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27.13 Coding Systems for File Names

C-x <RET> F coding <RET>

Use coding system coding for encoding and decoding file names.

The variable file-name-coding-system specifies a coding system to use for encoding file names. It has no effect on reading and writing the contents of files.

If you set the variable to a coding system name (as a Lisp symbol or a string), Emacs encodes file names using that coding system for all file operations. This makes it possible to use non-ASCII characters in file names—or, at least, those non-ASCII characters which the specified coding system can encode. Use C-x <RET> F (set-file-name-coding-system) to specify this interactively.

If file-name-coding-system is nil, Emacs uses a default coding system determined by the selected language environment. In the default language environment, any non-ASCII characters in file names are not encoded specially; they appear in the file system using the internal Emacs representation.

Warning: if you change file-name-coding-system (or the language environment) in the middle of an Emacs session, problems can result if you have already visited files whose names were encoded using the earlier coding system and cannot be encoded (or are encoded differently) under the new coding system. If you try to save one of these buffers under the visited file name, saving may use the wrong file name, or it may get an error. If such a problem happens, use C-x C-w to specify a new file name for that buffer.

If a mistake occurs when encoding a file name, use the command M-x recode-file-name to change the file name's coding system. This prompts for an existing file name, its old coding system, and the coding system to which you wish to convert.


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