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6.2 If-else construct, or multibranch

The other conditional, ifelse, is much more powerful. It can be used as a way to introduce a long comment, as an if-else construct, or as a multibranch, depending on the number of arguments supplied:

Builtin: ifelse (comment)
Builtin: ifelse (string-1, string-2, equal, [not-equal]
Builtin: ifelse (string-1, string-2, equal-1, string-3, string-4, equal-2, …, [not-equal]

Used with only one argument, the ifelse simply discards it and produces no output.

If called with three or four arguments, ifelse expands into equal, if string-1 and string-2 are equal (character for character), otherwise it expands to not-equal. A final fifth argument is ignored, after triggering a warning.

If called with six or more arguments, and string-1 and string-2 are equal, ifelse expands into equal-1, otherwise the first three arguments are discarded and the processing starts again.

The macro ifelse is recognized only with parameters.

Using only one argument is a common m4 idiom for introducing a block comment, as an alternative to repeatedly using dnl. This special usage is recognized by GNU m4, so that in this case, the warning about missing arguments is never triggered.

ifelse(`some comments')
⇒
ifelse(`foo', `bar')
error-->m4:stdin:2: Warning: too few arguments to builtin `ifelse'
⇒

Using three or four arguments provides decision points.

ifelse(`foo', `bar', `true')
⇒
ifelse(`foo', `foo', `true')
⇒true
define(`foo', `bar')
⇒
ifelse(foo, `bar', `true', `false')
⇒true
ifelse(foo, `foo', `true', `false')
⇒false

Notice how the first argument was used unquoted; it is common to compare the expansion of a macro with a string. With this macro, you can now reproduce the behavior of blind builtins, where the macro is recognized only with arguments.

define(`foo', `ifelse(`$#', `0', ``$0'', `arguments:$#')')
⇒
foo
⇒foo
foo()
⇒arguments:1
foo(`a', `b', `c')
⇒arguments:3

For an example of a way to make defining blind macros easier, see Building macros with macros.

The macro ifelse can take more than four arguments. If given more than four arguments, ifelse works like a case or switch statement in traditional programming languages. If string-1 and string-2 are equal, ifelse expands into equal-1, otherwise the procedure is repeated with the first three arguments discarded. This calls for an example:

ifelse(`foo', `bar', `third', `gnu', `gnats')
error-->m4:stdin:1: Warning: excess arguments to builtin `ifelse' ignored
⇒gnu
ifelse(`foo', `bar', `third', `gnu', `gnats', `sixth')
⇒
ifelse(`foo', `bar', `third', `gnu', `gnats', `sixth', `seventh')
⇒seventh
ifelse(`foo', `bar', `3', `gnu', `gnats', `6', `7', `8')
error-->m4:stdin:4: Warning: excess arguments to builtin `ifelse' ignored
⇒7

Naturally, the normal case will be slightly more advanced than these examples. A common use of ifelse is in macros implementing loops of various kinds.


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