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certtool(1)                      User Commands                     certtool(1)




NAME

       certtool - GnuTLS certificate tool


SYNOPSIS

       certtool [-flag [value]]... [--opt-name[[=| ]value]]...

       All arguments must be options.



DESCRIPTION

       Tool  to  parse  and  generate X.509 certificates, requests and private
       keys.  It can be used interactively or non interactively by  specifying
       the template command line option.


OPTIONS

       -d number, --debug=number
              Enable  debugging.   This  option takes an integer number as its
              argument.  The value of number is constrained to being:
                  in the range  0 through 9999

              Specifies the debug level.

       -V, --verbose
              More verbose output.  This option may appear an unlimited number
              of times.


       --infile=file
              Input file.


       --outfile=string
              Output file.


       -s, --generate-self-signed
              Generate a self-signed certificate.


       -c, --generate-certificate
              Generate a signed certificate.


       --generate-proxy
              Generates a proxy certificate.


       --generate-crl
              Generate a CRL.


       -u, --update-certificate
              Update a signed certificate.


       -p, --generate-privkey
              Generate a private key.


       -q, --generate-request
              Generate a PKCS #10 certificate request.  This option must not
              appear in combination with any of the following options: infile.

              Will generate a PKCS #10 certificate request. To specify a pri-
              vate key use --load-privkey.

       -e, --verify-chain
              Verify a PEM encoded certificate chain.

              The last certificate in the chain must be a self signed one.

       --verify
              Verify a PEM encoded certificate chain using a trusted list.

              The trusted certificate list can be loaded with --load-ca-cer-
              tificate. If no certificate list is provided, then the system's
              certificate list is used.

       --verify-crl
              Verify a CRL using a trusted list.  This option must appear in
              combination with the following options: load-ca-certificate.

              The trusted certificate list must be loaded with --load-ca-cer-
              tificate.

       --generate-dh-params
              Generate PKCS #3 encoded Diffie-Hellman parameters.


       --get-dh-params
              Get the included PKCS #3 encoded Diffie-Hellman parameters.

              Returns stored DH parameters in GnuTLS. Those parameters are
              used in the SRP protocol. The parameters returned by fresh gen-
              eration are more efficient since GnuTLS 3.0.9.

       --dh-info
              Print information PKCS #3 encoded Diffie-Hellman parameters.


       --load-privkey=string
              Loads a private key file.

              This can be either a file or a PKCS #11 URL

       --load-pubkey=string
              Loads a public key file.

              This can be either a file or a PKCS #11 URL

       --load-request=string
              Loads a certificate request file.


       --load-certificate=string
              Loads a certificate file.

              This can be either a file or a PKCS #11 URL

       --load-ca-privkey=string
              Loads the certificate authority's private key file.

              This can be either a file or a PKCS #11 URL

       --load-ca-certificate=string
              Loads the certificate authority's certificate file.

              This can be either a file or a PKCS #11 URL

       --password=string
              Password to use.

              You can use this option to specify the password in the command
              line instead of reading it from the tty. Note, that the command
              line arguments are available for view in others in the system.
              Specifying password as '' is the same as specifying no password.

       --null-password
              Enforce a NULL password.

              This option enforces a NULL password. This is different than the
              empty or no password in schemas like PKCS #8.

       --empty-password
              Enforce an empty password.

              This option enforces an empty password. This is different than
              the NULL or no password in schemas like PKCS #8.

       --hex-numbers
              Print big number in an easier format to parse.


       --cprint
              In certain operations it prints the information in C-friendly
              format.

              In certain operations it prints the information in C-friendly
              format, suitable for including into C programs.

       -i, --certificate-info
              Print information on the given certificate.


       --certificate-pubkey
              Print certificate's public key.


       --pgp-certificate-info
              Print information on the given OpenPGP certificate.


       --pgp-ring-info
              Print information on the given OpenPGP keyring structure.


       -l, --crl-info
              Print information on the given CRL structure.


       --crq-info
              Print information on the given certificate request.


       --no-crq-extensions
              Do not use extensions in certificate requests.


       --p12-info
              Print information on a PKCS #12 structure.


       --p12-name=string
              The PKCS #12 friendly name to use.

              The name to be used for the primary certificate and private key
              in a PKCS #12 file.

       --p7-info
              Print information on a PKCS #7 structure.


       --smime-to-p7
              Convert S/MIME to PKCS #7 structure.


       -k, --key-info
              Print information on a private key.


       --pgp-key-info
              Print information on an OpenPGP private key.


