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gawk: GNU Free Documentation License

 GNU Free Documentation License
                      Version 1.3, 3 November 2008
      Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
      Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
      of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
      The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
      functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
      assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
      with or without modifying it, either commercially or
      noncommercially.  Secondarily, this License preserves for the
      author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not
      being considered responsible for modifications made by others.
      This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
      works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.
      It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
      license designed for free software.
      We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for
      free software, because free software needs free documentation: a
      free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms
      that the software does.  But this License is not limited to
      software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless
      of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book.  We
      recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is
      instruction or reference.
      This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium,
      that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can
      be distributed under the terms of this License.  Such a notice
      grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration,
      to use that work under the conditions stated herein.  The
      "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work.  Any member
      of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you".  You accept
      the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way
      requiring permission under copyright law.
      A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
      Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
      modifications and/or translated into another language.
      A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section
      of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
      publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall
      subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could
      fall directly within that overall subject.  (Thus, if the Document
      is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not
      explain any mathematics.)  The relationship could be a matter of
      historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or
      of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position
      regarding them.
      The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose
      titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the
      notice that says that the Document is released under this License.
      If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it
      is not allowed to be designated as Invariant.  The Document may
      contain zero Invariant Sections.  If the Document does not identify
      any Invariant Sections then there are none.
      The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are
      listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice
      that says that the Document is released under this License.  A
      Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may
      be at most 25 words.
      A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
      represented in a format whose specification is available to the
      general public, that is suitable for revising the document
      straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed
      of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely
      available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text
      formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats
      suitable for input to text formatters.  A copy made in an otherwise
      Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has
      been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by
      readers is not Transparent.  An image format is not Transparent if
      used for any substantial amount of text.  A copy that is not
      "Transparent" is called "Opaque".
      Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
      ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format,
      SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming
      simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification.
      Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG.
      Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and
      edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which
      the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and
      the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word
      processors for output purposes only.
      The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
      plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the
      material this License requires to appear in the title page.  For
      works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title
      Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the
      work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.
      The "publisher" means any person or entity that distributes copies
      of the Document to the public.
      A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document
      whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses
      following text that translates XYZ in another language.  (Here XYZ
      stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as
      "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".)
      To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the
      Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according
      to this definition.
      The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice
      which states that this License applies to the Document.  These
      Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in
      this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
      implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and
      has no effect on the meaning of this License.
      You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
      commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
      copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License
      applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you
      add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You
      may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading
      or further copying of the copies you make or distribute.  However,
      you may accept compensation in exchange for copies.  If you
      distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the
      conditions in section 3.
      You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above,
      and you may publicly display copies.
      If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly
      have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and
      the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must
      enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all
      these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and
      Back-Cover Texts on the back cover.  Both covers must also clearly
      and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies.  The
      front cover must present the full title with all words of the title
      equally prominent and visible.  You may add other material on the
      covers in addition.  Copying with changes limited to the covers, as
      long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these
      conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.
      If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
      legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
      reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto
      adjacent pages.
      If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document
      numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable
      Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with
      each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general
      network-using public has access to download using public-standard
      network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free
      of added material.  If you use the latter option, you must take
      reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque
      copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will
      remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one
      year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or
      through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.
      It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of
      the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies,
      to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the
      You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document
      under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you
      release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the
      Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing
      distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever
      possesses a copy of it.  In addition, you must do these things in
      the Modified Version:
        A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title
           distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous
           versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the
           History section of the Document).  You may use the same title
           as a previous version if the original publisher of that
           version gives permission.
        B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or
           entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in
           the Modified Version, together with at least five of the
           principal authors of the Document (all of its principal
           authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you
           from this requirement.
        C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
           Modified Version, as the publisher.
        D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
        E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
           adjacent to the other copyright notices.
        F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license
           notice giving the public permission to use the Modified
           Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in
           the Addendum below.
        G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant
           Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's
           license notice.
