAP cannot bind. LDAP bind operation failed.

       39     LDAP search failed.

       41     Function not found. A required LDAP function was not found.

       42     Aborted by callback. An application told curl to abort the
              operation.

       43     Internal error. A function was called with a bad parameter.

       45     Interface error. A specified outgoing interface could not be used.

       47     Too many redirects. When following redirects, curl hit the maximum
              amount.

       48     Unknown option specified to libcurl. This indicates that you
              passed a weird option to curl that was passed on to libcurl and
              rejected. Read up in the manual!

       49     Malformed telnet option.

       52     The server did not reply anything, which here is considered an
              error.

       53     SSL crypto engine not found.

       54     Cannot set SSL crypto engine as default.

       55     Failed sending network data.

       56     Failure in receiving network data.

       58     Problem with the local certificate.

       59     Could not use specified SSL cipher.

       60     Peer certificate cannot be authenticated with known CA
              certificates.

       61     Unrecognized transfer encoding.

       63     Maximum file size exceeded.

       64     Requested FTP SSL level failed.

       65     Sending the data requires a rewind that failed.

       66     Failed to initialise SSL Engine.

       67     The user name, password, or similar was not accepted and curl
              failed to log in.

       68     File not found on TFTP server.

       69     Permission problem on TFTP server.

       70     Out of disk space on TFTP server.

       71     Illegal TFTP operation.

       72     Unknown TFTP transfer ID.

       73     File already exists (TFTP).

       74     No such user (TFTP).

       77     Problem reading the SSL CA cert (path? access rights?).

       78     The resource referenced in the URL does not exist.

       79     An unspecified error occurred during the SSH session.

       80     Failed to shut down the SSL connection.

       82     Could not load CRL file, missing or wrong format.

       83     Issuer check failed.

       84     The FTP PRET command failed.

       85     Mismatch of RTSP CSeq numbers.

       86     Mismatch of RTSP Session Identifiers.

       87     Unable to parse FTP file list.

       88     FTP chunk callback reported error.

       89     No connection available, the session will be queued.

       90     SSL public key does not matched pinned public key.

       91     Invalid SSL certificate status.

       92     Stream error in HTTP/2 framing layer.

       93     An API function was called from inside a callback.

       94     An authentication function returned an error.

       95     A problem was detected in the HTTP/3 layer. This is somewhat
              generic and can be one out of several problems, see the error
              message for details.

       96     QUIC connection error. This error may be caused by an SSL library
              error. QUIC is the protocol used for HTTP/3 transfers.

       XX     More error codes will appear here in future releases. The existing
              ones are meant to never change.


BUGS

       If you experience any problems with curl, submit an issue in the
       project's bug tracker on GitHub: https://github.com/curl/curl/issues


AUTHORS / CONTRIBUTORS

       Daniel Stenberg is the main author, but the whole list of contributors is
       found in the separate THANKS file.


WWW

       https://curl.se


SEE ALSO

       ftp(1), wget(1)



curl 7.86.0                      October 23 2022                         curl(1)

curl 7.86.0 - Generated Sat Oct 29 07:52:58 CDT 2022
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