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PolyglotMan(1)                                                  PolyglotMan(1)


       PolyglotMan,  rman - reverse compile man pages from formatted form to a
       number of source formats


       rman [ options ] [ file ]


       PolyglotMan  takes man pages from most of the popular flavors  of  UNIX
       and  transforms them into any of a number of text source formats. Poly-
       glotMan was formerly known as RosettaMan. The name  of  the  binary  is
       still called rman , for scripts that depend on that name; mnemonically,
       just think "reverse man". Previously PolyglotMan  required pages to  be
       formatted  by  nroff  prior  to  its  processing.  With version 3.0, it
       prefers [tn]roff source and usually produces results  that  are  better
       yet.  And source processing is the only way to translate tables. Source
       format translation is not as mature as formatted, however, so try  for-
       matted translation as a backup.

       In  parsing  [tn]roff  source, one could implement an arbitrarily large
       subset of [tn]roff, which I did not and will not do, so the results can
       be off. I did implement a significant subset of those use in man pages,
       however, including tbl (but not eqn), if tests, and general macro defi-
       nitions,  so  usually the results look great. If they don't, format the
       page with nroff  before  sending  it  to  PolyglotMan.  If  PolyglotMan
       doesn't  recognize a key macro used by a large class of pages, however,
       e-mail me the source and a uuencoded nroff-formatted page and I'll  see
       what  I  can  do.  When  running  PolyglotMan with man page source that
       includes or redirects to other [tn]roff source using the .so (source or
       inclusion)  macro,  you  should be in the parent directory of the page,
       since pages are written with this assumption. For example, if  you  are
       translating /usr/man/man1/ls.1, first cd into /usr/man.

       PolyglotMan   accepts  man  pages  from:  SunOS,  Sun Solaris, Hewlett-
       Packard HP-UX, AT&T System V, OSF/1 aka Digital UNIX, DEC  Ultrix,  SGI
       IRIX,  Linux,  FreeBSD,  SCO.  Source  processing works for: SunOS, Sun
       Solaris, Hewlett-Packard HP-UX, AT&T System V, OSF/1 aka Digital  UNIX,
       DEC  Ultrix.  It  can  produce printable ASCII-only (control characters
       stripped), section headers-only, Tk, TkMan, [tn]roff  (traditional  man
       page source), SGML, HTML, MIME, LaTeX, LaTeX2e, RTF, Perl 5 POD. A mod-
       ular architecture permits easy addition of additional output formats.

       The  latest  version  of   PolyglotMan   is   always   available   from .


       The following options should not be used with any others and exit Poly-
       glotMan without processing any input.

       -h|--help      Show list of command line options and exit.

       -v|--version   Show version number and exit.

       You should specify the filter first, as this sets a number  of  parame-
       ters, and then specify other options.

       -f|--filter                                   <ASCII|roff|TkMan|Tk|Sec-
                      Set the output filter. Defaults to ASCII.

       -S|--source    PolyglotMan tries to automatically determine whether its
                      input is source or formatted; use this option to declare
                      source input.

                      PolyglotMan tries to automatically determine whether its
                      input is source or formatted; use this option to declare
                      formatted input.

       -l|--title printf-string
                      In  HTML  mode  this  sets the <TITLE> of the man pages,
                      given the same parameters as -r .

       -r|--reference|--manref printf-string
                      In HTML and SGML modes this sets the URL form  by  which
                      to retrieve other man pages. The string can use two sup-
                      plied parameters: the man page  name  and  its  section.
                      (See  the  Examples section.)  If the string is null (as
                      if set from a shell by "-r ''"), `-' or `off', then  man
                      page  references will not be HREFs, just set in italics.
                      If your printf supports XPG3 positions  specifier,  this
                      can be quite flexible.

       -V|--volumes <colon-separated list>
                      Set  the  list  of  valid  volumes to check against when
                      looking  for  cross-references  to  other   man   pages.
                      Defaults  to 1:2:3:4:5:6:7:8:9:o:l:n:p (volume names can
                      be multicharacter). If an non-whitespace string  in  the
                      page is immediately followed by a left parenthesis, then
                      one of the valid volumes, and ends with  optional  other
                      characters  and  then  a  right  parenthesis--then  that
                      string is reported as  a  reference  to  another  manual
                      page. If this -V string starts with an equals sign, then
                      no optional characters are allowed between the match  to
                      the  list  of  valids  and  the right parenthesis. (This
                      option is needed for SCO UNIX.)

       The following options apply only when  formatted  pages  are  given  as
       input.  They  do  not  apply  or  are always handled correctly with the

                      Try to recognize subsection titles in addition  to  sec-
                      tion  titles.  This can cause problems on some UNIX fla-

       -K|--nobreak   Indicate manual pages don't have page breaks,  so  don't
                      look  for  footers and headers around them. (Older nroff
                      -man macros always put in page breaks, but  lately  some
                      vendors  have  realized  that  printout are made through
                      troff, whereas nroff -man is used to  format  pages  for
                      reading  on screen, and so have eliminated page breaks.)
                      PolyglotMan  usually gets this right even  without  this

       -k|--keep      Keep  headers  and footers, as a canonical report at the
                      end of the page. changeleft  Move  changebars,  such  as
                      those found in the Tcl/Tk manual pages, to the left. -->
                      notaggressive  Disable   aggressive  man  page  parsing.
                      Aggressive  manual, which is on by default, page parsing
                      elides headers  and  footers,  identifies  sections  and
                      more. -->

       -n|--name name Set name of man page (used in roff format). If the file-
                      name is given in the form " name . section ",  the  name
                      and section are automatically determined. If the page is
                      being parsed from [tn]roff source and it has a .TH line,
                      this information is extracted from that line.

