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gawk: Id Program

 11.2.3 Printing Out User Information
 The 'id' utility lists a user's real and effective user ID numbers, real
 and effective group ID numbers, and the user's group set, if any.  'id'
 only prints the effective user ID and group ID if they are different
 from the real ones.  If possible, 'id' also supplies the corresponding
 user and group names.  The output might look like this:
      $ id
      -| uid=1000(arnold) gid=1000(arnold) groups=1000(arnold),4(adm),7(lp),27(sudo)
    This information is part of what is provided by 'gawk''s 'PROCINFO'
 array (⇒Built-in Variables).  However, the 'id' utility provides
 a more palatable output than just individual numbers.
    Here is a simple version of 'id' written in 'awk'.  It uses the user
 database library functions (⇒Passwd Functions) and the group
DONTPRINTYET  database library functions (⇒Group Functions) from *noteLibrary
DONTPRINTYET  database library functions (⇒Group Functions) from ⇒Library

    The program is fairly straightforward.  All the work is done in the
 'BEGIN' rule.  The user and group ID numbers are obtained from
 'PROCINFO'.  The code is repetitive.  The entry in the user database for
 the real user ID number is split into parts at the ':'.  The name is the
 first field.  Similar code is used for the effective user ID number and
 the group numbers:
      # id.awk --- implement id in awk
      # Requires user and group library functions
      # output is:
      # uid=12(foo) euid=34(bar) gid=3(baz) \
      #             egid=5(blat) groups=9(nine),2(two),1(one)
      BEGIN {
          uid = PROCINFO["uid"]
          euid = PROCINFO["euid"]
          gid = PROCINFO["gid"]
          egid = PROCINFO["egid"]
          printf("uid=%d", uid)
          pw = getpwuid(uid)
          if (euid != uid) {
              printf(" euid=%d", euid)
              pw = getpwuid(euid)
          printf(" gid=%d", gid)
          pw = getgrgid(gid)
          if (egid != gid) {
              printf(" egid=%d", egid)
              pw = getgrgid(egid)
          for (i = 1; ("group" i) in PROCINFO; i++) {
              if (i == 1)
                  printf(" groups=")
              group = PROCINFO["group" i]
              printf("%d", group)
              pw = getgrgid(group)
              if (("group" (i+1)) in PROCINFO)
          print ""
      function pr_first_field(str,  a)
          if (str != "") {
              split(str, a, ":")
              printf("(%s)", a[1])
    The test in the 'for' loop is worth noting.  Any supplementary groups
 in the 'PROCINFO' array have the indices '"group1"' through '"groupN"'
 for some N (i.e., the total number of supplementary groups).  However,
 we don't know in advance how many of these groups there are.
    This loop works by starting at one, concatenating the value with
 '"group"', and then using 'in' to see if that value is in the array
 (⇒Reference to Elements).  Eventually, 'i' is incremented past
 the last group in the array and the loop exits.
    The loop is also correct if there are _no_ supplementary groups; then
 the condition is false the first time it's tested, and the loop body
 never executes.
    The 'pr_first_field()' function simply isolates out some code that is
 used repeatedly, making the whole program shorter and cleaner.  In
 particular, moving the check for the empty string into this function
 saves several lines of code.
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