       --pubkey-info
              Print information on a public key.

              The option combined with --load-request, --load-pubkey, --load-
              privkey and --load-certificate will extract the public key of
              the object in question.

       --v1   Generate an X.509 version 1 certificate (with no extensions).


       --to-p12
              Generate a PKCS #12 structure.  This option must appear in com-
              bination with the following options: load-certificate.

              It requires a certificate, a private key and possibly a CA cer-
              tificate to be specified.

       --to-p8
              Generate a PKCS #8 structure.


       -8, --pkcs8
              Use PKCS #8 format for private keys.


       --rsa  Generate RSA key.

              When combined with --generate-privkey generates an RSA private
              key.

       --dsa  Generate DSA key.

              When combined with --generate-privkey generates a DSA private
              key.

       --ecc  Generate ECC (ECDSA) key.

              When combined with --generate-privkey generates an elliptic
              curve private key to be used with ECDSA.

       --ecdsa
              This is an alias for the --ecc option.

       --hash=string
              Hash algorithm to use for signing.

              Available hash functions are SHA1, RMD160, SHA256, SHA384,
              SHA512.

       --inder, --no-inder
              Use DER format for input certificates, private keys, and DH
              parameters .  The no-inder form will disable the option.

              The input files will be assumed to be in DER or RAW format.
              Unlike options that in PEM input would allow multiple input data
              (e.g. multiple certificates), when reading in DER format a sin-
              gle data structure is read.

       --inraw
              This is an alias for the --inder option.

       --outder, --no-outder
              Use DER format for output certificates, private keys, and DH
              parameters.  The no-outder form will disable the option.

              The output will be in DER or RAW format.

       --outraw
              This is an alias for the --outder option.

       --bits=number
              Specify the number of bits for key generate.  This option takes
              an integer number as its argument.


       --sec-param=security parameter
              Specify the security level [low, legacy, medium, high, ultra].

              This is alternative to the bits option.

       --disable-quick-random
              No effect.


       --template=string
              Template file to use for non-interactive operation.


       --stdout-info
              Print information to stdout instead of stderr.


       --ask-pass
              Enable interaction for entering password when in batch mode..

              This option will enable interaction to enter password when in
              batch mode. That is useful when the template option has been
              specified.

       --pkcs-cipher=cipher
              Cipher to use for PKCS #8 and #12 operations.

              Cipher may be one of 3des, 3des-pkcs12, aes-128, aes-192,
              aes-256, rc2-40, arcfour.

       --provider=string
              Specify the PKCS #11 provider library.

              This will override the default options in
              /etc/gnutls/pkcs11.conf

       -h, --help
              Display usage information and exit.

       -!, --more-help
              Pass the extended usage information through a pager.

       -v [{v|c|n}], --version[={v|c|n}]
              Output version of program and exit.  The default mode is `v', a
              simple version.  The `c' mode will print copyright information
              and `n' will print the full copyright notice.


FILES

       Certtool's template file format
       A template file can be used to avoid the interactive questions of cert-
       tool. Initially create a file named 'cert.cfg' that contains the infor-
       mation about the certificate. The template can be used as below:

           $ certtool --generate-certificate --load-privkey key.pem     --template cert.cfg --outfile cert.pem    --load-ca-certificate ca-cert.pem --load-ca-privkey ca-key.pem

       An example certtool template file that can be used to generate a cer-
       tificate request or a self signed certificate follows.

           # X.509 Certificate options
           #
           # DN options

           # The organization of the subject.
           organization = "Koko inc."

           # The organizational unit of the subject.
           unit = "sleeping dept."

           # The locality of the subject.
           # locality =

           # The state of the certificate owner.
           state = "Attiki"

           # The country of the subject. Two letter code.
           country = GR

           # The common name of the certificate owner.
           cn = "Cindy Lauper"

           # A user id of the certificate owner.
           #uid = "clauper"

           # Set domain components
           #dc = "name"
           #dc = "domain"

           # If the supported DN OIDs are not adequate you can set
           # any OID here.
           # For example set the X.520 Title and the X.520 Pseudonym
           # by using OID and string pairs.
           #dn_oid = 2.5.4.12 Dr.
           #dn_oid = 2.5.4.65 jackal

           # This is deprecated and should not be used in new
           # certificates.
           # pkcs9_email = "none@none.org"

           # An alternative way to set the certificate's distinguished name directly
           # is with the "dn" option. The attribute names allowed are:
           # C (country), street, O (organization), OU (unit), title, CN (common name),
           # L (locality), ST (state), placeOfBirth, gender, countryOfCitizenship,
           # countryOfResidence, serialNumber, telephoneNumber, surName, initials,
           # generationQualifier, givenName, pseudonym, dnQualifier, postalCode, name,
           # businessCategory, DC, UID, jurisdictionOfIncorporationLocalityName,
           # jurisdictionOfIncorporationStateOrProvinceName,
           # jurisdictionOfIncorporationCountryName, XmppAddr, and numeric OIDs.

