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7.1.1 Lexical structure

This section describes how individual tokens (identifiers, numbers, etc.) are formed from sequences of characters. The following sections describe how expressions and programs are formed from sequences of tokens.

<Intertoken space> may occur on either side of any token, but not within a token.

Tokens which require implicit termination (identifiers, numbers, characters, and dot) may be terminated by any <delimiter>, but not necessarily by anything else.

The following five characters are reserved for future extensions to the language: [ ] { } |

<token> –> <identifier> | <boolean> | <number>
     | <character> | <string>
     | ( | ) | #( |  |  | , | ,@ | .
<delimiter> –> <whitespace> | ( | ) | " | ;
<whitespace> –> <space or newline>
<comment> –> ;  <all subsequent characters up to a
                 line break>
<atmosphere> –> <whitespace> | <comment>
<intertoken space> –> <atmosphere>*

<identifier> –> <initial> <subsequent>*
     | <peculiar identifier>
<initial> –> <letter> | <special initial>
<letter> –> a | b | c | ... | z

<special initial> –> ! | $ | % | & | * | / | : | < | =
     | > | ? | ^ | _ | ~
<subsequent> –> <initial> | <digit>
     | <special subsequent>
<digit> –> 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9
<special subsequent> –> + | - | . | @
<peculiar identifier> –> + | - | ...
<syntactic keyword> –> <expression keyword>
     | else | => | define 
     | unquote | unquote-splicing
<expression keyword> –> quote | lambda | if
     | set! | begin | cond | and | or | case
     | let | let* | letrec | do | delay
     | quasiquote

‘<variable> ⇒ <any <identifier> that isn’t
                also a <syntactic keyword>>

<boolean> –> #t | #f
<character> –> #\ <any character>
     | #\ <character name>
<character name> –> space | newline

<string> –> " <string element>* "
<string element> –> <any character other than " or \>
     | \" | \\ 
<number> –> <num 2>| <num 8>
     | <num 10>| <num 16>

The following rules for <num R>, <complex R>, <real R>, <ureal R>, <uinteger R>, and <prefix R> should be replicated for R = 2, 8, 10, and 16. There are no rules for <decimal 2>, <decimal 8>, and <decimal 16>, which means that numbers containing decimal points or exponents must be in decimal radix.

<num R> –> <prefix R> <complex R>
<complex R> –> <real R> | <real R> @ <real R>
    | <real R> + <ureal R> i | <real R> - <ureal R> i
    | <real R> + i | <real R> - i
    | + <ureal R> i | - <ureal R> i | + i | - i
<real R> –> <sign> <ureal R>
<ureal R> –> <uinteger R>
    | <uinteger R> / <uinteger R>
    | <decimal R>
<decimal 10> –> <uinteger 10> <suffix>
    | . <digit 10>+ #* <suffix>
    | <digit 10>+ . <digit 10>* #* <suffix>
    | <digit 10>+ #+ . #* <suffix>
<uinteger R> –> <digit R>+ #*
<prefix R> –> <radix R> <exactness>
    | <exactness> <radix R>

<suffix> –> <empty> 
    | <exponent marker> <sign> <digit 10>+
<exponent marker> –> e | s | f | d | l
<sign> –> <empty>  | + |  -
<exactness> –> <empty> | #i | #e
<radix 2> –> #b
<radix 8> –> #o
<radix 10> –> <empty> | #d
<radix 16> –> #x
<digit 2> –> 0 | 1
<digit 8> –> 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7
<digit 10> –> <digit>
<digit 16> –> <digit 10> | a | b | c | d | e | f 

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