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10.1.3 Sorting the output

These options change the order in which ls sorts the information it outputs. By default, sorting is done by character code (e.g., ASCII order).

-c
--time=ctime
--time=status

If the long listing format (e.g., ‘-l’, ‘-o’) is being used, print the status change time (the ‘ctime’ in the inode) instead of the modification time. When explicitly sorting by time (‘--sort=time’ or ‘-t’) or when not using a long listing format, sort according to the status change time.

-f

Primarily, like ‘-U’—do not sort; list the files in whatever order they are stored in the directory. But also enable ‘-a’ (list all files) and disable ‘-l’, ‘--color’, and ‘-s’ (if they were specified before the ‘-f’).

-r
--reverse

Reverse whatever the sorting method is—e.g., list files in reverse alphabetical order, youngest first, smallest first, or whatever.

-S
--sort=size

Sort by file size, largest first.

-t
--sort=time

Sort by modification time (the ‘mtime’ in the inode), newest first.

-u
--time=atime
--time=access
--time=use

If the long listing format (e.g., ‘--format=long’) is being used, print the last access time (the ‘atime’ in the inode). When explicitly sorting by time (‘--sort=time’ or ‘-t’) or when not using a long listing format, sort according to the access time.

-U
--sort=none

Do not sort; list the files in whatever order they are stored in the directory. (Do not do any of the other unrelated things that ‘-f’ does.) This is especially useful when listing very large directories, since not doing any sorting can be noticeably faster.

-v
--sort=version

Sort by version name and number, lowest first. It behaves like a default sort, except that each sequence of decimal digits is treated numerically as an index/version number. (See section More details about version sort.)

-X
--sort=extension

Sort directory contents alphabetically by file extension (characters after the last ‘.’); files with no extension are sorted first.


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