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gawk: Nonfatal

 5.10 Enabling Nonfatal Output
 This minor node describes a 'gawk'-specific feature.
    In standard 'awk', output with 'print' or 'printf' to a nonexistent
 file, or some other I/O error (such as filling up the disk) is a fatal
      $ gawk 'BEGIN { print "hi" > "/no/such/file" }'
      error-> gawk: cmd. line:1: fatal: can't redirect to `/no/such/file' (No such file or directory)
    'gawk' makes it possible to detect that an error has occurred,
 allowing you to possibly recover from the error, or at least print an
 error message of your choosing before exiting.  You can do this in one
 of two ways:
    * For all output files, by assigning any value to
    * On a per-file basis, by assigning any value to 'PROCINFO[FILENAME,
      "NONFATAL"]'.  Here, FILENAME is the name of the file to which you
      wish output to be nonfatal.
    Once you have enabled nonfatal output, you must check 'ERRNO' after
 every relevant 'print' or 'printf' statement to see if something went
 wrong.  It is also a good idea to initialize 'ERRNO' to zero before
 attempting the output.  For example:
      $ gawk '
      > BEGIN {
      >     PROCINFO["NONFATAL"] = 1
      >     ERRNO = 0
      >     print "hi" > "/no/such/file"
      >     if (ERRNO) {
      >         print("Output failed:", ERRNO) > "/dev/stderr"
      >         exit 1
      >     }
      > }'
      error-> Output failed: No such file or directory
    Here, 'gawk' did not produce a fatal error; instead it let the 'awk'
 program code detect the problem and handle it.
    This mechanism works also for standard output and standard error.
 For standard output, you may use 'PROCINFO["-", "NONFATAL"]' or
 'PROCINFO["/dev/stdout", "NONFATAL"]'.  For standard error, use
 'PROCINFO["/dev/stderr", "NONFATAL"]'.
    When attempting to open a TCP/IP socket (⇒TCP/IP Networking),
 'gawk' tries multiple times.  The 'GAWK_SOCK_RETRIES' environment
 variable (⇒Other Environment Variables) allows you to override
 'gawk''s builtin default number of attempts.  However, once nonfatal I/O
 is enabled for a given socket, 'gawk' only retries once, relying on
 'awk'-level code to notice that there was a problem.
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