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ctwill(1)                   General Commands Manual                  ctwill(1)




NAME

       ctwill, ctwill-refsort, ctwill-twinx - translate CWEB to TeX
       with mini-indexes per spread or per section


SYNOPSIS

       ctwill [options] webfile[.w] [{changefile[.ch]|-} [outfile[.tex]]]
       ctwill-refsort < indexfile.ref > indexfile.sref
       ctwill-twinx outfile.tex [outfile.tex ...] > index.tex


DESCRIPTION

       The ctwill program converts a CWEB source document into a TeX file that
       may be formatted and printed in the usual way.   It  takes  appropriate
       care  of  typographic  details like page layout and the use of indenta-
       tion, italics, boldface, etc., and it  supplies  extensive  cross-index
       information that it gathers automatically.

       CWEB  allows you to prepare a single document containing all the infor-
       mation that is needed both to produce a compilable C/C++ program and to
       produce a well-formatted document describing the program in as much de-
       tail as the writer may desire.  The user of CWEB ought to  be  familiar
       with TeX as well as C/C++.


USAGE

       The command line should have one, two, or three names on it.  The first
       is taken as the CWEB input file (and .w is added if there is no  exten-
       sion).   If  there  is  a  second name, it is a change file (and .ch is
       added if there is no extension).  The change file  overrides  parts  of
       the  CWEB file, as described in the documentation.  If there is a third
       name, it overrides the default name of the output file, which is  ordi-
       narily  the  same as the name of the input file (but on the current di-
       rectory) with the extension .tex.  If you just want to change the  out-
       put  file  name, but don't have a change file to apply, you can use `-'
       as the second argument.

       ctwill is exactly like cweave except that it produces much better docu-
       mentation,  for  which  you  must  work  harder.  You should run ctwill
       twice, once to prime the pump and once to get  decent  answers.   More-
       over, you must run the output twice through TeX.

       After  tex  foo you will have output that looks like final pages except
       that the entries of mini-indexes won't be alphabetized.  The first  run
       produces  a  weird file called foo.ref.  Say ctwill-refsort < foo.ref >
       foo.sref and then another tex foo will produce alphabetized output.

       The ctwill-twinx program compiles a master index for a set  of  related
       programs  that  have been processed by ctwill.  The individual programs
       should define their names with a line of the form \def\title{NAME}.

       The mini-indexes list identifiers that are used but not defined on each
       two-page  spread.   At the end of each section, ctwill gives TeX a list
       of identifiers used in that section and information  about  where  they
       are defined.

       The  current  meaning  of every identifier is initially \uninitialized.
       Then ctwill reads the .aux file for your job, if any.

       Before reading the .aux file, ctwill actually looks for a  file  called
       system.bux,  which will be read if present.  And after foo.aux, a third
       possibility is foo.bux.  The general convention is to  put  definitions
       of system procedures such as printf into system.bux, and to put defini-
       tions found in specifically foo-ish header files  into  foo.bux.   Like
       the .aux files, .bux files should contain only @$ specifications.

       The  meaning  specified  by  @$...@>  generally has four components: an
       identifier (followed by space), a program name (enclosed in braces),  a
       section number (followed by space), and a TeX part.

       A  special proofmode is provided so that you can check ctwill's conclu-
       sions about cross-references.  Run ctwill with the  flag  +P,  and  TeX
       will  produce  a specially formatted document (without mini-indexes) in
       which you can check that your specifications are correct.

       More details how to use ctwill can be found in the  first  sections  of
       its source code, respectively the change file cweav-twill.ch applicable
       to the cweave.w source.  A complete example with all bells and whistles
       is  described  in  Mini-Indexes for Literate Programs, pages 225-245 of
       Knuth's Digital Typography.


