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8.7 Increment Operators
Increment operators increase or decrease the value of a variable by 1. The operator to increment a variable is written as ‘++’. It may be used to increment a variable either before or after taking its value.
For example, to preincrement the variable x, you would write
++x
. This would add one to x and then return the new
value of x as the result of the expression. It is exactly the
same as the expression x = x + 1
.
To postincrement a variable x, you would write x++
.
This adds one to the variable x, but returns the value that
x had prior to incrementing it. For example, if x is equal
to 2, the result of the expression x++
is 2, and the new
value of x is 3.
For matrix and vector arguments, the increment and decrement operators work on each element of the operand.
Here is a list of all the increment and decrement expressions.

++x

This expression increments the variable x. The value of the expression is the new value of x. It is equivalent to the expression
x = x + 1
. 
x

This expression decrements the variable x. The value of the expression is the new value of x. It is equivalent to the expression
x = x  1
. 
x++

This expression causes the variable x to be incremented. The value of the expression is the old value of x.

x

This expression causes the variable x to be decremented. The value of the expression is the old value of x.