           #dn = "cn=Nik,st=Attiki,C=GR,surName=Mavrogiannopoulos,2.5.4.9=Arkadias"

           # The serial number of the certificate
           # Comment the field for a time-based serial number.
           serial = 007

           # In how many days, counting from today, this certificate will expire.
           # Use -1 if there is no expiration date.
           expiration_days = 700

           # Alternatively you may set concrete dates and time. The GNU date string
           # formats are accepted. See:
           # http://www.gnu.org/software/tar/manual/html_node/Date-input-formats.html

           #activation_date = "2004-02-29 16:21:42"
           #expiration_date = "2025-02-29 16:24:41"

           # X.509 v3 extensions

           # A dnsname in case of a WWW server.
           #dns_name = "www.none.org"
           #dns_name = "www.morethanone.org"

           # A subject alternative name URI
           #uri = "http://www.example.com"

           # An IP address in case of a server.
           #ip_address = "192.168.1.1"

           # An email in case of a person
           email = "none@none.org"

           # Challenge password used in certificate requests
           challenge_password = 123456

           # Password when encrypting a private key
           #password = secret

           # An URL that has CRLs (certificate revocation lists)
           # available. Needed in CA certificates.
           #crl_dist_points = "http://www.getcrl.crl/getcrl/"

           # Whether this is a CA certificate or not
           #ca

           # for microsoft smart card logon
           # key_purpose_oid = 1.3.6.1.4.1.311.20.2.2

           ### Other predefined key purpose OIDs

           # Whether this certificate will be used for a TLS client
           #tls_www_client

           # Whether this certificate will be used for a TLS server
           #tls_www_server

           # Whether this certificate will be used to sign data (needed
           # in TLS DHE ciphersuites).
           signing_key

           # Whether this certificate will be used to encrypt data (needed
           # in TLS RSA ciphersuites). Note that it is preferred to use different
           # keys for encryption and signing.
           encryption_key

           # Whether this key will be used to sign other certificates.
           #cert_signing_key

           # Whether this key will be used to sign CRLs.
           #crl_signing_key

           # Whether this key will be used to sign code.
           #code_signing_key

           # Whether this key will be used to sign OCSP data.
           #ocsp_signing_key

           # Whether this key will be used for time stamping.
           #time_stamping_key

           # Whether this key will be used for IPsec IKE operations.
           #ipsec_ike_key

           ### end of key purpose OIDs

           # When generating a certificate from a certificate
           # request, then honor the extensions stored in the request
           # and store them in the real certificate.
           #honor_crq_extensions

           # Path length contraint. Sets the maximum number of
           # certificates that can be used to certify this certificate.
           # (i.e. the certificate chain length)
           #path_len = -1
           #path_len = 2

           # OCSP URI
           # ocsp_uri = http://my.ocsp.server/ocsp

           # CA issuers URI
           # ca_issuers_uri = http://my.ca.issuer

           # Certificate policies
           #policy1 = 1.3.6.1.4.1.5484.1.10.99.1.0
           #policy1_txt = "This is a long policy to summarize"
           #policy1_url = http://www.example.com/a-policy-to-read

           #policy2 = 1.3.6.1.4.1.5484.1.10.99.1.1
           #policy2_txt = "This is a short policy"
           #policy2_url = http://www.example.com/another-policy-to-read

           # Name constraints

           # DNS
           #nc_permit_dns = example.com
           #nc_exclude_dns = test.example.com

           # EMAIL
           #nc_permit_email = "nmav@ex.net"

           # Exclude subdomains of example.com
           #nc_exclude_email = .example.com

           # Exclude all e-mail addresses of example.com
           #nc_exclude_email = example.com


           # Options for proxy certificates
           #proxy_policy_language = 1.3.6.1.5.5.7.21.1


           # Options for generating a CRL

           # The number of days the next CRL update will be due.
           # next CRL update will be in 43 days
           #crl_next_update = 43

           # this is the 5th CRL by this CA
           # Comment the field for a time-based number.
           #crl_number = 5




EXAMPLES

       Generating private keys
       To create an RSA private key, run:
           $ certtool --generate-privkey --outfile key.pem --rsa

       To create a DSA or elliptic curves (ECDSA) private key use the above
       command combined with 'dsa' or 'ecc' options.

