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Appendix C Complex Makefile Example

Here is the makefile for the GNU tar program. This is a moderately complex makefile. The first line uses a #! setting to allow the makefile to be executed directly.

Because it is the first target, the default goal is ‘all’. An interesting feature of this makefile is that ‘testpad.h’ is a source file automatically created by the testpad program, itself compiled from ‘testpad.c’.

If you type ‘make’ or ‘make all’, then make creates the ‘tar’ executable, the ‘rmt’ daemon that provides remote tape access, and the ‘’ Info file.

If you type ‘make install’, then make not only creates ‘tar’, ‘rmt’, and ‘’, but also installs them.

If you type ‘make clean’, then make removes the ‘.o’ files, and the ‘tar’, ‘rmt’, ‘testpad’, ‘testpad.h’, and ‘core’ files.

If you type ‘make distclean’, then make not only removes the same files as does ‘make clean’ but also the ‘TAGS’, ‘Makefile’, and ‘config.status’ files. (Although it is not evident, this makefile (and ‘config.status’) is generated by the user with the configure program, which is provided in the tar distribution, but is not shown here.)

If you type ‘make realclean’, then make removes the same files as does ‘make distclean’ and also removes the Info files generated from ‘tar.texinfo’.

In addition, there are targets shar and dist that create distribution kits.

#!/usr/bin/make -f
# Generated automatically from by configure.
# Un*x Makefile for GNU tar program.
# Copyright (C) 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
# This program is free software; you can redistribute
# it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU
# General Public License …
SHELL = /bin/sh

#### Start of system configuration section. ####

srcdir = .

# If you use gcc, you should either run the
# fixincludes script that comes with it or else use
# gcc with the -traditional option.  Otherwise ioctl
# calls will be compiled incorrectly on some systems.
CC = gcc -O
YACC = bison -y
INSTALL = /usr/local/bin/install -c
INSTALLDATA = /usr/local/bin/install -c -m 644
# Things you might add to DEFS:
# -DSTDC_HEADERS        If you have ANSI C headers and
#                       libraries.
# -DPOSIX               If you have POSIX.1 headers and
#                       libraries.
# -DBSD42               If you have sys/dir.h (unless
#                       you use -DPOSIX), sys/file.h,
#                       and st_blocks in `struct stat'.
# -DUSG                 If you have System V/ANSI C
#                       string and memory functions
#                       and headers, sys/sysmacros.h,
#                       fcntl.h, getcwd, no valloc,
#                       and ndir.h (unless
#                       you use -DDIRENT).
# -DNO_MEMORY_H         If USG or STDC_HEADERS but do not
#                       include memory.h.
# -DDIRENT              If USG and you have dirent.h
#                       instead of ndir.h.
# -DSIGTYPE=int         If your signal handlers
#                       return int, not void.
# -DNO_MTIO             If you lack sys/mtio.h
#                       (magtape ioctls).
# -DNO_REMOTE           If you do not have a remote shell
#                       or rexec.
# -DUSE_REXEC           To use rexec for remote tape
#                       operations instead of
#                       forking rsh or remsh.
# -DVPRINTF_MISSING     If you lack vprintf function
#                       (but have _doprnt).
# -DDOPRNT_MISSING      If you lack _doprnt function.
#                       Also need to define
#                       -DVPRINTF_MISSING.
# -DFTIME_MISSING       If you lack ftime system call.
# -DSTRSTR_MISSING      If you lack strstr function.
# -DVALLOC_MISSING      If you lack valloc function.
# -DMKDIR_MISSING       If you lack mkdir and
#                       rmdir system calls.
# -DRENAME_MISSING      If you lack rename system call.
# -DFTRUNCATE_MISSING   If you lack ftruncate
#                       system call.
# -DV7                  On Version 7 Unix (not
#                       tested in a long time).
# -DEMUL_OPEN3          If you lack a 3-argument version
#                       of open, and want to emulate it
#                       with system calls you do have.
# -DNO_OPEN3            If you lack the 3-argument open
#                       and want to disable the tar -k
#                       option instead of emulating open.
# -DXENIX               If you have sys/inode.h
#                       and need it 94 to be included.

