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7.4 Nesting Packages

In the GNU Build System, packages can be nested to arbitrary depth. This means that a package can embed other packages with their own ‘configure’, ‘Makefile’s, etc.

These other packages should just appear as subdirectories of their parent package. They must be listed in SUBDIRS like other ordinary directories. However the subpackage’s ‘Makefile’s should be output by its own ‘configure’ script, not by the parent’s ‘configure’. This is achieved using the AC_CONFIG_SUBDIRS Autoconf macro (see Configuring Other Packages in Subdirectories in The Autoconf Manual).

Here is an example package for an arm program that links with a hand library that is a nested package in subdirectory ‘hand/’.

arm’s ‘’:

AC_INIT([arm], [1.0])
# Call hand's ./configure script recursively.

arm’s ‘’:

# Build the library in the hand subdirectory first.
SUBDIRS = hand

# Include hand's header when compiling this directory.
AM_CPPFLAGS = -I$(srcdir)/hand

bin_PROGRAMS = arm
arm_SOURCES = arm.c
# link with the hand library.
arm_LDADD = hand/libhand.a

Now here is hand’s ‘hand/’:

AC_INIT([hand], [1.2])

and its ‘hand/’:

lib_LIBRARIES = libhand.a
libhand_a_SOURCES = hand.c

When ‘make dist’ is run from the top-level directory it will create an archive ‘arm-1.0.tar.gz’ that contains the arm code as well as the ‘hand’ subdirectory. This package can be built and installed like any ordinary package, with the usual ‘./configure && make && make install’ sequence (the hand subpackage will be built and installed by the process).

When ‘make dist’ is run from the hand directory, it will create a self-contained ‘hand-1.2.tar.gz’ archive. So although it appears to be embedded in another package, it can still be used separately.

The purpose of the ‘AC_CONFIG_AUX_DIR([.])’ instruction is to force Automake and Autoconf to search for auxiliary scripts in the current directory. For instance, this means that there will be two copies of ‘install-sh’: one in the top-level of the arm package, and another one in the ‘hand/’ subdirectory for the hand package.

The historical default is to search for these auxiliary scripts in the parent directory and the grandparent directory. So if the ‘AC_CONFIG_AUX_DIR([.])’ line was removed from ‘hand/’, that subpackage would share the auxiliary script of the arm package. This may looks like a gain in size (a few kilobytes), but it is actually a loss of modularity as the hand subpackage is no longer self-contained (‘make dist’ in the subdirectory will not work anymore).

Packages that do not use Automake need more work to be integrated this way. See section Third-Party ‘Makefile’s.

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