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C2PH(1pm)              Perl Programmers Reference Guide              C2PH(1pm)




NAME

       c2ph, pstruct - Dump C structures as generated from "cc -g -S" stabs


SYNOPSIS

           c2ph [-dpnP] [var=val] [files ...]

   OPTIONS
           Options:

           -w  wide; short for: type_width=45 member_width=35 offset_width=8
           -x  hex; short for:  offset_fmt=x offset_width=08 size_fmt=x       \
                                                                  size_width=04

           -n  do not generate perl code  (default when invoked as pstruct)
           -p  generate perl code         (default when invoked as c2ph)
           -v  generate perl code, with C decls as comments

           -i  do NOT recompute sizes for intrinsic datatypes
           -a  dump information on intrinsics also

           -t  trace execution
           -d  spew reams of debugging output

           -slist  give comma-separated list a structures to dump


DESCRIPTION

       The following is the old c2ph.doc documentation by Tom Christiansen
       <tchrist@perl.com> Date: 25 Jul 91 08:10:21 GMT

       Once upon a time, I wrote a program called pstruct.  It was a perl
       program that tried to parse out C structures and display their member
       offsets for you.  This was especially useful for people looking at
       binary dumps or poking around the kernel.

       Pstruct was not a pretty program.  Neither was it particularly robust.
       The problem, you see, was that the C compiler was much better at
       parsing C than I could ever hope to be.

       So I got smart:  I decided to be lazy and let the C compiler parse the
       C, which would spit out debugger stabs for me to read.  These were much
       easier to parse.  It's still not a pretty program, but at least it's
       more robust.

       Pstruct takes any .c or .h files, or preferably .s ones, since that's
       the format it is going to massage them into anyway, and spits out
       listings like this:

        struct tty {
          int                          tty.t_locker                  000      4
          int                          tty.t_mutex_index             004      4
          struct tty *                 tty.t_tp_virt                 008      4
          struct clist                 tty.t_rawq                    00c     20
            int                        tty.t_rawq.c_cc               00c      4
            int                        tty.t_rawq.c_cmax             010      4
            int                        tty.t_rawq.c_cfx              014      4
            int                        tty.t_rawq.c_clx              018      4
            struct tty *               tty.t_rawq.c_tp_cpu           01c      4
            struct tty *               tty.t_rawq.c_tp_iop           020      4
            unsigned char *            tty.t_rawq.c_buf_cpu          024      4
            unsigned char *            tty.t_rawq.c_buf_iop          028      4
          struct clist                 tty.t_canq                    02c     20
            int                        tty.t_canq.c_cc               02c      4
            int                        tty.t_canq.c_cmax             030      4
            int                        tty.t_canq.c_cfx              034      4
            int                        tty.t_canq.c_clx              038      4
            struct tty *               tty.t_canq.c_tp_cpu           03c      4
            struct tty *               tty.t_canq.c_tp_iop           040      4
            unsigned char *            tty.t_canq.c_buf_cpu          044      4
            unsigned char *            tty.t_canq.c_buf_iop          048      4
          struct clist                 tty.t_outq                    04c     20
            int                        tty.t_outq.c_cc               04c      4
            int                        tty.t_outq.c_cmax             050      4
            int                        tty.t_outq.c_cfx              054      4
            int                        tty.t_outq.c_clx              058      4
            struct tty *               tty.t_outq.c_tp_cpu           05c      4
            struct tty *               tty.t_outq.c_tp_iop           060      4
            unsigned char *            tty.t_outq.c_buf_cpu          064      4
            unsigned char *            tty.t_outq.c_buf_iop          068      4
          (*int)()                     tty.t_oproc_cpu               06c      4
          (*int)()                     tty.t_oproc_iop               070      4
          (*int)()                     tty.t_stopproc_cpu            074      4
          (*int)()                     tty.t_stopproc_iop            078      4
          struct thread *              tty.t_rsel                    07c      4

       etc.

       Actually, this was generated by a particular set of options.  You can
       control the formatting of each column, whether you prefer wide or fat,
       hex or decimal, leading zeroes or whatever.

       All you need to be able to use this is a C compiler than generates
       BSD/GCC-style stabs.  The -g option on native BSD compilers and GCC
       should get this for you.

