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gawk: Splitting By Content

 4.7 Defining Fields by Content
 This minor node discusses an advanced feature of 'gawk'.  If you are a
 novice 'awk' user, you might want to skip it on the first reading.
    Normally, when using 'FS', 'gawk' defines the fields as the parts of
 the record that occur in between each field separator.  In other words,
 'FS' defines what a field _is not_, instead of what a field _is_.
 However, there are times when you really want to define the fields by
 what they are, and not by what they are not.
    The most notorious such case is so-called "comma-separated values"
 (CSV) data.  Many spreadsheet programs, for example, can export their
 data into text files, where each record is terminated with a newline,
 and fields are separated by commas.  If commas only separated the data,
 there wouldn't be an issue.  The problem comes when one of the fields
 contains an _embedded_ comma.  In such cases, most programs embed the
 field in double quotes.(1)  So, we might have data like this:
      Robbins,Arnold,"1234 A Pretty Street, NE",MyTown,MyState,12345-6789,USA
    The 'FPAT' variable offers a solution for cases like this.  The value
 of 'FPAT' should be a string that provides a regular expression.  This
 regular expression describes the contents of each field.
    In the case of CSV data as presented here, each field is either
 "anything that is not a comma," or "a double quote, anything that is not
 a double quote, and a closing double quote."  If written as a regular
 expression constant (⇒Regexp), we would have
 '/([^,]+)|("[^"]+")/'.  Writing this as a string requires us to escape
 the double quotes, leading to:
      FPAT = "([^,]+)|(\"[^\"]+\")"
    Putting this to use, here is a simple program to parse the data:
      BEGIN {
          FPAT = "([^,]+)|(\"[^\"]+\")"
          print "NF = ", NF
          for (i = 1; i <= NF; i++) {
              printf("$%d = <%s>\n", i, $i)
    When run, we get the following:
      $ gawk -f simple-csv.awk addresses.csv
      NF =  7
      $1 = <Robbins>
      $2 = <Arnold>
      $3 = <"1234 A Pretty Street, NE">
      $4 = <MyTown>
      $5 = <MyState>
      $6 = <12345-6789>
      $7 = <USA>
    Note the embedded comma in the value of '$3'.
    A straightforward improvement when processing CSV data of this sort
 would be to remove the quotes when they occur, with something like this:
      if (substr($i, 1, 1) == "\"") {
          len = length($i)
          $i = substr($i, 2, len - 2)    # Get text within the two quotes
    As with 'FS', the 'IGNORECASE' variable (⇒User-modified)
 affects field splitting with 'FPAT'.
    Assigning a value to 'FPAT' overrides field splitting with 'FS' and
      NOTE: Some programs export CSV data that contains embedded newlines
      between the double quotes.  'gawk' provides no way to deal with
      this.  Even though a formal specification for CSV data exists,
      there isn't much more to be done; the 'FPAT' mechanism provides an
      elegant solution for the majority of cases, and the 'gawk'
      developers are satisfied with that.
    As written, the regexp used for 'FPAT' requires that each field
 contain at least one character.  A straightforward modification
 (changing the first '+' to '*') allows fields to be empty:
      FPAT = "([^,]*)|(\"[^\"]+\")"
    Finally, the 'patsplit()' function makes the same functionality
 available for splitting regular strings (⇒String Functions).
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
    (1) The CSV format lacked a formal standard definition for many
 years.  RFC 4180 ( standardizes the
 most common practices.
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