       -p|--paragraph paragraph  mode  toggle.  The  filter determines whether
                      lines should be linebroken as they  were  by  nroff,  or
                      whether lines should be flowed together into paragraphs.
                      Mainly for internal use.

       -s|section #   Set volume (aka section) number of  man  page  (used  in
                      roff  format).  tables Turn on aggressive table parsing.

       -t|--tabstops #
                      For those macros sets that use tabs in place  of  spaces
                      where  possible in order to reduce the number of charac-
                      ters used, set tabstops every #  columns. Defaults to 8.


       Some  flavors  of  UNIX  ship  man page without [tn]roff source, making
       one's laser printer little more than a laser-powered daisy wheel.  This
       filer  tries to intuit the original [tn]roff directives, which can then
       be recompiled by [tn]roff.

       TkMan, a hypertext man page browser, uses PolyglotMan to show man pages
       without  the  (usually)  useless  headers and footers on each pages. It
       also collects section and  (optionally)  subsection  heads  for  direct
       access  from  a  pulldown  menu. TkMan and Tcl/Tk, the toolkit in which
       it's    written,    are    available    via    anonymous    ftp    from

       This  option  outputs  the  text in a series of Tcl lists consisting of
       text-tags pairs, where tag names roughly correspond to HTML.  This out-
       put can be inserted into a Tk text widget by doing an eval <textwidget>
       insert end <text> . This format should be relatively easily parsable by
       other programs that want both the text and the tags. Also see ASCII.

       When  printed  on a line printer, man pages try to produce special text
       effects by overstriking characters with themselves  (to  produce  bold)
       and  underscores (underlining). Other text processing software, such as
       text editors, searchers, and indexers, must counteract this. The  ASCII
       filter  strips away this formatting. Piping nroff output through col -b
       also strips away this formatting, but it leaves behind  unsightly  page
       headers and footers. Also see Tk.

       Dumps  section and (optionally) subsection titles. This might be useful
       for another program that processes man pages.

       With a simple extension to an HTTP server for  Mosaic  or  other  World
       Wide  Web  browser,  PolyglotMan   can produce high quality HTML on the
       fly. Several  such  extensions  and  pointers  to  several  others  are
       included in PolyglotMan 's contrib  directory.

       This  is  approaching the Docbook DTD, but I'm hoping that someone that
       someone with a real interest in this will polish  the  tags  generated.
       Try it to see how close the tags are now.

       MIME  (Multipurpose  Internet  Mail Extensions) as defined by RFC 1563,
       good for consumption by MIME-aware  e-mailers  or  as  Emacs  (>=19.29)
       enriched documents.

   LaTeX and LaTeX2e
       Why not?

       Use  output on Mac or NeXT or whatever. Maybe take random man pages and
       integrate with NeXT's documentation system better.  Maybe NeXT has  own
       man page macros that do this.

   PostScript and FrameMaker
       To  produce  PostScript,  use  groff  or psroff . To produce FrameMaker
       MIF, use FrameMaker's builtin filter. In both cases you  need  [tn]roff
       source, so if you only have a formatted version of the manual page, use
       PolyglotMan 's roff filter first.


       To convert the formatted  man  page  named  ls.1   back  into  [tn]roff
       source form:

       rman -f roff /usr/local/man/cat1/ls.1 > /usr/local/man/man1/ls.1

       Long  man  pages are often compressed to conserve space (compression is
       especially effective on formatted man pages as many of  the  characters
       are  spaces).  As  it  is a long man page, it probably has subsections,
       which we try to separate out (some macro sets don't distinguish subsec-
       tions  well  enough for PolyglotMan to detect them). Let's convert this
       to LaTeX format:

       pcat /usr/catman/a_man/cat1/automount.z | rman -b -n automount -s 1  -f
       latex >

       Alternatively,  man  1 automount | rman -b -n automount -s 1 -f latex >

       For HTML/Mosaic users, PolyglotMan  can, without  modification  of  the
       source  code,  produce  HTML  links  that point to other HTML man pages
       either pregenerated or generated on the fly. First let's assume pregen-
       erated  HTML  versions of man pages stored in /usr/man/ .  Generate
       these one-by-one with the following form:
       rman -f  -r  'http:/usr/man//%s.%s/'  /usr/man/cat1/ls.1  >

       If  you've  extended  your  HTML client to generate HTML on the fly you
       should use something like:
       rman -f  -r 'http:~/bin/man/?%s:%s' /usr/man/cat1/ls.1
       when generating HTML.


       PolyglotMan  is not perfect in all cases, but it usually  does  a  good
       job,  and  in  any  case reduces the problem of converting man pages to
       light editing.

       Tables in formatted pages, especially H-P's, aren't handled very  well.
       Be sure to pass in source for the page to recognize tables.

       The  man pager woman  applies its own idea of formatting for man pages,
       which can confuse PolyglotMan . Bypass woman  by passing the  formatted
       manual page text directly into PolyglotMan .

       The  [tn]roff  output format uses fB to turn on boldface. If your macro
       set requires .B, you'll have to a postprocess the PolyglotMan output.


       tkman(1) , xman(1) , man(1) , man(7) or man(5)  depending on your  fla-
       vor of UNIX


       by Thomas A. Phelps ( )
       developed at the
       University of California, Berkeley
       Computer Science Division

       Manual page last updated on $Date: 1998/07/13 09:47:28 $


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