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gawk: Explaining gettext

 13.2 GNU 'gettext'
 'gawk' uses GNU 'gettext' to provide its internationalization features.
 The facilities in GNU 'gettext' focus on messages: strings printed by a
 program, either directly or via formatting with 'printf' or
    When using GNU 'gettext', each application has its own "text domain".
 This is a unique name, such as 'kpilot' or 'gawk', that identifies the
 application.  A complete application may have multiple
 components--programs written in C or C++, as well as scripts written in
 'sh' or 'awk'.  All of the components use the same text domain.
    To make the discussion concrete, assume we're writing an application
 named 'guide'.  Internationalization consists of the following steps, in
 this order:
   1. The programmer reviews the source for all of 'guide''s components
      and marks each string that is a candidate for translation.  For
      example, '"`-F': option required"' is a good candidate for
      translation.  A table with strings of option names is not (e.g.,
      'gawk''s '--profile' option should remain the same, no matter what
      the local language).
   2. The programmer indicates the application's text domain ('"guide"')
      to the 'gettext' library, by calling the 'textdomain()' function.
   3. Messages from the application are extracted from the source code
      and collected into a portable object template file ('guide.pot'),
      which lists the strings and their translations.  The translations
      are initially empty.  The original (usually English) messages serve
      as the key for lookup of the translations.
   4. For each language with a translator, 'guide.pot' is copied to a
      portable object file ('.po') and translations are created and
      shipped with the application.  For example, there might be a
      'fr.po' for a French translation.
   5. Each language's '.po' file is converted into a binary message
      object ('.gmo') file.  A message object file contains the original
      messages and their translations in a binary format that allows fast
      lookup of translations at runtime.
   6. When 'guide' is built and installed, the binary translation files
      are installed in a standard place.
   7. For testing and development, it is possible to tell 'gettext' to
      use '.gmo' files in a different directory than the standard one by
      using the 'bindtextdomain()' function.
   8. At runtime, 'guide' looks up each string via a call to 'gettext()'.
      The returned string is the translated string if available, or the
      original string if not.
   9. If necessary, it is possible to access messages from a different
      text domain than the one belonging to the application, without
      having to switch the application's default text domain back and
    In C (or C++), the string marking and dynamic translation lookup are
 accomplished by wrapping each string in a call to 'gettext()':
      printf("%s", gettext("Don't Panic!\n"));
    The tools that extract messages from source code pull out all strings
 enclosed in calls to 'gettext()'.
    The GNU 'gettext' developers, recognizing that typing 'gettext(...)'
 over and over again is both painful and ugly to look at, use the macro
 '_' (an underscore) to make things easier:
      /* In the standard header file: */
      #define _(str) gettext(str)
      /* In the program text: */
      printf("%s", _("Don't Panic!\n"));
 This reduces the typing overhead to just three extra characters per
 string and is considerably easier to read as well.
    There are locale "categories" for different types of locale-related
 information.  The defined locale categories that 'gettext' knows about
      Text messages.  This is the default category for 'gettext'
      operations, but it is possible to supply a different one
      explicitly, if necessary.  (It is almost never necessary to supply
      a different category.)
      Text-collation information (i.e., how different characters and/or
      groups of characters sort in a given language).
      Character-type information (alphabetic, digit, upper- or lowercase,
      and so on) as well as character encoding.  This information is
      accessed via the POSIX character classes in regular expressions,
      such as '/[[:alnum:]]/' (⇒Bracket Expressions).
      Monetary information, such as the currency symbol, and whether the
      symbol goes before or after a number.
      Numeric information, such as which characters to use for the
      decimal point and the thousands separator.(2)
      Time- and date-related information, such as 12- or 24-hour clock,
      month printed before or after the day in a date, local month
      abbreviations, and so on.
      All of the above.  (Not too useful in the context of 'gettext'.)
      NOTE: As described in ⇒Locales, environment variables with
      the same name as the locale categories ('LC_CTYPE', 'LC_ALL', etc.)
      influence 'gawk''s behavior (and that of other utilities).
      Normally, these variables also affect how the 'gettext' library
      finds translations.  However, the 'LANGUAGE' environment variable
      overrides the 'LC_XXX' variables.  Many GNU/Linux systems may
      define this variable without your knowledge, causing 'gawk' to not
      find the correct translations.  If this happens to you, look to see
      if 'LANGUAGE' is defined, and if so, use the shell's 'unset'
      command to remove it.
    For testing translations of 'gawk' itself, you can set the
 'GAWK_LOCALE_DIR' environment variable.  See the documentation for the C
 'bindtextdomain()' function and also see ⇒Other Environment
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
    (1) For some operating systems, the 'gawk' port doesn't support GNU
 'gettext'.  Therefore, these features are not available if you are using
 one of those operating systems.  Sorry.
    (2) Americans use a comma every three decimal places and a period for
 the decimal point, while many Europeans do exactly the opposite:
 1,234.56 versus 1.234,56.
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