        H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
        I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title,
           and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new
           authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the
           Title Page.  If there is no section Entitled "History" in the
           Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and
           publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add
           an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the
           previous sentence.
        J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document
           for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and
           likewise the network locations given in the Document for
           previous versions it was based on.  These may be placed in the
           "History" section.  You may omit a network location for a work
           that was published at least four years before the Document
           itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers
           to gives permission.
        K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
           Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section
           all the substance and tone of each of the contributor
           acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.
        L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered
           in their text and in their titles.  Section numbers or the
           equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
        M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements".  Such a section
           may not be included in the Modified Version.
        N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled
           "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant
        O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
      If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
      appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no
      material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate
      some or all of these sections as invariant.  To do this, add their
      titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's
      license notice.  These titles must be distinct from any other
      section titles.
      You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
      nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
      parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text
      has been approved by an organization as the authoritative
      definition of a standard.
      You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text,
      and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of
      the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.  Only one passage
      of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
      through arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the Document
      already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added
      by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on
      behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old
      one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added
      the old one.
      The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this
      License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to
      assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
      You may combine the Document with other documents released under
      this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for
      modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all
      of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents,
      unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your
      combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all
      their Warranty Disclaimers.
      The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
      multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
      copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name
      but different contents, make the title of each such section unique
      by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the
      original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a
      unique number.  Make the same adjustment to the section titles in
      the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the
      combined work.
      In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled
      "History" in the various original documents, forming one section
      Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled
      "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications".  You
      must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements."
      You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
      documents released under this License, and replace the individual
      copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy
      that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the
      rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents
      in all other respects.
      You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
      distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert
      a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this
      License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that
      A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other
      separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a
      storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the
      copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the
      legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual
      works permit.  When the Document is included in an aggregate, this
      License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which
      are not themselves derivative works of the Document.
      If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
      copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half
      of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed
      on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
      electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic
      form.  Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket
      the whole aggregate.
      Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
      distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section
      4.  Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
      permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
      translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
      original versions of these Invariant Sections.  You may include a
      translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
      Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also
      include the original English version of this License and the
      original versions of those notices and disclaimers.  In case of a
      disagreement between the translation and the original version of
      this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will
      If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
      "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to
      Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the
      actual title.
      You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
      except as expressly provided under this License.  Any attempt
      otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void,
      and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
      However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your
      license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a)
      provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and
      finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the
      copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some
      reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.
      Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is
      reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the
      violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have
      received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from
      that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days
      after your receipt of the notice.
      Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate
      the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you
      under this License.  If your rights have been terminated and not
      permanently reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of the
      same material does not give you any rights to use it.
      The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of
      the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new
      versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
      differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.  See
      Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version
      number.  If the Document specifies that a particular numbered
      version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you
      have the option of following the terms and conditions either of
      that specified version or of any later version that has been
      published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.  If the
      Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may
      choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free
      Software Foundation.  If the Document specifies that a proxy can
      decide which future versions of this License can be used, that
      proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently
      authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.
      "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site" (or "MMC Site") means any
      World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also
      provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works.  A
      public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server.
      A "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration" (or "MMC") contained in the
      site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC
      "CC-BY-SA" means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
      license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit
      corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco,
      California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license
      published by that same organization.
      "Incorporate" means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or
      in part, as part of another Document.
      An MMC is "eligible for relicensing" if it is licensed under this
      License, and if all works that were first published under this
      License somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently
      incorporated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover
      texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior
      to November 1, 2008.
      The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the
      site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1,
      2009, provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.
 ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
 To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
 the License in the document and put the following copyright and license
 notices just after the title page:
        Copyright (C)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
        Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
        under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
        or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
        with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
        Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
        Free Documentation License''.
    If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover
 Texts, replace the "with...Texts."  line with this:
          with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with
          the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts
          being LIST.
    If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
 combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
    If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
 recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free
 software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit
 their use in free software.
© 2000-2018
Individual documents may contain additional copyright information.