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39.15.2 Customizing the Holidays

Emacs knows about holidays defined by entries on one of several lists. You can customize these lists of holidays to your own needs, adding or deleting holidays. The lists of holidays that Emacs uses are for general holidays (general-holidays), local holidays (local-holidays), Christian holidays (christian-holidays), Hebrew (Jewish) holidays (hebrew-holidays), Islamic (Muslim) holidays (islamic-holidays), and other holidays (other-holidays).

The general holidays are, by default, holidays common throughout the United States. To eliminate these holidays, set general-holidays to nil.

There are no default local holidays (but sites may supply some). You can set the variable local-holidays to any list of holidays, as described below.

By default, Emacs does not include all the holidays of the religions that it knows, only those commonly found in secular calendars. For a more extensive collection of religious holidays, you can set any (or all) of the variables all-christian-calendar-holidays, all-hebrew-calendar-holidays, or all-islamic-calendar-holidays to t. If you want to eliminate the religious holidays, set any or all of the corresponding variables christian-holidays, hebrew-holidays, and islamic-holidays to nil.

You can set the variable other-holidays to any list of holidays. This list, normally empty, is intended for individual use.

Each of the lists (general-holidays, local-holidays, christian-holidays, hebrew-holidays, islamic-holidays, and other-holidays) is a list of holiday forms, each holiday form describing a holiday (or sometimes a list of holidays).

Here is a table of the possible kinds of holiday form. Day numbers and month numbers count starting from 1, but “dayname” numbers count Sunday as 0. The element string is always the name of the holiday, as a string.

(holiday-fixed month day string)

A fixed date on the Gregorian calendar.

(holiday-float month dayname k string)

The kth dayname in month on the Gregorian calendar (dayname=0 for Sunday, and so on); negative k means count back from the end of the month.

(holiday-hebrew month day string)

A fixed date on the Hebrew calendar.

(holiday-islamic month day string)

A fixed date on the Islamic calendar.

(holiday-julian month day string)

A fixed date on the Julian calendar.

(holiday-sexp sexp string)

A date calculated by the Lisp expression sexp. The expression should use the variable year to compute and return the date of a holiday, or nil if the holiday doesn't happen this year. The value of sexp must represent the date as a list of the form (month day year).

(if condition holiday-form)

A holiday that happens only if condition is true.

(function [args])

A list of dates calculated by the function function, called with arguments args.

For example, suppose you want to add Bastille Day, celebrated in France on July 14. You can do this as follows:

 
(setq other-holidays '((holiday-fixed 7 14 "Bastille Day")))

The holiday form (holiday-fixed 7 14 "Bastille Day") specifies the fourteenth day of the seventh month (July).

Many holidays occur on a specific day of the week, at a specific time of month. Here is a holiday form describing Hurricane Supplication Day, celebrated in the Virgin Islands on the fourth Monday in August:

 
(holiday-float 8 1 4 "Hurricane Supplication Day")

Here the 8 specifies August, the 1 specifies Monday (Sunday is 0, Tuesday is 2, and so on), and the 4 specifies the fourth occurrence in the month (1 specifies the first occurrence, 2 the second occurrence, -1 the last occurrence, -2 the second-to-last occurrence, and so on).

You can specify holidays that occur on fixed days of the Hebrew, Islamic, and Julian calendars too. For example,

 
(setq other-holidays
      '((holiday-hebrew 10 2 "Last day of Hanukkah")
        (holiday-islamic 3 12 "Mohammed's Birthday")
        (holiday-julian 4 2 "Jefferson's Birthday")))

adds the last day of Hanukkah (since the Hebrew months are numbered with 1 starting from Nisan), the Islamic feast celebrating Mohammed's birthday (since the Islamic months are numbered from 1 starting with Muharram), and Thomas Jefferson's birthday, which is 2 April 1743 on the Julian calendar.

To include a holiday conditionally, use either Emacs Lisp's if or the holiday-sexp form. For example, American presidential elections occur on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November of years divisible by 4:

 
(holiday-sexp '(if (= 0 (% year 4))
                   (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute
                    (1+ (calendar-dayname-on-or-before
                          1 (+ 6 (calendar-absolute-from-gregorian
                                  (list 11 1 year)))))))
              "US Presidential Election")

or

 
(if (= 0 (% displayed-year 4))
    (fixed 11
           (extract-calendar-day
             (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute
               (1+ (calendar-dayname-on-or-before
                     1 (+ 6 (calendar-absolute-from-gregorian
                              (list 11 1 displayed-year)))))))
           "US Presidential Election"))

Some holidays just don't fit into any of these forms because special calculations are involved in their determination. In such cases you must write a Lisp function to do the calculation. To include eclipses, for example, add (eclipses) to other-holidays and write an Emacs Lisp function eclipses that returns a (possibly empty) list of the relevant Gregorian dates among the range visible in the calendar window, with descriptive strings, like this:

 
(((6 27 1991) "Lunar Eclipse") ((7 11 1991) "Solar Eclipse") ... )

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