       Generating certificate requests
       To create a certificate request (needed when the certificate is  issued
       by another party), run:
           certtool --generate-request --load-privkey key.pem    --outfile request.pem

       If the private key is stored in a smart card you can generate a request
       by specifying the private key object URL.
           $ ./certtool --generate-request --load-privkey "pkcs11:..."   --load-pubkey "pkcs11:..." --outfile request.pem


       Generating a self-signed certificate
       To create a self signed certificate, use the command:
           $ certtool --generate-privkey --outfile ca-key.pem
           $ certtool --generate-self-signed --load-privkey ca-key.pem    --outfile ca-cert.pem

       Note that a self-signed certificate usually belongs to a certificate
       authority, that signs other certificates.

       Generating a certificate
       To generate a certificate using the previous request, use the command:
           $ certtool --generate-certificate --load-request request.pem    --outfile cert.pem --load-ca-certificate ca-cert.pem    --load-ca-privkey ca-key.pem

       To generate a certificate using the private key only, use the command:
           $ certtool --generate-certificate --load-privkey key.pem    --outfile cert.pem --load-ca-certificate ca-cert.pem    --load-ca-privkey ca-key.pem

       Certificate information
       To view the certificate information, use:
           $ certtool --certificate-info --infile cert.pem

       PKCS #12 structure generation
       To generate a PKCS #12 structure using the previous key and certifi-
       cate, use the command:
           $ certtool --load-certificate cert.pem --load-privkey key.pem    --to-p12 --outder --outfile key.p12

       Some tools (reportedly web browsers) have problems with that file
       because it does not contain the CA certificate for the certificate.  To
       work around that problem in the tool, you can use the --load-ca-cer-
       tificate parameter as follows:

           $ certtool --load-ca-certificate ca.pem   --load-certificate cert.pem --load-privkey key.pem   --to-p12 --outder --outfile key.p12

       Diffie-Hellman parameter generation
       To generate parameters for Diffie-Hellman key exchange, use the com-
       mand:
           $ certtool --generate-dh-params --outfile dh.pem --sec-param medium

       Proxy certificate generation
       Proxy certificate can be used to delegate your credential to a tempo-
       rary, typically short-lived, certificate.  To create one from the pre-
       viously created certificate, first create a temporary key and then gen-
       erate a proxy certificate for it, using the commands:

           $ certtool --generate-privkey > proxy-key.pem
           $ certtool --generate-proxy --load-ca-privkey key.pem   --load-privkey proxy-key.pem --load-certificate cert.pem   --outfile proxy-cert.pem

       Certificate revocation list generation
       To create an empty Certificate Revocation List (CRL) do:

           $ certtool --generate-crl --load-ca-privkey x509-ca-key.pem            --load-ca-certificate x509-ca.pem

       To create a CRL that contains some revoked certificates, place the cer-
       tificates in a file and use --load-certificate as follows:

           $ certtool --generate-crl --load-ca-privkey x509-ca-key.pem   --load-ca-certificate x509-ca.pem --load-certificate revoked-certs.pem

       To verify a Certificate Revocation List (CRL) do:

           $ certtool --verify-crl --load-ca-certificate x509-ca.pem < crl.pem


EXIT STATUS

       One of the following exit values will be returned:

       0 (EXIT_SUCCESS)
              Successful program execution.

       1 (EXIT_FAILURE)
              The operation failed or the command syntax was not valid.

       70 (EX_SOFTWARE)
              libopts had an internal operational error.  Please report it to
              autogen-users@lists.sourceforge.net.  Thank you.


SEE ALSO

           p11tool(1)


AUTHORS

       Nikos Mavrogiannopoulos, Simon Josefsson and others; see
       /usr/share/doc/gnutls/AUTHORS for a complete list.


COPYRIGHT

       Copyright (C) 2000-2014 Free Software Foundation, and others all rights
       reserved.  This program is released under the terms of the GNU General
       Public License, version 3 or later.


BUGS

       Please send bug reports to: bugs@gnutls.org


NOTES

       This manual page was AutoGen-erated from the certtool option defini-
       tions.



3.3.5                             26 Jun 2014                      certtool(1)

gnutls 3.3.5 - Generated Tue Jul 1 19:57:44 CDT 2014