DIFFERENCES TO ORIGINAL CTWILL

       The present incarnation of ctwill and its utilities tries hard to be  a
       drop-in  replacement  for  the original package.  There are, however, a
       few differences worth noting:

       o This version is based on the most recent version of CWEB (3.64c).

       o In TeX Live the utility programs are prefixed with  ctwill-  and  the
         macro files with ct for technical reasons.

       o Options  --help, --quiet, --verbose, --version, and flags -i, -o, and
         +lX are new in CWEBbin and TeX Live.

       o Option +lX is accompanied by example wrapper  files  for  ctwimac.tex
         and ctproofmac.tex with translated captions for German (+ld).

       o ctwill  in  TeX Live  operates silently by default; use the --verbose
         option to get the original behavior.

       o File lookup with the environment variable CWEBINPUTS is  extended  to
         permit several, colon-separated, paths.

       o If properly configured, the main program ctwill is localized with the
         "GNU gettext utilities".


OPTIONS

       Options on the command line may be either turned off with `-' (if  they
       are  on by default) or turned on with `+' (if they are off by default).
       In fact, the options are processed from left to right,  so  a  sequence
       like  --verbose -h will only show the banner line (+b) and the progress
       report (+p), but leave out the happy message (-h).

       o +b: print banner line on terminal

       o +h: print success message on completion

       o +p: print progress report messages

       o +q/-q: shortcut for -bhp; also --quiet (default)

       o +v/-v: shortcut for +bhp; also --verbose

       o -e: do not enclose C/C++ material in \PB{...}

       o -f: do not force a newline after every C/C++ statement in output

       o -i: suppress indentation of parameter declarations

       o -o: suppress separation of declarations and statements

       o -x: omit indices, section names, table of contents

       o +P: \input ctproofmac.tex instead of ctwimac.tex

       o +lX/-lX: use macros for language X as of X{ctwimac|ctproofmac}.tex

       o +s: print usage statistics

       o --help: display help message and exit

       o --version: output version information and exit


ENVIRONMENT

       The environment variable CWEBINPUTS is used to  search  for  the  input
       files,  or the system default if CWEBINPUTS is not set.  See tex(1) for
       the details of the searching.

       If prepared for NLS support, ctwill like ctangle and  cweave  uses  the
       environment  variable  TEXMFLOCALEDIR to configure the parent directory
       where the "GNU gettext utilities" search for translation catalogs.

       These variables are preconfigured in TeX Live's texmf.cnf.


FILES

       The location of the files mentioned below varies from system to system.
       Use the kpsewhich utility to find their locations.

       o ctwimac.tex:  The  default TeX macros \input in the first line of the
         output file.

       o ctproofmac.tex: If ctwill is invoked with  the  +P  option,  it  will
         change the first line of the output file to \input ctproofmac.tex.

       In  both cases you can request some prefix X with the +lX option, e.g.,
       +ld will \input dctwimac.tex and +Pld will \input dctproofmac.tex.

       o webfile.bux: Reference definitions to resolve from other modules.

       o system.bux: Reference definitions to resolve from C/C++ standard  li-
         brary header files like <stdio.h>.

       Other  auxiliary  files  with  references  are created automatically by
       ctwill and the actual index files are created by TeX.

       o cwebman.tex: The  CWEB  user  manual,  available  in  PDF  from  CTAN
         (https://ctan.org/pkg/cweb).


SEE ALSO

       o The  CWEB  System of Structured Documentation: by Donald E. Knuth and
         Silvio Levy (hardcopy version of  cwebman.tex  and  the  source  code
         listings of common.w, ctangle.w, and cweave.w).

       o Digital Typography: by D. E. Knuth.

       o Literate Programming: by D. E. Knuth.

       o Weaving a Program: by Wayne Sewell.

       cweb(1), tex(1), cc(1)


AUTHORS

       Don Knuth wrote ctwill based on cweave by Silvio Levy and Knuth.
       ctwill and its utilities ctwill-refsort and ctwill-twinx have been ful-
       ly integrated with the CWEBbin extension that serves as the  basis  for
       CWEB  in  TeX Live;  see  the  project page (https://github.com/ascher-
       er/cwebbin).



Web2c 2020                     December 7, 2019                      ctwill(1)

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