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4.9.1 Logical functions

Integers, when viewed as in two’s complement notation, can be thought as infinite bit strings where the bits’ values eventually are constant. For example,

    17 = ......00010001
    -6 = ......11111010

The logical operations view integers as such bit strings and operate on each of the bit positions in parallel.

cl_I lognot (const cl_I& x)
cl_I operator ~ (const cl_I& x)

Logical not, like ~x in C. This is the same as -1-x.

cl_I logand (const cl_I& x, const cl_I& y)
cl_I operator & (const cl_I& x, const cl_I& y)

Logical and, like x & y in C.

cl_I logior (const cl_I& x, const cl_I& y)
cl_I operator | (const cl_I& x, const cl_I& y)

Logical (inclusive) or, like x | y in C.

cl_I logxor (const cl_I& x, const cl_I& y)
cl_I operator ^ (const cl_I& x, const cl_I& y)

Exclusive or, like x ^ y in C.

cl_I logeqv (const cl_I& x, const cl_I& y)

Bitwise equivalence, like ~(x ^ y) in C.

cl_I lognand (const cl_I& x, const cl_I& y)

Bitwise not and, like ~(x & y) in C.

cl_I lognor (const cl_I& x, const cl_I& y)

Bitwise not or, like ~(x | y) in C.

cl_I logandc1 (const cl_I& x, const cl_I& y)

Logical and, complementing the first argument, like ~x & y in C.

cl_I logandc2 (const cl_I& x, const cl_I& y)

Logical and, complementing the second argument, like x & ~y in C.

cl_I logorc1 (const cl_I& x, const cl_I& y)

Logical or, complementing the first argument, like ~x | y in C.

cl_I logorc2 (const cl_I& x, const cl_I& y)

Logical or, complementing the second argument, like x | ~y in C.

These operations are all available though the function

cl_I boole (cl_boole op, const cl_I& x, const cl_I& y)

where op must have one of the 16 values (each one stands for a function which combines two bits into one bit): boole_clr, boole_set, boole_1, boole_2, boole_c1, boole_c2, boole_and, boole_ior, boole_xor, boole_eqv, boole_nand, boole_nor, boole_andc1, boole_andc2, boole_orc1, boole_orc2.

Other functions that view integers as bit strings:

bool logtest (const cl_I& x, const cl_I& y)

Returns true if some bit is set in both x and y, i.e. if logand(x,y) != 0.

bool logbitp (const cl_I& n, const cl_I& x)

Returns true if the nth bit (from the right) of x is set. Bit 0 is the least significant bit.

uintC logcount (const cl_I& x)

Returns the number of one bits in x, if x >= 0, or the number of zero bits in x, if x < 0.

The following functions operate on intervals of bits in integers. The type

struct cl_byte { uintC size; uintC position; };

represents the bit interval containing the bits positionposition+size-1 of an integer. The constructor cl_byte(size,position) constructs a cl_byte.

cl_I ldb (const cl_I& n, const cl_byte& b)

extracts the bits of n described by the bit interval b and returns them as a nonnegative integer with b.size bits.

bool ldb_test (const cl_I& n, const cl_byte& b)

Returns true if some bit described by the bit interval b is set in n.

cl_I dpb (const cl_I& newbyte, const cl_I& n, const cl_byte& b)

Returns n, with the bits described by the bit interval b replaced by newbyte. Only the lowest b.size bits of newbyte are relevant.

The functions ldb and dpb implicitly shift. The following functions are their counterparts without shifting:

cl_I mask_field (const cl_I& n, const cl_byte& b)

returns an integer with the bits described by the bit interval b copied from the corresponding bits in n, the other bits zero.

cl_I deposit_field (const cl_I& newbyte, const cl_I& n, const cl_byte& b)

returns an integer where the bits described by the bit interval b come from newbyte and the other bits come from n.

The following relations hold:

The following operations on integers as bit strings are efficient shortcuts for common arithmetic operations:

bool oddp (const cl_I& x)

Returns true if the least significant bit of x is 1. Equivalent to mod(x,2) != 0.

bool evenp (const cl_I& x)

Returns true if the least significant bit of x is 0. Equivalent to mod(x,2) == 0.

cl_I operator << (const cl_I& x, const cl_I& n)

Shifts x by n bits to the left. n should be >=0. Equivalent to x * expt(2,n).

cl_I operator >> (const cl_I& x, const cl_I& n)

Shifts x by n bits to the right. n should be >=0. Bits shifted out to the right are thrown away. Equivalent to floor(x / expt(2,n)).

cl_I ash (const cl_I& x, const cl_I& y)

Shifts x by y bits to the left (if y>=0) or by -y bits to the right (if y<=0). In other words, this returns floor(x * expt(2,y)).

uintC integer_length (const cl_I& x)

Returns the number of bits (excluding the sign bit) needed to represent x in two’s complement notation. This is the smallest n >= 0 such that -2^n <= x < 2^n. If x > 0, this is the unique n > 0 such that 2^(n-1) <= x < 2^n.

uintC ord2 (const cl_I& x)

x must be non-zero. This function returns the number of 0 bits at the right of x in two’s complement notation. This is the largest n >= 0 such that 2^n divides x.

uintC power2p (const cl_I& x)

x must be > 0. This function checks whether x is a power of 2. If x = 2^(n-1), it returns n. Else it returns 0. (See also the function logp.)


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