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gawk: I18N Example

 13.5 A Simple Internationalization Example
 Now let's look at a step-by-step example of how to internationalize and
 localize a simple 'awk' program, using 'guide.awk' as our original
      BEGIN {
          TEXTDOMAIN = "guide"
          bindtextdomain(".")  # for testing
          print _"Don't Panic"
          print _"The Answer Is", 42
          print "Pardon me, Zaphod who?"
 Run 'gawk --gen-pot' to create the '.pot' file:
      $ gawk --gen-pot -f guide.awk > guide.pot
 This produces:
      #: guide.awk:4
      msgid "Don't Panic"
      msgstr ""
      #: guide.awk:5
      msgid "The Answer Is"
      msgstr ""
    This original portable object template file is saved and reused for
 each language into which the application is translated.  The 'msgid' is
 the original string and the 'msgstr' is the translation.
      NOTE: Strings not marked with a leading underscore do not appear in
      the 'guide.pot' file.
    Next, the messages must be translated.  Here is a translation to a
 hypothetical dialect of English, called "Mellow":(1)
      $ cp guide.pot guide-mellow.po
      ADD TRANSLATIONS TO guide-mellow.po ...
 Following are the translations:
      #: guide.awk:4
      msgid "Don't Panic"
      msgstr "Hey man, relax!"
      #: guide.awk:5
      msgid "The Answer Is"
      msgstr "Like, the scoop is"
    The next step is to make the directory to hold the binary message
 object file and then to create the '' file.  We pretend that our
 file is to be used in the 'en_US.UTF-8' locale, because we have to use a
 locale name known to the C 'gettext' routines.  The directory layout
 shown here is standard for GNU 'gettext' on GNU/Linux systems.  Other
 versions of 'gettext' may use a different layout:
      $ mkdir en_US.UTF-8 en_US.UTF-8/LC_MESSAGES
    The 'msgfmt' utility does the conversion from human-readable '.po'
 file to machine-readable '.mo' file.  By default, 'msgfmt' creates a
 file named 'messages'.  This file must be renamed and placed in the
 proper directory (using the '-o' option) so that 'gawk' can find it:
      $ msgfmt guide-mellow.po -o en_US.UTF-8/LC_MESSAGES/
    Finally, we run the program to test it:
      $ gawk -f guide.awk
      -| Hey man, relax!
      -| Like, the scoop is 42
      -| Pardon me, Zaphod who?
    If the three replacement functions for 'dcgettext()', 'dcngettext()',
 and 'bindtextdomain()' (⇒I18N Portability) are in a file named
 'libintl.awk', then we can run 'guide.awk' unchanged as follows:
      $ gawk --posix -f guide.awk -f libintl.awk
      -| Don't Panic
      -| The Answer Is 42
      -| Pardon me, Zaphod who?
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
    (1) Perhaps it would be better if it were called "Hippy."  Ah, well.
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