# Set this to rtapelib.o unless you defined NO_REMOTE,
# in which case make it empty.
RTAPELIB = rtapelib.o
DEF_AR_FILE = /dev/rmt8

CFLAGS = $(CDEBUG) -I. -I$(srcdir) $(DEFS) \
        -DDEF_AR_FILE=\"$(DEF_AR_FILE)\" \
prefix = /usr/local
# Prefix for each installed program,
# normally empty or `g'.
binprefix =

# The directory to install tar in.
bindir = $(prefix)/bin

# The directory to install the info files in.
infodir = $(prefix)/info
#### End of system configuration section. ####

SRCS_C  = tar.c create.c extract.c buffer.c   \
          getoldopt.c update.c gnu.c mangle.c \
          version.c list.c names.c diffarch.c \
          port.c wildmat.c getopt.c getopt1.c \
SRCS_Y  = getdate.y
SRCS    = $(SRCS_C) $(SRCS_Y)
OBJS    = $(SRCS_C:.c=.o) $(SRCS_Y:.y=.o) $(RTAPELIB)
        makefile.pc configure \
        tar.texinfo* texinfo.tex \
        tar.h port.h open3.h getopt.h regex.h \
        rmt.h rmt.c rtapelib.c alloca.c \
        msd_dir.h msd_dir.c tcexparg.c \
        level-0 level-1 backup-specs testpad.c
.PHONY: all
all:    tar rmt

tar:    $(OBJS)
        $(CC) $(LDFLAGS) -o $@ $(OBJS) $(LIBS)
rmt:    rmt.c
        $(CC) $(CFLAGS) $(LDFLAGS) -o $@ rmt.c tar.texinfo
        makeinfo tar.texinfo
.PHONY: install
install: all
        $(INSTALL) tar $(bindir)/$(binprefix)tar
        -test ! -f rmt || $(INSTALL) rmt /etc/rmt
        $(INSTALLDATA) $(srcdir)/* $(infodir)
$(OBJS): tar.h port.h testpad.h
regex.o buffer.o tar.o: regex.h
# getdate.y has 8 shift/reduce conflicts.
testpad.h: testpad
testpad: testpad.o
        $(CC) -o $@ testpad.o
        etags $(SRCS)
.PHONY: clean
        rm -f *.o tar rmt testpad testpad.h core
.PHONY: distclean
distclean: clean
        rm -f TAGS Makefile config.status
.PHONY: realclean
realclean: distclean
        rm -f*
.PHONY: shar
shar: $(SRCS) $(AUX)
        shar $(SRCS) $(AUX) | compress \
          > tar-`sed -e '/version_string/!d' \
                     -e 's/[^0-9.]*\([0-9.]*\).*/\1/' \
                     -e q
.PHONY: dist
dist: $(SRCS) $(AUX)
        echo tar-`sed \
             -e '/version_string/!d' \
             -e 's/[^0-9.]*\([0-9.]*\).*/\1/' \
             -e q
             version.c` > .fname
        -rm -rf `cat .fname`
        mkdir `cat .fname`
        ln $(SRCS) $(AUX) `cat .fname`
        tar chZf `cat .fname`.tar.Z `cat .fname`
        -rm -rf `cat .fname` .fname
tar.zoo: $(SRCS) $(AUX)
        -rm -rf tmp.dir
        -mkdir tmp.dir
        -rm tar.zoo
        for X in $(SRCS) $(AUX) ; do \
            echo $$X ; \
            sed 's/$$/^M/' $$X \
            > tmp.dir/$$X ; done
        cd tmp.dir ; zoo aM ../tar.zoo *
        -rm -rf tmp.dir

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