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## 6.6 Input and Output Functions

Functions that perform input from a stdio stream, and functions that output to
a stdio stream, of `mpq`

numbers. Passing a `NULL`

pointer for a
`stream` argument to any of these functions will make them read from
`stdin`

and write to `stdout`

, respectively.

When using any of these functions, it is a good idea to include ‘`stdio.h`’
before ‘`gmp.h`’, since that will allow ‘`gmp.h`’ to define prototypes
for these functions.

See also Formatted Output and Formatted Input.

- Function:
*size_t***mpq_out_str***(FILE **`stream`, int`base`, mpq_t`op`) Output

`op`on stdio stream`stream`, as a string of digits in base`base`. The base may vary from 2 to 36. Output is in the form ‘`num/den`’ or if the denominator is 1 then just ‘`num`’.Return the number of bytes written, or if an error occurred, return 0.

- Function:
*size_t***mpq_inp_str***(mpq_t*`rop`, FILE *`stream`, int`base`) Read a string of digits from

`stream`and convert them to a rational in`rop`. Any initial white-space characters are read and discarded. Return the number of characters read (including white space), or 0 if a rational could not be read.The input can be a fraction like ‘

`17/63`’ or just an integer like ‘`123`’. Reading stops at the first character not in this form, and white space is not permitted within the string. If the input might not be in canonical form, then`mpq_canonicalize`

must be called (see section Rational Number Functions).The

`base`can be between 2 and 36, or can be 0 in which case the leading characters of the string determine the base, ‘`0x`’ or ‘`0X`’ for hexadecimal, ‘`0`’ for octal, or decimal otherwise. The leading characters are examined separately for the numerator and denominator of a fraction, so for instance ‘`0x10/11`’ is*16/11*, whereas ‘`0x10/0x11`’ is*16/17*.

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