       To learn more, just type a bogus option, like -\?, and a long usage
       message will be provided.  There are a fair number of possibilities.

       If you're only a C programmer, than this is the end of the message for
       you.  You can quit right now, and if you care to, save off the source
       and run it when you feel like it.  Or not.

       But if you're a perl programmer, then for you I have something much
       more wondrous than just a structure offset printer.

       You see, if you call pstruct by its other incybernation, c2ph, you have
       a code generator that translates C code into perl code!  Well,
       structure and union declarations at least, but that's quite a bit.

       Prior to this point, anyone programming in perl who wanted to interact
       with C programs, like the kernel, was forced to guess the layouts of
       the C structures, and then hardwire these into his program.  Of course,
       when you took your wonderfully crafted program to a system where the
       sgtty structure was laid out differently, your program broke.  Which is
       a shame.

       We've had Larry's h2ph translator, which helped, but that only works on
       cpp symbols, not real C, which was also very much needed.  What I offer
       you is a symbolic way of getting at all the C structures.  I've couched
       them in terms of packages and functions.  Consider the following
       program:

           #!/usr/local/bin/perl

           require 'syscall.ph';
           require 'sys/time.ph';
           require 'sys/resource.ph';

           $ru = "\0" x &rusage'sizeof();

           syscall(&SYS_getrusage, &RUSAGE_SELF, $ru)   && die "getrusage: $!";

           @ru = unpack($t = &rusage'typedef(), $ru);

           $utime =  $ru[ &rusage'ru_utime + &timeval'tv_sec  ]
                  + ($ru[ &rusage'ru_utime + &timeval'tv_usec ]) / 1e6;

           $stime =  $ru[ &rusage'ru_stime + &timeval'tv_sec  ]
                  + ($ru[ &rusage'ru_stime + &timeval'tv_usec ]) / 1e6;

           printf "you have used %8.3fs+%8.3fu seconds.\n", $utime, $stime;

       As you see, the name of the package is the name of the structure.
       Regular fields are just their own names.  Plus the following accessor
       functions are provided for your convenience:

        struct      This takes no arguments, and is merely the number of first-
                    level elements in the structure.  You would use this for
                    indexing into arrays of structures, perhaps like this

                        $usec = $u[ &user'u_utimer
                                    + (&ITIMER_VIRTUAL * &itimerval'struct)
                                    + &itimerval'it_value
                                    + &timeval'tv_usec
                                  ];

        sizeof      Returns the bytes in the structure, or the member if
                    you pass it an argument, such as

                        &rusage'sizeof(&rusage'ru_utime)

        typedef     This is the perl format definition for passing to pack and
                    unpack.  If you ask for the typedef of a nothing, you get
                    the whole structure, otherwise you get that of the member
                    you ask for.  Padding is taken care of, as is the magic to
                    guarantee that a union is unpacked into all its aliases.
                    Bitfields are not quite yet supported however.

        offsetof    This function is the byte offset into the array of that
                    member.  You may wish to use this for indexing directly
                    into the packed structure with vec() if you're too lazy
                    to unpack it.

        typeof      Not to be confused with the typedef accessor function, this
                    one returns the C type of that field.  This would allow
                    you to print out a nice structured pretty print of some
                    structure without knoning anything about it beforehand.
                    No args to this one is a noop.  Someday I'll post such
                    a thing to dump out your u structure for you.

       The way I see this being used is like basically this:

               % h2ph <some_include_file.h  >  /usr/lib/perl/tmp.ph
               % c2ph  some_include_file.h  >> /usr/lib/perl/tmp.ph
               % install

       It's a little tricker with c2ph because you have to get the includes
       right.  I can't know this for your system, but it's not usually too
       terribly difficult.

       The code isn't pretty as I mentioned  -- I never thought it would be a
       1000- line program when I started, or I might not have begun. :-)  But
       I would have been less cavalier in how the parts of the program
       communicated with each other, etc.  It might also have helped if I
       didn't have to divine the makeup of the stabs on the fly, and then
       account for micro differences between my compiler and gcc.

       Anyway, here it is.  Should run on perl v4 or greater.  Maybe less.

        --tom



perl v5.24.0                      2016-09-12                         C2PH(1pm)

perl 5.24 - Generated Sat Nov 26 10:58:54 CST 2016
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