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### 6.11.1 Equality

There are three kinds of core equality predicates in Scheme, described
below. The same kinds of comparisons arise in other functions, like
`memq`

and friends (see section List Searching).

For all three tests, objects of different types are never equal. So
for instance a list and a vector are not `equal?`

, even if their
contents are the same. Exact and inexact numbers are considered
different types too, and are hence not equal even if their values are
the same.

`eq?`

tests just for the same object (essentially a pointer
comparison). This is fast, and can be used when searching for a
particular object, or when working with symbols or keywords (which are
always unique objects).

`eqv?`

extends `eq?`

to look at the value of numbers and
characters. It can for instance be used somewhat like `=`

(see section Comparison Predicates) but without an error if one operand isn’t a
number.

`equal?`

goes further, it looks (recursively) into the contents
of lists, vectors, etc. This is good for instance on lists that have
been read or calculated in various places and are the same, just not
made up of the same pairs. Such lists look the same (when printed),
and `equal?`

will consider them the same.

- Scheme Procedure:
**eq?***x y* - C Function:
**scm_eq_p***(x, y)* -
Return

`#t`

if`x`and`y`are the same object, except for numbers and characters. For example,(define x (vector 1 2 3)) (define y (vector 1 2 3)) (eq? x x) ⇒ #t (eq? x y) ⇒ #f

Numbers and characters are not equal to any other object, but the problem is they’re not necessarily

`eq?`

to themselves either. This is even so when the number comes directly from a variable,(let ((n (+ 2 3))) (eq? n n)) ⇒ *unspecified*

Generally

`eqv?`

below should be used when comparing numbers or characters.`=`

(see section Comparison Predicates) or`char=?`

(see section Characters) can be used too.It’s worth noting that end-of-list

`()`

,`#t`

,`#f`

, a symbol of a given name, and a keyword of a given name, are unique objects. There’s just one of each, so for instance no matter how`()`

arises in a program, it’s the same object and can be compared with`eq?`

,(define x (cdr '(123))) (define y (cdr '(456))) (eq? x y) ⇒ #t (define x (string->symbol "foo")) (eq? x 'foo) ⇒ #t

- C Function:
*int***scm_is_eq***(SCM x, SCM y)* Return

`1`

when`x`and`y`are equal in the sense of`eq?`

, otherwise return`0`

.The

`==`

operator should not be used on`SCM`

values, an`SCM`

is a C type which cannot necessarily be compared using`==`

(see section The SCM Type).

- Scheme Procedure:
**eqv?***x y* - C Function:
**scm_eqv_p***(x, y)* -
Return

`#t`

if`x`and`y`are the same object, or for characters and numbers the same value.On objects except characters and numbers,

`eqv?`

is the same as`eq?`

above, it’s true if`x`and`y`are the same object.If

`x`and`y`are numbers or characters,`eqv?`

compares their type and value. An exact number is not`eqv?`

to an inexact number (even if their value is the same).(eqv? 3 (+ 1 2)) ⇒ #t (eqv? 1 1.0) ⇒ #f

- Scheme Procedure:
**equal?***x y* - C Function:
**scm_equal_p***(x, y)* -
Return

`#t`

if`x`and`y`are the same type, and their contents or value are equal.For a pair, string, vector, array or structure,

`equal?`

compares the contents, and does so using the same`equal?`

recursively, so a deep structure can be traversed.(equal? (list 1 2 3) (list 1 2 3)) ⇒ #t (equal? (list 1 2 3) (vector 1 2 3)) ⇒ #f

For other objects,

`equal?`

compares as per`eqv?`

above, which means characters and numbers are compared by type and value (and like`eqv?`

, exact and inexact numbers are not`equal?`

, even if their value is the same).(equal? 3 (+ 1 2)) ⇒ #t (equal? 1 1.0) ⇒ #f

Hash tables are currently only compared as per

`eq?`

, so two different tables are not`equal?`

, even if their contents are the same.`equal?`

does not support circular data structures, it may go into an infinite loop if asked to compare two circular lists or similar.New application-defined object types (see section Defining New Types (Smobs)) have an

`equalp`

handler which is called by`equal?`

. This lets an application traverse the contents or control what is considered`equal?`

for two objects of such a type. If there’s no such handler, the default is to just compare as per`eq?`

.

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